Abstract in English:Bacillus megaterium is a promising host for expression of heterologous proteins. This paper reports the nutrient consumption patterns and production of metabolites for three different strains of B. megaterium, ATCC 14945, QMB 1551 and PV 361, which is QMB 1551 with seven constitutive plasmids deleted. 14 h cultivations in agitated flasks were run, for two different media: A (LB plus 10g/L glucose) and B (medium A, with the yeast extract replaced by tryptone). Strains PV361 and QMB 1551 showed higher maximum specific growth rates in medium B, reaching 0.42 h-1 and 0.48 h-1 respectively. The main by-products of the glucose overflow mechanism were acetate and lactate, for all three strains, which had preferential amino acids for substrate: Ala, Asp, Glu, Ser. No production of alcohols was detected.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267) minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*). The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the effect of some nutritional and environmental factors on the production of cellulases, in particular endoglucanase (CMCase) and exoglucanases (FPase) from Bacillus licheniformis MVS1 and Bacillus sp. MVS3 isolated from an Indian hot spring. The characterization study indicated that the optimum pH and temperature value was 6.5 to 7.0 and 50-55°C, respectively. Maximum cellulases production by both the isolates was detected after 60 h incubation period using wheat and rice straw. The combination of inorganic and organic nitrogen source was suitable for cellulases production. Overall, FPase production was much higher than CMCase production by both of the strains. Between the two thermophiles, the cellulolytic activity was more in B.licheniformis MVS1 than Bacillus sp. MVS3 in varying environmental and nutritional conditions.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to isolate the potent bacterial strains for the production of cellulose enzyme. A total 30 bacterial isolates showed positive results for the cellulase production but highest enzyme activity was shown by isolate JS 14. From the morphological and biochemical reactions, the isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. Cellulase production was studied by this strain using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) quadratic response surface was applied to explicate the parameters that significantly affected cellulase production in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The wheat bran concentration and incubation period were significant factors. The process parameters optimized with response surface methodology was wheat bran concentration 400 g/L; pH, 6.5; temperature, 400C and incubation period 5 days when inoculum 10 % (1x107 cells/ ml) was used for cellulase production in SSF. Supplementation of lactose and CMC to the wheat bran medium favored the enzyme formation.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present work was to select filamentous fungi isolated from diverse substrates to obtain the strains with potential to produce the hydrolytic enzymes. From a total of 215 strains, seven strains from the soils, six from the plants and one from sugarcane bagasse were selected and identified as belonging to the Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The best hydrolytic activities obtained by semi-solid fermentation using these strains were approximately: 35; 1; 160; 170 and 120 U/gdm (CMCase, FPase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and polygalacturonase, respectively), demonstrating their potential to synthesize the enzymes compared with the results reported in the literature.
Abstract in English:Several studies characterize the connection of overweight and obesity with chronic diseases. Therefore, new alternatives are being studied for controlling hypertension, such as chitin and chitosan fibers, commonly found on crustacean's carapace like Emerita brasiliensis. Rats from two different strains were divided into control and supplemented groups (n=6). The Wistar strain experiment started with a 14-days baseline period, followed by supplementation of E.brasiliensis flour added to the diet in the doses of 5, 10 and 20%, for a 14-days period each. With the optimal dose of 20%, the study was undertaken with SHR rats, starting with a 7-days baseline period, followed by three weeks of supplementation. Data were evaluated using one-way ANOVA and p<0.05 was significant. There was a clinical reduction of systolic blood pressure on Wistar rats, but only SHR rats showed a significant reduction of systolicblood pressure and total cholesterol, LDL-cho with an increase of HDL-cho. Those findings were not related to body weight changes but, instead they were associated to E. brasiliensis flour effect on serum lipid profile. This study showed that this flour could be an alternative for controlling the hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
Abstract in English:The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI); rats receiving vitamin E (GII); STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII) and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV). Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol) and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV). Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Abstract in English:To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.
Abstract in English:Normania triphylla is an endemic species from Madeira island (Portugal) extinct in the wild since 1991. The aim of this work was to culture the meristems of this species in vitro and to multiply its shoots in order to preserve this endangered species. The best results in terms of multiplication were obtained in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 10 µM 6‑benzylaminopurine (BAP). The number of shoots, the number of nodes and the number of leaves were the most important in this medium. However, the best results concerning the total shoot length were obtained when BAP was not supplemented into the medium and in the presence of 5 or 7.5 µM 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA). This is the first report on the in vitro culture of N. triphylla which could brings new avenues for the development of this species.
Abstract in English:The composition and seasonal variation of brachyuran and anomuran species associated with mussel farms were evaluated at Praia da Cocanha, São Paulo between May 2007 and February 2008. Nine mussel ropes were sampled at random in each quarter, and 1,208 organisms were identified, comprising five families and 28 species. The most numerous species was the porcellanid Pachycheles laevidactylus (18.5%), followed by the xanthids Acantholobulus schmitti (16.6%), Hexapanopeus paulensis (11.3%), Panopeus americanus (10.2%), and Menippe nodifrons (8.4%). The exotic crab Charybdis hellerii was recorded throughout the study period. The ecological descriptors, except Pielou evenness index, varied significantly over the time. The highest abundance and diversity of the species were recorded during November and February. This pattern was reversed for Berger-Parker dominance, with the lowest values recorded in February. The development of epifauna was correlated with the different stages of the mussel farms, since the mean size of mussels and consequently the abundance of epibiotic organisms and the structural complexity on the mussel ropes increased from May (seeding) until February (harvest). Despite this, the temporal population variations in recruitment patterns of the different epibionts should not be overlooked. The results indicated that the mussel farms provided favorable conditions for the development of these crustacean groups, which could be used in environmental monitoring programs and / or be exploited for the aquarium trade.
Abstract in English:This work studied the design, construction, and cleavage analysis of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that could cut the specific sequences within microphthalmia - associate transcription factor (mitfa) of zebra fish. The target site and ZFPs were selected and designed with zinc finger tools, while the ZFPs were synthesized using DNAWorks and two-step PCR. The ZFNs were constructed, expressed, purified, and analyzed in vitro. As expected, the designed ZFNs could create a double-stand break (DSB) at the target site in vitro. The DNAWorks, two-step PCR, and an optimized process of protein expression were firstly induced in the construction of ZFNs successfully, which was an effective and simplified protocol. These results could be useful for further application of ZFNs - mediated gene targeting.
Abstract in English:Bacterial adhesion to inert surfaces is a complex process influenced by environmental conditions. In this work, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Listeria monocytogenes to polystyrene surfaces was studied. Most bacteria demonstrated the highest adhesion when cultured in TSYEA, except S. marcescens, which showed to be positively influenced by the pigment production, favored in poor nutrient media (lactose and peptone agar). P. aeruginosa adhesion to polystyrene increased at low temperatures whatever the medium used. The culture medium influenced the surface properties of the bacteria as assessed by the MATS test.
Abstract in English:The alteration of minerals in rocks and the availability of elements for plant nutrition require long periods of time, and microorganisms are thought to induce the release of potassium and phosphate from rocks. In this context, this work evaluates the role of the yeast Torulaspora globosa, isolated from the sugar cane rhizosphere, in the solubilization of potassium from alkaline ultramafic rock powder. The experiments were performed in liquid medium, with or without agitation, at 30°C with the following treatments: culture medium + alkaline ultramafic; culture medium + yeast suspension; and culture medium + yeast suspension + alkaline ultramafic. The results showed that as much as 38% of the total potassium in the rock was released in the medium with the yeast during a 15-day period of incubation. Acid production may be the mechanism by which the yeast solubilizes potassium because the total acidity increased during the sampling period. Agitation (which increased oxygen availability) resulted in approximately 20% more biosolubilization of the alkaline ultramafic rock than with the static culture. These data indicate the potential for this yeast in biosolubilization processes and biofertilizer production.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present work was to study the water potential and viability of Eugenia based upon different levels of drying. The seeds showed high water content at shedding and were sensitive to desiccation; however, the level of this sensitivity (water content) varied among the species. Five target drying levels were defined according to the critical levels of hydration. Results showed that water potential seemed to be more reliable than water content. It was hypothesize that the differences in desiccation tolerance, as well as recalcitrance, among the seeds of different species could be related to the maturity level of these seeds during shedding from the mother plant. Consequently, this could be a result of the evolution on how far the maturation process could represent an advantage for the species propagation. This could also mean that Eugenia seeds were dispersed at a maturity stage similar to that observed in immature orthodox seeds.
Abstract in English:The shelf-life of the vegetable-type soybean pods stored under different conditions was evaluated by chemical characteristics and color. The pods were harvested in the R6 stage and stored either at 30 or 7ºC for 9 d. After the storage period, the pods were blanched and threshed, and the immature green grains were used for the analysis. The protein content decreased after 6 d of storage at 7ºC. There was no difference in the lipid content after the storage at 30 and 7ºC for 9 d. The starch and sucrose contents decreased after the first day of storage at 30ºC. There was no difference in trypsin inhibitor activity until 6 d of storage at 30 and 7ºC. The green color of the pods that was an indication of the quality that was maintained when stored at 7ºC during 3 d. To preserve the quality of vegetable-type soybean, pods should be stored at 30ºC and consumed within 24 h or stored at 7ºC for up to 3 d of storage.
Abstract in English:Yeasts discarded in industrial processes can be used as a nutritional supplement and to extract cellular components with biotechnological aims. In this study, the humoral immune response of Swiss mice treated with mannoproteins (MP) from the yeast Saccharomyces uvarum was evaluated. The mice were treated with MPs at different doses and times and inoculated with 2% sheep red blood cells. An increase in total Ig in mice treated with 100 μg of MP at the time of immunization or 24 h before was observed in the primary immune response; in the secondary immune response, an increase was observed in total Ig values for all groups, and an increase of IgG was observed in the mice treated with MPs (100 μg) at the time of immunization or 24 h before. These results show that S. uvarum MPs present an immunostimulatory action on the humoral immune response in mice.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in five different commercial brands of charqui and longaniza sausages. Volatile compounds were extracted from some samples headspace using solid phase microextraction (SPME). The identification and quantification were made through the gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector (GS-MS). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified in charqui samples and thirty-two volatile compounds in longaniza sausages. The chemical groups of the volatile compounds found in both the products were: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, furans, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Significant differences were found (p<0.05) in the volatile compounds among the brands of longaniza and charqui. A characteristic volatile compounds profile was not found in the analyzed products. However, an important percentage of the volatile compounds in charqui came from the lipid oxidation. In the case of longanizas sausages, volatile compounds come mainly from the carbohydrates fermentation and spices.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the influence of essential oil fractionation on acaricidal activity against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus J.) and pepper tree (Schinus molle L.) essential oils were fractionated by vacuum distillation yielding fractions that were analyzed by the GC/MS. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the total essential oil and fractions on larvae of the cattle tick R. (B.) microplus. The fractions 04 and 05 of the C. winterianus essential oil were the most active showing LC50 values of 1.20 and 1.34 μL/mL, respectively. The LC50 of the total oil was 3.30 μL/mL while the effect of the fractions 01, 02 and 03 was less pronounced, with LC50 values of 4.37, 4.24 and 3.49 μL/mL, respectively. The fraction 03 of the S. molle essential oil was the most active showing LC50 value of 8.80 μL/mL while the fractions 01 and 02 did not show toxic effects on the larvae.
Abstract in English:The performance of an anaerobic sequencing-batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR- laboratory scale- 14L )containing biomass immobilized on coal was evaluated for the removal of elevated concentrations of sulfate (between 200 and 3,000 mg SO4-2·L-1) from industrial wastewater effluents. The ASBBR was shown to be efficient for removal of organic material (between 90% and 45%) and sulfate (between 95% and 85%). The microbiota adhering to the support medium was analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The ARDRA profiles for the Bacteria and Archaea domains proved to be sensitive for the determination of microbial diversity and were consistent with the physical-chemical monitoring analysis of the reactor. At 3,000 mg SO4-2·L-1, there was a reduction in the microbial diversity of both domains and also in the removal efficiencies of organic material and sulfate.
Abstract in English:An environmental impact study was conducted to determine the Piracicamirim's creek water quality in order to assess the influence of effluents from a sugar industry in this water body. For this, toxicity tests were performed with a water sample upstream and downstream the industry using the microcrustaceans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as test organisms, as well as physical and chemical analysis of water. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters did not change during the sampling period, except for the dissolved oxygen. No toxicity was observed for D. magna and reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii in both sampling points. Thus, the industry was not negatively impacting the quality of this water body.