Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Volume: 56, Issue: 2, Published: 2013
  • Alcoholic fermentation by the wild yeasts under thermal, osmotic and ethanol stress Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Silva, Rosimeire Oenning da; Batistote, Margareth; Cereda, Marney Pascoli

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to explore the variability in the metabolism of nine wild yeasts isolated from the sugarcane juice from a distillery in the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso. Cell viability under the stress conditions was evaluated. The yeasts were inoculated in the test tubes containing sugarcane juice adjusted from 12 to 21º Brix, ethanol from 6 to 12% in volume and temperature at 30, 35 and 40ºC. The viability was established by the growth in Petri dishes and visually by the CO2 production in the test tubes. None of the evaluated yeasts showed simultaneous resistance to the three stress conditions. The potential of yeast BB.09 could be emphasized due to its ability to ferment up to12% ethanol at 30°C.
  • Bioethanol production from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) flour using co-culture of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Swain, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Jyoti; Thatoi, Hrudayanath

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to study the optimiation of co-culturing of Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (1:4 ratio) on sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) flour (SPF) for the production of bio-ethanol in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol (172 g/kg substrate) was produced in a medium containing 80% moisture, ammonium sulphate 0.2%, pH 5.0, inoculuted with 10% inoculum size and fermented at 30ºC for 72h. .Concomitant with highest ethanol concentration, maximum ethanol productivity (2.8 g/kg substrate/h), microbial biomass (23×10(8) CFU/ g substrate), ethanol yield (47 g/100g sugar consumed) and fermentation efficiency (72%) were also obtained under these conditions. Cell interaction was observed familiar between the viable cells of Trichoderma sp. and S. cerevisiae when co-cultured. Ethanol production ability by the co-culture was 65 % higher than the single culture of S. cerevisiae from un-saccharified SPF.
  • Enhanced solubilization of iron and calcium phosphates by Aspergillus niger by the addition of alcohols Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Barroso, Cinthya Babá; Nahas, Ely

    Abstract in English:

    The present study deals with the effect of increased concentrations of alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the solubilization of FePO4 and CaHPO4 by Aspergillus niger. The efficiency of solubilization (ES) of inorganic phosphates, fungal growth, acid production and pH variation were determined. The concentrations of alcohols that most favored the solubilization of phosphates were 4% methanol and 3% ethanol. The ES of phosphates by the fungus in media containing methanol ranged from 11-96% and 0.4-87% for ethanol. The stimulation or inhibition of solubilization was dependent on greater or lesser fungus growth, acid production and decreased pH. These responses were supported by the correlation between the amount of phosphate dissolved and fungal growth (0.630** to 0.831**), the production of acids (0.529* to 0.989**) and a decrease in pH (-0.755** to -0.962**). Thus, the addition of alcohols facilitated insoluble phosphates dissolution during the fungus growth.
  • Fox grape cv. Bordô (Vitis labrusca L.) and grapevine cv. Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in vitro under different carbohydrates, amino acids and 6-Benzylaminopurine levels Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Carvalho, Dayse Cristina de; Silva, André Luís Lopes da; Schuck, Mariane Ruzza; Purcino, Marivel; Tanno, Guilherme Nakao; Biasi, Luiz Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of sucrose and glucose, amino acids and BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) levels on in vitro shoot regeneration of fox grape cv. Bordô and grapevine cv. Chardonnay. The nodal segments from micropropagated material were used as explants and half-strength MS medium as the basal medium. Sucrose and glucose at 15, 30 and 45 g.L-1 were tested as a carbon source and the supplementation of adenine, asparagine, alanine, glycine, cysteine, glutamine, arginine was tested at 40 g.L-1. The BAP levels (1 and 5 μM) in solid and double-phase media were evaluated and compared with a control medium without BAP. Bordô had best in vitro growth than Chardonnay. Sucrose was a better carbohydrate source than glucose for both the cultivars. Bordô and Chardonnay had different amino acid preferences for some parameters. In conclusion, for in vitro shoot regeneration from the nodal segments, culture on solid medium with 5 μM BAP, 15 g.L-1 sucrose for Bordô and 45 g.L-1 sucrose for Chardonnay showed better results. Similarly, the supplementation of 40 g.L-1 arginine for Bordô and 40 g.L-1 arginine or glycine for Chardonnay showed better results.
  • Influence of the presence and type of fragrance on the sensory perception of cosmetic formulations Human And Animal Health

    Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Srebernich, Silvana Mariana; Vercelino, Bartira Guiçardi; Zampieri, Bruna Melli

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensory assessments of identical cosmetic formulations with and without fragrance to investigate not only the acceptance but also how different fragrances affected their attributes, such as skin feel, tackiness and spreadability. Three gel and three cream formulations with and without two types of fragrance, fennel and sweet flowers, were assessed for various attributes. The presence and type of fragrance used affected the testers' perception of some attributes, showing that the influence of this component should not be disregarded. Apparently, a consumer's reaction to a cosmetic product is not only based on its efficacy but also on how its attributes are perceived, such as appearance, skin feel and smell.
  • Analysis of seven STR human loci for paternity testing by microchip electrophoresis Human And Animal Health

    Fraige, Karina; Travensolo, Regiane Fátima; Carrilho, Emanuel

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to evaluate two paternity cases by microchip electrophoresis and the validation of the methodology by comparison of the results with those obtained in a commercial genetic analyzer. It was observed that when working with tetranucleotide regions, in which the minimal difference between the alleles was only four base pairs, the commercial microchip system did not present the resolution and repeatability needed. Nevertheless, the relative standard deviation was between 0 and 1.2% and the fragments detected were within the expected size ranges as described in the literature.
  • Design and evaluation of famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles for aspirin induced ulcer treatment Human And Animal Health

    Patel, Dhaval J; Patel, Jayvadan K

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was performed to design and evaluate the famotidine loaded mucoadhesive nanosuspension for aspirin induced ulcer. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied to study the effects of amount of the beads (X1), PVPK-30(X2) and Tween-80 (X3) on the particle size (Y1), and cumulative percentage drug released after 1h (Y2). The optimization was performed using the desirability function and contour plots. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the nanoparticles as spherical in shape. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that there was substantial crystallinity change in the nanoparticle compared with the pure drug. Ex-vivo mucoadhesion study showed that famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles possessed higher mucoadhesion than the famotidine nanoparticles. The in vivo studies on aspirin-induced rats indicated the lowering in ulcer index for famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles was 0.46+0.011, which was significantly better than the effect of traditional famotidine suspension (0.66+0.035). Famotidine mucoadhesive nanosuspension could be prepared using the media milling technique and allowing significant reduction in ulcer index compared to famotidine suspension.
  • First record of partial albinism in two catfish species of Genidens (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in an estuary of Southern Brazil Human And Animal Health

    Leal, Mateus Evangelista; Schulz, Uwe Horst; Albornoz, Pablo Lehmann; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    Abstract in English:

    This study reports the first occurrence of partial albinism in two species of Ariidae: Genidens barbus and Genidens planifrons from an estuary of Southern Brazil. Possible causes of the simultaneous occurrence of three specimens with partial albinism are discussed, including random genetic alterations, chronic contamination effects and small effective population size, which may favor the expression of the recessive albino gene.
  • Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals Human And Animal Health

    Braga, Miula Portelinha; Piovesan, Augusta; Valarini, Natália; Maciel, Sandra Mara; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001). There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01).
  • Probiotics association in the suckling and nursery in piglets challenged with Salmonella typhimurium Human And Animal Health

    Afonso, Esther Ramalho; Parazzi, Larissa José; Marino, Carolina Tobias; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Araújo, Lucio Francelino; Araújo, Cristiane Soares da Silva; Vilela, Flávio Garcia; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant'Anna

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to study the probiotics association in 144 piglets from birth to 62 days old. In lactation, the design was completely randomized with two treatments, CTL, 1 mL of distilled water and ProbA, 5g in 15 ml of distilled water, both orally, and in the nursery in randomized block design, with 2x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ProbA ProbB: 30g/ton of ProbB in the ration; CTL ProbB: 30g/ton of ProbB in the ration; ProbA ProbA, CTL CTL; ProbA CHA (challenged); CTL CHA. At 35 days of age the animal of the nursery were inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium orally. There was no effect of the parameters evaluated during the maternity. In nursery, the feed conversion was favorable to the ProbA. In the evaluation of fecal score, the challenged group had more diarrhea and increased elimination of S. typhimurium. Results showed the positive action of probiotics when applied at birth by the direct influence on the formation of the intestinal microbiota.
  • Antimicrobial activity of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey Biological And Applied Sciences

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of the lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain M104 grown on whey. The biosurfactant was investigated for potential antimicrobial activity by using the disc-diffusion method against different Gram-positive bacteria {B subtilis, B. thuringiensis (two strains), B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus (two strains) and Listeria monocytogenes)}, Gram-negative bacteria {(Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli (two strains), Salmonella typhimurium, Proteous vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and a yeast (Candida albicans)}. The biosurfactant showed profoundly distinct antibacterial activity toward tested bacteria and displayed an antifungal activity against the tested yeast. Maximum antimicrobial activity of the biosurfactant was shown against S. aureus ATCC 25928. The biosurfactant had a broad inhibition effect on intracellular components of S. aureus ATCC 25928. The antimicrobial effect of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by B. licheniformis strain M104 was time and concentration dependent. When biosurfactant was added to S. aureus medium in a concentration of (48 μg / ml), the maximum reduction of acid soluble phosphorous (53.06 %), total lipid (90.47 %) total proteins (53.43%), RNA (83.29 %) and DNA (48.50%) were recorded after 12 h of incubation period. From the preliminary characterization results, it could be concluded that biosurfactants were a suitable alternative in potential applications of medical fields.
  • Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus coronata (Martius) Beccari Biological And Applied Sciences

    Hughes, Alice Ferreira da Silva; Lima, Fabíola Guedes de; Lucchese, Angélica Maria; Góes Neto, Aristóteles; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves, inflorescences, nut-shell, liquid and solid endosperm nuts of Syagrus coronata against pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Screening was initially performed using the agar dilution method. The extracts regarded as bioactive underwent liquid-liquid partition for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericide concentration (MIC and MBC) and those of their respective fractions against the microorganisms inhibited in preliminary tests. Antimicrobial activity was observed only in inflorescences. The corresponding aqueous extract was effective against B. cereus and the three strains of S. aureus, and the corresponding MIC and MCB values were lower than those of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the same extract. The methanol extract was effective against B. cereus, and the corresponding MIC and MBC values were higher than those of ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the same extract.
  • Ardra profiles of bacteria and archaea in mangrove sediments with different levels of contamination in the estuarine complex of Paranaguá, Brazil Biological And Applied Sciences

    Ribeiro, Catherine Gérikas; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Martins, César de Castro; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Kolm, Hedda Elisabeth

    Abstract in English:

    The mangrove's sediments from the coastal areas under human activities may contain significant contaminations by hydrocarbons, even when there are no visual evidences of it. The microorganisms are essential to these ecosystems, especially in the control of their chemical environment. Sediment samples were collected in two regions under different environment conditions (pristine and contaminated) of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (Paranaguá Bay and Laranjeiras Bay), Brazil. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined by the GC-FID to assess the status of contamination of the studied areas. The total DNA was extracted from these samples. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by the PCR reactions with the pair of primers 21F and 958R for the archaeal domain, and 27F and 1492R for the bacterial domain. Comparisons of communities were made by the ARDRA technique, using the HinfI restriction enzyme. The phosphate concentration showed significant differences between the two regions. The aliphatic hydrocarbons analysis showed the presence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM), an indicator of oil contamination, in the samples from the Paranaguá Bay, which was corroborated by the concentration of total aliphatic hydrocarbons. The ARDRA profile indicated that the structure of archaeal and bacterial communities of the sampled areas was very similar. Therefore, the anthropogenic influences in the Paranaguá Bay showed to be not sufficient to produce disturbances in the prokaryotic dominant groups.
  • Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit) Britton extracts obtained by pressurized CO2 extraction Biological And Applied Sciences

    Parodi, Thaylise Vey; Vargas, Agueda Palmira de Castagna; Krewer, Carina; Flores, Érico Marlon de Moraes; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Oliveira, José Vladimir de; Popiolski, Ariana Secco; Minozzo, Mariane

    Abstract in English:

    This study investigated the chemical composition of five different extracts of Aloysia triphylla and their activity against Aeromonas sp. The extracts were obtained from the dried leaves by pressurized CO2 extraction at 30, 50 and 70ºC, and 100, 150, and 200 bar, and analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS. The antibacterial activity was assayed by the microdilution method. The tested microorganisms comprised seven Aeromonas isolates obtained from the kidney of infected silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. The yield, chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the extracts were dependent on the extraction conditions. Mono and sesquiterpenoids were the major constituents of all the extracts and the highest extraction yield was obtained at 70ºC and 200 bar. A. triphylla presented moderate antibacterial activity against Aeromonas sp.
  • Effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on histopathology of gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus Biological And Applied Sciences

    Al-Balawi, Hmoud Fares Alkahem; Al-Akel, Ali Sulaiman; Al-Misned, Fahad; Suliman, El Amin Mohamed; Al-Ghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Mahboob, Shahid; Ahmad, Zubair

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on the histopathology of the gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus. Results showed that lead accumulation in the tissues of C. gariepinus was dependent on the exposure period and lead concentration. Gills and liver were the predominant storage tissue and the order of accumulation in tissues was gill > liver > kidney > muscle. Some structural changes were observed in different organs, especially in the gills of the fishes exposed to lead acetate. Epithelial hypertrophy and epithelial lifting were apparent in the gills of exposed fishes. The degeneration of cytoplasm and secondary lamellae was also observed. Necrosis of hepatocytes was apparent. Glomerular expansion and gaps between the muscular bundles were found in the fishes exposed to lead acetate.
  • Histology and ultrastructure of the fat body of Anticarsia gemmatalis (HÜBNER, 1818) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) Biological And Applied Sciences

    Carvalho, Renata Baldo Rodrigues; Andrade, Fábio Goulart de; Levy, Sheila Michele; Moscardi, Flávio; Falleiros, Ângela Maria Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologically the fatty body of fourth-instar Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae under light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct portions of the fat body were detected: the parietal (PA) and perivisceral (PV). The PA, the parietal portion, presented a long-stripped shape located below the tegument and lateral to the digestive tube. The PV, rarely observed, was in dorsal region, adhered to digestive wall. Both the portions were constituted of only one cellular type, the trophocytes. These cells in the PA were organized in one layer of thickness showing cylindrical contiguously morphology, whereas the PV was comprised by a mass of small cells, superposed as clusters. Both the portions were covered by a layer of connective tissue, grouping the trophocytes and keeping them separated from the hemolymph. The cytoplasm of the trophocytes from the PA presented acidophilic stain, while the basophilic cytoplasmic of the trophocytes from the PV was due to the large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum. From the results, it could be concluded that the fat body presented morphological and ultrastructural differences according to the portion and that these features could characterize distinct functions.
  • Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef) Food/feed Science And Technology

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; Yamashita, Fabio; Youssef, Elza Youssef; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Shimokomaki, Massami

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR) to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF) and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0%) at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0%) had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.
  • Escherichia coli in the surface waters and in oysters of two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay - Paraná - Brazil Food/feed Science And Technology

    Forcelini, Helenita Catharina Dalla-Lana; Kolm, Hedda Elisabeth; Absher, Theresinha Monteiro

    Abstract in English:

    The present work aimed to evaluate the contamination of Escherichia coli in the surface waters and oysters from two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay and to analyze the correlation patterns among the concentrations of E. coli in the waters and in the oysters with the local physical-chemical parameters. Samples were collected in the spring of 2007 and summer, autumn and winter of 2008 from two points of the bay (internal point and external point). From each cultivation and sampling period, 18 oysters were collected. The samples of surface water were collected for the measurement of physical-chemical parameters (pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, seston, particulate organic matter) and quantification of E. coli. The surface water analyzed in the summer presented the largest most probable number of E. coli, (1,659.22 MPN.100 ml-1 and 958,55 MPN.100 ml-1 at external and internal points, respectively. The oysters from the internal point presented more E. coli, except in the winter sampling. The largest contamination was observed in the spring, at the internal point (979,78 MPN.g-1). The Principal Components Analysis showed direct correlation among the amount of E. coli in the oysters and in the surface water.
  • Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets Food/feed Science And Technology

    Françozo, Mônica Chaves; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do; Cecato, Ulysses; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Zawadzki, Fernando; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Prado, Rodolpho Martin do; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio

    Abstract in English:

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM) of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05) between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P<0.10) compared to the bulls fed without glycerin. DMI and feed efficiency was not affected (P>0.05) by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P<0.10) when glycerin was fed at 5%. Glycerin level did not affect (P<0.05) the dressing percentage and fat thickness. LM increased (P<0.10) when glycerin was fed at 12%. Dietary glycerin did not affect (P>0.05) the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05) for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03) total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.
  • Combined pig slurry and mineral fertilization for corn cultivation Environmental Sciences

    Prior, Maritane; Sampaio, Silvio César; Nóbrega, Lúcia Helena Pereira; Opazo, Miguel Angel Uribe; Dieter, Jonhatan; Pegoraro, Thaisa

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental effects of the use of pig slurry to irrigate the corn crop grown in a typical Red Distroferric Latosol and in leachate composition. Twenty four lysimeters, filled with soil, in a protected environment, received five doses of pig slurry (0; 112.5; 225; 337.5 and 450 m³ ha-1 per growing cycle) combined with two mineral fertilization doses (50 and 75% of the recommended dose - 80 kg ha-1of nitrogen). Corn height and yield were evaluated, as well as nutrients in the soil and in leachate. From the results obtained in the first year of experiment, it was concluded that the concentrations of nitrate increased by increase of pig slurry application, and thus, it would be necessary to develop further studies in medium and long term.
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