Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Volume: 56, Issue: 4, Published: 2013
  • Antioxidant potential of tomatoes cultivated in organic and conventional systems Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Borguini, Renata Galhardo; Bastos, Deborah Helena Markowicz; Moita-Neto, José Machado; Capasso, Fernanda Sobral; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional cultivation on the antioxidant compound content and antioxidant activity of the Carmen tomato cultivar. Tomatoes were analyzed regarding ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, lycopene content and antioxidant activity. Organic tomatoes presented higher content of ascorbic acid and total phenolics (641.39 and 4466.66 mg/100 g EAG on dry wt basis) than did the conventional tomatoes (510.16 and 3477.50 mg/100 g EAG on wt dry basis, respectively). There was no difference in lycopene concentrations between the organic and conventional. The ether, alcohol and aqueous extracts obtained from the tomatoes were subjected to the DPPH test and the β-carotene/linoleic acid system assay. The alcohol and aqueous extracts from organic tomatoes presented higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH test (25.43 and 14.28%, respectively) than the conventional tomatoes (19.52 and 11.33%, respectively). Organic tomatoes had higher antioxidant potential probably due to its higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic values.
  • Cloning, expression, purification and assay of sorbitol dehydrogenase from "Feicheng" peach fruit (Prunus persica) Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Sun, Zhen; Ma, Chunmei; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Shuhua

    Abstract in English:

    A gene encoding NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in peach fruit was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant SDH protein with 6×His-tagged was localized exclusively in the cytoplasmic soluble fraction of E. coli when the strains were grown for 4-5 h at 37 ºC. Highly pure protein was isolated by Ni2+-resin chromatography with 150 mM imidazole in 50 mM Tris, pH 8.0, by elution. In order to ensure that the recombinant SDH could be used for further study, the fluorescence and ultraviolet spectrum of the recombinant SDH were detected. Recombinant SDH was confirmed to be capable of oxidizing sorbitol by enzymatic activity assay. The activity of the recombinant SDH was 2.73 U mg-1min-1, which was similar with that directly extracted from peach fruits. The activities of SDH extracted from the fruits in different periods (30, 60, 90 days after flowing) were 7.75, 5.95, 3.26 U mg-1min-1, respectively.
  • Mutation breeding of lipase-producing strain Flavobacterium sp. by supercritical CO2 with hydrazine hydrate Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Zhang, Qiaoyan; Qian, Junqing; Ma, Lingzhi

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to obtain an ideal mutant strain with higher lipase yield using hydrazine hydrate (HZH) as a novel additive to treat Flavobacterium sp. strain YY25 by supercritical CO2. The survival rate and the positive mutation rate of the tested strain were strongly dependent on the dose of HZH. The treatment by 0.5% HZH in supercritical CO2 (8 MPa, 35°C) for 30 min provided 58.3% of positive mutation rate and an expected mutant strain with about 76.7% increase in lipase yield compared with the wild strain. Possible mutagenesis mechanisms were further explored. The analysis on pH drop of the treated seed liquid was performed to better understand the interaction. Results proved that the induced mutation with enhanced yield of lipase could be achieved by co-mutagenesis of supercritical CO2 and HZH.
  • Somatic embryogenesis of Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez, an important source of fiber from native Brazilian bromeliads Agriculture, Agribusiness And Biotechnology

    Silveira, Daniela Garcia; Lino, Lucimeire Souza Morais; Souza, Antônio da Silva; Souza, Fernanda Vidigal Duarte

    Abstract in English:

    Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez, a Bromeliad endemic to the Brazilian Caatinga and source of fiber for many different products, is considered an endangered species. Leaf and stem segments were cultivated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with combinations of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0, 9, 18 and 27 µM) and glutamine (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg L-1) for the induction of embryogenic calli. Leaf segments did not present a favorable response for the combinations analyzed. The best response for embryogenic calli frequency with the best distribution of somatic embryos on the surface and better conversion rate was obtained using the stems explants in the medium containing 18 µM 2,4-D and 100 mg L-1 glutamine. The embryogenic calli obtained from the different induction media were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 30 g.L-1 sucrose, 2.4 g.L-1 Phytagel®, 0.53 µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.88 µM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The regenerated plants presented normal growth; however, many embryos did not fully develop.
  • Colon cancer and swimming exercise: effect on wistar rat testes Human And Animal Health

    Freitas, Karine Moura de; Natali, Antônio José; Lunz, Wellington; Costa, Kyvia Lugate Cardoso; Leite, Rodrigo Paula; Dolder, Heidi; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da

    Abstract in English:

    This study was undertaken to determine whether colon cancer (CC) and chronic swimming exercise alter rat testis. Eleven weeks old rats were distributed into control group (n=6) and the groups that were induced to develop CC by dimethylhydrazine injections (nEG, EG0, EG2 and EG4; n=10 each group). In the group nEG, the rats did not swim, whereas groups EG0, EG2 and EG4, underwent a swimming program with distinct loads (0, 2 and 4% of body mass, respectively) for 35 weeks. The morphometry, stereology and cell counts showed damage caused by the CC on the germ epithelium. These results were noteworthy since this was the first report to associate the CC with testicular damage. Swimming exercise had no significant role in reducing, or increasing the CC effects on the testis, despite having slightly improved the testis structure of the exercised rats without load. In conclusion, CC caused testis impairment, which could not be avoided by the swimming exercise.
  • Effect of Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling pathways on mucus secretion with hypertonicity in 16HBE cells Human And Animal Health

    Xiaoyan, Liu; Xiangdong, Zhou

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms and effects of hypertonicity on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) expression in airway epithelial cells for which immortalized human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells were cultured in 600 mOsm/L hypertonic medium for different times in vitro. Proteins of MUC5AC and β-catenin, Cyclin D1, NF-κB p65 were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting assays. After transfection of β-catenin siRNA in 16HBE cells, the levels of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, NF-κB p65 and MUC5AC protein were detected. Results showed that the levels of mRNAs and proteins of target genes increased significantly after the exposure to hypertonic conditions and the expression content increased in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection with β-catenin siRNA attenuated the expression of these genes. These results suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling pathways played essential roles in inducing the MUC5AC hypersecretion in 16HBE cells in response to hypertonicity.
  • Estrus synchronization and Fixed Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI) in dairy buffaloes during seasonal anestrus Human And Animal Health

    Frares, Luciana Ferri; Weiss, Romildo Romualdo; Kozicki, Luiz Ernandes; Santangelo, Renata Prestes; Abreu, Renata Azevedo de; Santos, Ivo Walter do; Dell'aqua Junior, José Antonio; Breda, José Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to study estrus synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) in dairy buffaloes during season anestrus. One hundred thirty-nine dairy buffaloes in seasonal anestrus were divided in two groups as G1(n=66) and G2(n=73). The protocols for both the groups were the same until day (D)14:D0 administration of 2.0 mg estradiol benzoate and implantation of progesterone device (P4) for 14 days; D14 removal of P4 plus 150 mg of cloprostenol and 400 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin. On D16, G1 received 10 mg of buserelin and G2 100 mg deslorelin acetate. On D17, both the groups were submitted to FTAI. Ultrasonographic examinations of ovaries were performed on D0, D14, D16 and D17. Results showed that pregnancy rates in G1 and G2 were 20 and 41% (p<0.05) and the ovulation rates were 16.6 and 37%, respectively (p<0.05). The dominant follicle (DF) diameter on D16 was 7.9 mm in G1 and 8.9 mm in G2 (p>0.05). Thirty-five percent of the animals in G1 and 54.1% in G2 showed a diameter DF greater than 8.0 mm on D16 (p>0.05). Thus, it could be concluded that the protocols synchronized the estrus, leading the concentration of the parturitions in the period of low milk production. Deslorelin was more efficient than buserelin due the higher percentage of DF ovulation and higher pregnancy rates.
  • Ethanol affects the absorption and tissue distribution of orally administered antigens in mice Human And Animal Health

    Oliveira, Flávia Márcia; Gusmão, Leandro José; Cardoso, Valbert do Nascimento; Ramaldes, Gilson Andrade; Ruiz-de-Souza, Valéria; Gontijo, Cristiano Machado

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol on the adsorption and tissue distribution of orally administered antigens in mice. Results showed that ethanol reduced the level of anti-ovalbumin IgA antibodies in intestinal fluid for the mice treated orally with a palmitoyl-ovalbumin conjugate. Ethanol was administered intragastrically to mice at 5 g/kg body weight for 14 days (chronic treatment), or 10 g/kg body weight every 7th day up to 14 days (acute treatment). Thereafter, 99m technetium-labeled antigens were administered and lymphoid tissues were collected. Ethanol interfered with the transport of ovalbumin to the liver. Moreover, the transport of palmitoyl-ovalbumin to mesenteric lymph nodes was reduced 6 h after the antigen administration. In conclusion, there was a relationship between the suppression of ethanol-mediated specific local IgA responses and the decreased transport of palmitoyl-ovalbumin to mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • Quality Index Method (QIM) to assess the freshness and shelf life of fish Human And Animal Health

    Bernardi, Daniella Cristina; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Freitas, Mônica Queiroz de

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to develop a sensory method as the objective measure of quality of the fishes at all the key stages of fishery chain, from catch to consumer. The Quality Index Method (QIM) is based on a structured scaling for quality measurements and provides accurate and precise information concerning the freshness and a prediction of the remaining shelf-life for specie-specific fishes. The method is discussed and some future outlooks and need are pointed in order to stimulate the implementation of QIM in the relevant parts of the fishery chain giving unique information of the quality.
  • Intraerythrocytic organic phosphates and hemoglobins of skua - Catharacta maccormicki (Stercoraridae): at two different stages of the year in relation to Antartic migration Biological And Applied Sciences

    Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Di Vito Neto, Alfredo; Schwantes, Arno Rudi; Schwantes, Maria Luiza Barcellos; Santos, Marcelo dos

    Abstract in English:

    Catharacta maccormicki blood samples were collected in the winter (October) and in the summer (February) in order to study the intraerythrocytic organic phosphates, hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoretic patterns, oxygen blood equilibrium and stripped Hbs, as well as the effect of 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (BPG) and inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) on oxygen affinity. All the samples (five from the winter and five from the summer) showed the same electrophoretic pattern: one minor fast component and one major slow one. No differences in oxygen affinity and Bohr effect in the samples collected in the winter and in the summer were found. Oxygen affinity was higher in the stripped Hb than in the blood. BPG seemed to have no effect on the functional properties of skua Hb while IHP does. No BPG was found in any sample. Both inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) and IHP were found in all the samples. The IP5/IHP ratio in the winter samples was 3.0 while in summer 3.5. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was found in samples from both the seasons. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were present only in the summer samples while guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was found in the winter samples. Since IP5 and IHP are very powerful HB allosteric effectors, ATP and GTP might function as other protein modulators.
  • Mesenchymal stem cells: emphasis in adipose tissue Biological And Applied Sciences

    Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; Assis Neto, Antonio Chaves de; Oliveira, Franceliusa Delys de; Arroyo, Maria Angélica Machado; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Silva, Jodonai Barbosa da; Pignatari, Graciela Conceição; Braga, Patrícia Beltrão

    Abstract in English:

    The study of stem cells has evolved rapidly in recent decades. The importance is given to the concept that these cells are potentially able to become any cell type and have the power of self-renewal throughout the life of the organism. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various organs of the body such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, synovium, muscle and dermis, deciduous teeth, umbilical cord, placenta, liver, spleen and thymus. After their isolation in vitro, mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various mesenchymal lineages and various tissues after the use of appropriate cultures. Studies have reported that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue have the potential to differentiate themselves, like the cells commonly studied bone marrow. Adipose tissue is attractive due to its easy access, rapid expansion in vitro and only one collects the large amount of tissue. This review intends to show the protocols for isolation, cell culture and means of commercial cellular differentiation most widely used with emphasis on adipose tissue.
  • Role of killer factors in the inhibitory activity of bio-control yeasts against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus ochraceus Biological And Applied Sciences

    Portes, Ciro da Silva; Oliveira, Andriélen Virke de; Simer, Patrícia; Lunkes, Alessandra Machado; Coelho, Alexandre Rodrigo

    Abstract in English:

    This work evaluated the antagonism of killer positive yeast strains (isolated from 11 samples of different frozen fruit pulps) against the strains of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus ochraceus. Of the total 41 killer yeasts tested in YM agar, 19 showed antibiosis against P. expansum and A. ochraceus, with inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 18 mm and 10 to 19 mm, respectively. In the following step, the extracellular activity of Kluyveromyces sp. FP4(13) was tested performing the assay in YM broth. The antifungal activity of Kluyveromyces sp. FP4(13) cell-free culture supernatant (25ºC/96 h) was more effective against the conidia germination, showing inhibition rates of 93.33 and 86.44% for P. expansum and A. ochraceus, respectively. The micelial growth inhibition was 28.45 and 21.0%, respectively. The antagonism showed by the selected yeasts could be used as a promising alternative tool to reduce and control the postharvest fungal spoilage of the fruits. However, further studies should be carried out in order to better elucidate the role of innocuous characters in antagonistic microorganisms, as well as the purification and characterization of new killer toxins.
  • Comparison of two lipid extraction methods produced by yeast in cheese whey Food/feed Science And Technology

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado de; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to evaluate nine strains of yeast, previously identified as good producers of lipids in honey medium, for selecting the most suitable strain for the production of lipids in cheese whey medium and compared two well known extraction methods of lipids from the culture medium. The highest yield of total lipids was 1.27 g.L-1 produced by Cryptococcus laurentii 11. A comparison was made between the two culture media: cheese whey and liquid YEPG, and two lipid extraction methods: Bligh and Dyer and Folch et al. for C. laurentii. The experiments were performed with 2² full factorial design using two factors and two levels. Lipid content was higher in cheese whey and there was no difference in the extraction methods statistically. The method of Bligh and Dyer was used in preference to Folch et al. as it resulted in larger mean of total lipids.
  • Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films Food/feed Science And Technology

    Galdeano, Melicia Cintia; Wilhelm, Allan Eduardo; Mali, Suzana; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm) on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture) of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH) to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.
  • Separation of polyhydroxyalkanoates-producing bacterial strains using PHA synthase gene and their evaluation for PHA deposition Food/feed Science And Technology

    Khan, Abdul Basit; Khattak, Mehmood Iqbal; Tarar, Omer Mukhtar; Habib, Farzana; Jamil, Khalid; Yasmin, Arfa; Parvez, Shoukat

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, a variety of samples were screened for the presence of PHA synthase gene. Results showed that 16 out of 102 isolated were positive for PHA respective genes. The highest prevalence was observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The capability of PHA production was also shown by growing these strains on the defined medium and subsequent analysis using intracellular granules staining and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The microscopic analysis showed that the positive strains accumulated PHA in the cell. The FT-IR analysis showed the presence of PHA peaks in the dried cells as well as in extraction product. P aeruginosa strain P7 showed higher concentration of PHA compared to the others as demonstrated by the highest respective peaks in FT-IR.
  • A new enzymatic process for the treatment of phenolic pollutants Engineering, Technology And Techniques

    Palma, Mauri Sergio Alves; Horn, Harald; Zilli, Mario; Pigatto, Gisele; Converti, Attilio

    Abstract in English:

    This work aimed to develop a new economic enzymatic process to treat the phenolic pollutants using pure tyrosinase in stirred vessel and adopting temperature (T), pH, rotational speed (N), initial phenol (C P,o) and enzyme (C T) concentrations as independent variables. Experimental data of the residual phenol concentration (C P) were used to calculate the oxidation efficiency (η), initial oxidation rate (-r o) and time required to reach the end of reaction (t) that were selected as the responses. Under the optimal conditions (T = 45°C, pH 6.6, N = 400 rpm, C P,o = 100 ppm and C T = 50 U/mL), η was 88.1%, -r o = 10.2 mg L-1 min-1, t = 40 min. These results suggested that tyrosinase-rich crude extracts from vegetable byproducts could be quite promising.
  • Characterization and shelf life of β-carotene loaded solid lipid microparticles produced with stearic acid and sunflower oil Engineering, Technology And Techniques

    Gomes, Graziela Veiga de Lara; Borrin, Thais Ribeiro; Cardoso, Lisandro Pavie; Souto, Eliana; Pinho, Samantha Cristina de

    Abstract in English:

    Solid lipid microparticles were tested as microencapsulation systems for protecting β-carotene from degradation. Blends of long-chain (C18) solid lipids (70% stearic acid) and sunflower oil (30%) were used to produce lipid microparticles encapsulating the carotenoid. Polysorbate 80 (4%) was employed to stabilize the stearic acid microparticles. The concentration of β-carotene was monitored using spectrophotometry, the particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction, the crystal structure was determined by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and the thermal behaviour was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) over a period of seven months. All of the systems had an average particle size smaller than 5 µm. To avoid β-carotene oxidation, α-tocopherol was added to the formulations and its action as an oxygen trap was crucial for the antioxidant effect. For stearic-acid microparticles with a-tocopherol, more than 90% of the initial amount of β-carotene was preserved after seven months under refrigerated storage (7-10°C) in the dark. Significant microstructural alterations were detected using WAXD and DSC only in the stearic acid microparticles without alpha-tocopherol. These results seemed promising and suggested that the blends of long-chain solid lipids and liquid lipids were suitable for the production of stable solid lipid microparticles.
  • Influence of NaNO3 concentration and incident light intensity on Nannochloropsis oculata lipid accumulation Engineering, Technology And Techniques

    Gris, Lara Regina Soccol; Paim, Anderson de Campos; Farenzena, Marcelo; Trierweiler, Jorge Otávio

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed at evaluating the best conditions for lipid accumulation in the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata in an airlift photobioreactor. Experiments were carried out following a central composite design with the following variables: temperature (19 to 29°C), sodium nitrate concentration (NaNO3) in the culture medium (f/2) (25 to 125 mg.L-1) and incident light intensity (49 to 140 µE.m-2s-1). The maximum lipid production was 132.4 mg.L-1 under the following conditions: 27°C, NaNO3 concentration 105 mg.L-1 and 122 µE.m-2.s-1, which was 30% of dry weight of the biomass.
  • Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review Environmental Sciences

    Karp, Susan Grace; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year), composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%), hemicellulose (27-32%) and lignin (19-24%). The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and hydrolysis. The aim of the pretreatment is to separate the lignin and break the structure of lignocellulose, and it is one of the most critical steps in the process of converting biomass to fermentable sugars. The aim of this review is to describe different pretreatment strategies to promote the delignification of the sugarcane bagasse by thermo-chemical and biological processes.
  • The bioindicative potential evaluation of Tabebuia alba (Cham.) Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, in urban atmospheric pollution Environmental Sciences

    Carvalheiro, César Vinícius; Rocha, Ledyane Dalgallo; Maranho, Leila Teresinha

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to evaluate the existence of leaf anatomic characteristics in Tabebuia alba changed by air pollutants, which could be used as tool for a bioindication program. The quantification of mutagenic events on pollen grains also were measured. For this, median leaves and pre-anthesis flowers were collected from the adult plants from three places of Curitiba and one place in Araucaria, all nearby to the air monitoring stations. The comparison of the four study sites showed a reduction in leaf area, an increasing of stomatal density, subepidermic layer, epidermis in both faces and the amount of micronucleus. Also, there was reduction of chlorophyllian parenchymas at the site where there was the higher average for the ozone level. It was concluded that these modifications might be a consequence of the effect of troposferic pollution on T. alba plants. However, further studies with this species would be necessary to confirm its potential for bioindication.
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