Abstract in English:The present work aimed to study some aspects of sorption and immobilization of cellulase molecules on soil components by the analysis of the reactions of cellulase in a soil treated with different levels of maize residue and incubated for 90 days. The analysis of variance showed that the effects of the treatments of maize straw, incubation time and their interaction on cellulase adsorption, desorption and immobilization were statistically significant. The adsorption and immobilization capacities of soil by application of maize straw increased significantly. However they decreased with decreasing the soil organic matter (SOM) after 45 days of incubation. The desorption of adsorbed cellulase molecules from the soil by washing with distilled water depended on the SOM contents and its humification. The binding strength of cellulase molecule with fresh miaze straw was significantly stronger than that with humified maize straw. The immobilized cellulase activity, particularly its specific activity increased significantly by increasing the OC contents in the soil treated with maize straw.
Abstract in English:C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs) are a type of important regulon in stress-related signal transduction pathways that control plant tolerance of abiotic stress. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is the only evergreen broadleaf shrub in the northwest desert of China. The species shows strong resistance to environmental stress, especially to cold stress. An A. mongolicus CBF1 gene (AmCBF1) was cloned and transformed into tobacco. Expression of AmCBF1 could be detected in A. mongolicus shortly after exposure to low temperature of 4°C. Analysis on ratio of electrolytic leakage, soluble sugar content, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and peroxidase (POD) activity before and after cold treatment (4°C) for 24 h indicated AmCBF1 conferred higher cold tolerance to AmCBF1 transgenic tobacco compared with the wild type and empty vector transformed tobacco.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to determine the activity of cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) and to measure other biochemical components in the primary leaves and radicles of castor seedlings (BRS Energia) in the initial phase of growth. The crude protein extract obtained after a 1-h extraction from the root tissues of seedlings showed no detectable CKX enzymatic activity when incubated with the substrate isopentenyl adenine for 1 h. However, after precipitation with ammonium sulfate at 70% saturation, the pellet showed CKX activity. The peroxidase enzyme activity was higher in the leaves than in the radicles. The total and reducing sugar content was 1.5 times higher in the leaves than in the radicles. The amino acid and protein contents were 6.4 and 9.2 times higher in the leaves than in the radicles, respectively.
Abstract in English:Two analytical methods for the determination and confirmation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in green and roasted coffee samples were compared. Sample extraction and clean-up were based on liquid-liquid phase extraction and immunoaffinity column. The detection of OTA was carried out with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined either with fluorescence detection (FLD), or positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). The results obtained with the LC-ESI-MS/MS were specific and more sensitive, with the advantages in terms of unambiguous analyte identification, when compared with the HPLC-FLD.
Abstract in English:The antioxidant activity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Chaetomorpha species including C. aerea, C. crassa, C. linum and C. brachygona. Eight samples of Chaetomorpha plants were collected from five locations along the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran from December 2010 until October 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. C. linum showed highest antioxidant potential with a relatively low IC50 (1.484 ± 0.168 mg mL-1), the highest flavonoid content (18.177 ± 2.238 mg RE g-1 ) and a relatively high content of phenolics (2.895 ± 0.415 mg GAE g-1) in comparison with the other species. C. crassa, which was collected from two different areas, showed lowest antioxidant activity and lowest phenolics and flavonoid contents than other species. Results revealed that IC50, total phenolics and flavonoid content were influenced by the time of collection and location. Also there were positive correlations between the phenolic and flavonoid contents with DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.01). The results suggested that some of these filamentous green seaweeds possessed antioxidant potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine, food or cosmetic industries.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to formulate an anti-rabies oral vaccine from the cell culture vaccine PV TECPAR to elicit the production of antibodies against the rabies in mice. A vaccine was developed using 10(7.5) DL50/0.03 ml viral antigens homogenised in lanovaseline to facilitate oral administration. Mice were vaccinated two times for seroconversion. Sera of the vaccinated mice showed a higher level of antibody production than the control group. These results could be used to direct the development of an anti-rabies oral vaccine.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the adjuvant potential of W/O/W multiple emulsions and microemulsions, comparing them with traditional aluminum hydroxide and oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants against bluetongue vaccine (BTV). Local inflammatory reactions were assessed in rabbits by measuring the temperature of the animals and the skin thickness at the site of application. Antibodies titers were determined by serum-neutralization test. Histological analyses of lesions at the site of adjuvants application were done. Results showed that multiple emulsion and microemulsion maintained their stability even in the presence of complex components and presented adequate characteristics for subcutaneous administration. They were able to induce immune response against BTV, but it was smaller than the traditional adjuvants. Despite microemulsion adjuvant showed lower antibodies titre, it was easier to prepare more stable at 4°C and it was the only one that did not induce any local reaction.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to evaluate and select different dermatological bases incorporated with propolis for veterinary use as well as to analyze the chemical compounds of the propolis hydroalcoholic extract by LC-MS/MS. Thus, formulations were submitted to accelerated stability tests under different temperatures and to mechanical stress, and evaluated for the appearance, color, odor, pH, viscosity, spreadability, and the mean size of the dispersed globules from the internal phase during a period of three months. The creamy gel formulation showed satisfactory results for all the evaluated items with an excellent capability to incorporate the hydroalcoholic extract of propolis associated to the maintenance of its physicochemical properties. The propolis used in this study had been shown to possess antibacterial and antifungal in vitro activity against the main microorganisms responsible for such diseases. Therefore, the propolis creamy gel described here could be a promising formulation for use in the veterinary medicine.
Abstract in English:This work aimed a survey on the biodiversity of maize endophytic actinomycete, and an evaluation of their potential to control the phytopathogenic fungi. From several regions of São Paulo state, 40 strains were isolated from the healthy maize plants. The identification of these strains, based on morphological properties and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile showed that most of them belonged to the Streptomyces genus. These isolates were first screened for the growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi and results showed that all the isolate were able to inhibit the development of at least one tested pathogen. Two selected isolates were then evaluated for the control of P. aphanidermatum in cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) under greenhouse conditions. Isolate 16R3B was able to reduce up to 71% damping-off incidence whereas isolate 14F1D/2 reduced the disease incidence by 36%. Damping- off control in cucumber, mainly for the isolate 16R3B, suggested for its use in greenhouse cucumber producing fields and to be tested in field trials.
Abstract in English:This work aimed to study the production and purification of glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum using corn steep liquor as the substrate and evaluate its antimicrobial activity for use in pharmaceutical and food industries. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (60-85%), DEAE-cellulose ion exchange and Sephadex G-200 size exclusion chromatography. The crude enzyme extracts of A. niger and P. notatum showed 2.32 and 5.53 U mg-1 specific activities, respectively, which after desalting was 15.52 and 12.05 U mg-1, and after ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography was 29.09 - 62 and 25.72 - 59.37 U mg-1 for A. niger and P. notatum, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method against selected microbial strains where glucose oxidase from A. niger showed anti-bacterial activity, while no fungicidal effects were shown by both A. niger and P. notatum glucose oxidases.
Abstract in English:One of the mechanisms by which adjuvants are believed to promote T-cell activation and prevent induction of oral tolerance is by up-regulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells. Mice treated orally with palmitoyl-ovalbumin conjugates become immunized, while those treated with native ovalbumin (Ova) become tolerant. Cells from the peritoneal cavity of B6D2F1 mice were cultured in the presence of 0.01, or 0.1 mg/100ml of either Ova, or palmitoyl-Ova and tested for the presence of cell markers. PE-conjugated anti-mouse CD80, CD86, and CD11b antibodies as well as biotin-PE were used to stain the antigen-activated peritoneal cells. A significant increase in the expression of CD86 and CD80 was observed following in vitro stimulation with palmitoyl-Ova; additionally, both Ova and palmitoyl-Ova induced the basal expression of CD11b. These findings could be related with the strong T-cell proliferative response induced by palmitoyl-Ova.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%), followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.
Abstract in English:In the present study, nine terverticillate Penicillium isolates (P. griseofulfum, P. puberulum, P. crustosum, P. aurantiogriseum, P. chrysogenum, P. primulinum, P. expansum, P. viridicatum, Eupenicillium egyptiacum) from 56 soil samples were characterized genetically by a PCR method. The DNAs of the strains were isolated using the glass beads and vortexing extraction method and then used for PCR amplification with the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS4 universal fungal specific primers. The ITS regions of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced through the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System. ITS-5.8S sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database. The results indicated that the identification of Penicillium species with PCR based methods provided significant information about the solution to taxonomy and improve food safety and to protect the users from harmful contaminants such as mycotoxins, which must be controlled during the production of agricultural materials as well as during the processing of food and feed.
Abstract in English:The objectives of this study were to hydrolyze whey proteins using a pancreatin and an Aspergillus oryzae protease; to evaluate the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the peptide profile; and to establish the correlations among the analytical methods. Ten hydrolysates were prepared at different reaction times and the highest DH was obtained by the protein content method. Good correlations (r > 0.87) between the methods of formaldehyde and orthophthalaldehyde (OPA), formaldehyde and osmometry as well as osmometry and OPA were observed using pancreatin. Similar results were obtained between OPA and soluble protein content for the A. oryzae protease. The action of pancreatin produced the highest contents of di- and tripeptides (9.07, 7.12 and 6.46%) and the lowest of large peptides (42.43, 41.33 and 41.13%), after 3, 4 and 5 h of hydrolysis, respectively. Using pancreatin, the DH measured by formol titration and OPA was positively correlated with medium peptide content and negatively correlated with large peptide content. For the A. oryzae protease, a strong negative correlation was observed between the large peptide content and the DH measured by the OPA method.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59) (pH <5.8) and control samples (n=55) (pH >5.8). Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30) and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to produce fish silage by lactic acid fermentation and evaluate its use in feeding of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). An oven-dried mixture of fish silage and soybean meal (1:1 w/w) was used to prepare the diets with different levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) and evaluate its effect on the performance and meat quality of 160 quails. The inclusion level did not affect the growth and feed conversion ratio. The carcass yield (70.3%) and sensory quality of breast meat were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). However, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1n9C), linoleic (C18:2n6C), linolenic (C18:3n3), arachidonic (C20:4n6), cis eicosapentaenoic (C20:5n3) and cis docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3) increased in quail breast meat with the inclusion of fish silage:soybean mixture in the diet (p<0.05). Fish silage and its use in quail diets could offer a good alternative for fish waste utilization as feedstuff component for the improvement of fatty acid composition in its breast meat.
Abstract in English:This study aimed to evaluate the freeze-drying process for obtaining grape juice powder by reverse osmosis using 50% grape juice pre-concentrated (28.5 °Brix) and 50% hydrocolloids (37.5% maltodextrin and 12.5% arabic gum). The morphology of the glassy food showed the absence of crystalline structure, which was the amorphous wall that protected the contents of the powder. The samples were stored in clear and dark containers at room temperature, evaluated for their physical (X-ray diffraction) for 65 days and chemical (polyphenol content) stability for 120 days. During the storage time in plastic vessels, samples remained physically stable (amorphous) and the phenolic concentration was constant, indicating the potentiality of this technique to obtain a stable product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the freeze-drying process promoted the encapsulation of concentrated grape juice increasing its stability and shelf life, as well as proving to be an applicable process to food industry
Abstract in English:This work aimed at determining 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol in the top-fermented wheat beers using different wavelength and the mobile phase for HPLC. Best results for isocratic elution were obtained at 260 nm and the mobile phase comprising methanol/ultrapure water/phosphoric acid (400/590/10, V/V). Under these conditions, the retention time of 4-vinylguaiacol and 4-vinylphenol was 25 and 27min, respectively.
Abstract in English:Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are food ingredients applied due to combination of prebiotic benefits and interesting technological properties, being used as a sugar substitute. The knowledge of their physicochemical characteristics is important for predicting the stability of the food products where they are added. For this reason, a saccharides powder extracted from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) roots by membrane technology and freeze-dried was investigated. Color, water activity (aw), microstructure by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy- dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and crystallinity by X-ray diffraction were evaluated. The obtained product, containing 19.75% FOS, 36.66% glucose and 43.59% fructose (w/w) was a whitish granulated powder, with aw of 0.284 and CIELAB color coordinates L*, a* and b* of 76.25±1.19, -1.03±0.09 and 1.02±0.03, respectively. It was highly hygroscopic and with agglomeration tendency, confirmed by the formation of bridges between particles on the SEM images. No peaks were identified at X-ray diffractograms, indicating its amorphous characteristics, but sample high hygrospicity and formation of a rigid mass might have hampered a trustable X-ray analysis.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work was to study the application of a stochastic algorithm to correlate the experimental data of island-type systems in ternary systems. Thermodynamic NRTL and UNIQUAC models were used to evaluate the activity coefficients. Results regarding the application of the stochastic algorithm were in good agreement with those presented in the current literature. However, generalization of the method proposed in the present work remained an intriguing and complex task so as to reach broad conclusions.