Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effect of nutrients on the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus isolated from the south coast of the Caspian Sea was evaluated. The nutritional compositions of the media impacted the growth rate and biomass of S. obliquus that ranged from 0.175 day-1 to 0.209 day-1and 0.92 gr·l-1 to 1.79 gr·l-1, respectively. The alga grew better in the medium which was characterized by higher levels of sodium and trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Mo, and Co and poor in N and P as compared with the other media. The highest level of the total lipid (32%) and the highest values of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid also were positively correlated with these nutrients. Peaks in polyunsaturated fatty acids (43.7 %), especially α-linolenic acid (28.4%) were related to N and P, but its correlation with K and Mg was more evident. The most important factors correlated with high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids were also N and P, followed by K and Mg to a lesser extent. This study demonstrated that the same algal strain may be a source of different amount of fatty acids, depending on the composition of the culture medium.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The microbial composition of different types,in ecosystems (including agro-ecosystems), has been investigated in a rapidly growing number of studies in the past few years. The importance of microorganisms, regarding the maintenance and stability of nutrients in agroecosystems, is a key to maintain the sustainability of a crop. Molecular tools to study microbial communities are possible through many methods such as RISA, DGGE, TGGE, clone libraries, T-RFLP, RAPD, SSCP and more recently NGS (Next-Generation Sequencing). DGGE is widely employed to characterize the diversity and the community dynamics of microorganisms in the environment, making possible to find out specific groups through functional genes, allowing access to data that cannot be obtained by cultural methods. The aim of this paper is to review the functional groups related to agroecosystems and to indicate the critical choice of DNA primers pairs and targeted DNA regions that may be used in PCR-based methods such as the DGGE technique in order to evaluate the microbial communities in a variety of environments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The 28-spotted hadda beetle Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fab. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a poly-phagous pest, commonly infesting solanacious crops including brinjal, Solanum melongena L. Upon its severe infestation on brinjal, it causes considerable damage to the foliage and also to the calyx of fruits. The studies were made to record the seasonal abundance of hadda beetle and identification of its natural enemies present in the region for two consecutive years. The pooled data for two years showed that the maximum number of H. vigintioctopunctata egg clusters on brinjal were recorded in the 27th (0.40 egg cluster/ plant), followed by grub population in 35th (3.78 grubs/ plant), pupae in 33rd and 39th (0.83 pupae/ plant) and adult beetles in 36th (5.48 adults/ plant) standard meteorological weeks, respectively. It was observed that the key meteorological factors had 35.9%, 87.3%, 66.8% and 81.9% effect on the abundance of egg clusters, grubs, pupae and adults respectively in summer planted brinjal crop. Two natural enemies of hadda beetle viz. Tetrastichus sp. (egg parasitoid) and Pediobius foveolatus (pupal parasitoid) were recorded. The maximum parasitisation by Tetrastichus sp. and P. foveolatus on the egg clusters and pupae was recorded 22.64% and 6.62% respectively, during the month of August (34th and 35th standard meteorological week respectively). Further, the morphometric parameters of these two adult parasitoids were recorded and greater morphometric variability was observed in P. foveolatus in comparison to Tetrastichus sp.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went is the most important disease of sugarcane in India inflicting substantial loss to both cane industry and cane growers. To keep in view the importance of red rot disease of sugarcane, 117 accession of sugarcane germplasm including different Saccharum species and Indian and foreign commercial hybrids were tested against red rot with Cf 07, Cf 08 & Cf 09 (national pathotypes) by plug method of inoculation. Out of 117, 6 were found resistant and 12 were moderately resistant against red rot and rest were moderately susceptible/susceptible/highly susceptible. Theses resistance and moderately resistant accession can be further utilize to produce resistance varieties against the most devastating pathogen of sugarcane.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4), Pantoea ananatis (AEn1), Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5), Bacillus idriensis (MR2) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to evaluate the economic viability of tomato cultivation in a system of organic farming, and to compare it with the conventional farming system. The fixed and variable costs of both cultivation systems were calculated, as well as the costs of disease control with the application of alternative products and pesticides. The revenues were computed using commercial production and the direct sales price. The total cost per area was higher in the conventional system, while the cost per plant was greater in the organic system, since it used a lower plant population density. In the conventional system, 2.33 times more was spent on plant management, due to the fact that the number of sprayings was greater than that carried out in organic farming. We further find that companion planting with other species such as coriander, in addition to helping with the management of the main crop, is important for economic sustainability as it is an extra source of income. Considering the specificities of the two systems, the profitability of organic cultivation, even accounting for its lower productivity , could exceed that of conventional cultivation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Multipurpose use of bamboo in rural life makes it as poor man’s timber in Asian countries. Deforestation and industrialization leads to destruction of natural forest. To replenish, a rapid plantation of bamboo could be one of the possible solutions. Bamboo is propagated mainly by vegetative methods though it is not suitable for large scale plantation because of several limitations. Micropropagation is gaining importance for large scale propagation because of its capability in raising huge number of true to type propagules in a limited space in very short span of time. Like any other plant, the chief constraint of bamboo micropropagtion is in vitro contamination arises from several sources including explants. Most of the contaminants are reduced by maintaining aseptic conditions. The surface adhering microbial contaminant (Epiphytic) is usually checked by using several available surface sterilants. But the endophytic contaminant (present within the explants) is not easily controlled. Endophytic fungus could be controlled by using systemic fungicides but controlling bacteria is again more troublesome. Antibiotic with broad spectrum activity coupled with low phytotoxicity is prerequisite to get better results. Treatment duration and type of antibiotic are the critical factor to reduce the contamination. But unscientific use of antibiotic may lead to the development of resistant microbial strains. That is why antibiotic selection after identification of the contaminants may be an efficient way to counter this problem. The present review is done on use of antibiotic controlling bacterial contamination during micropropagation special reference to bamboo.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT IFN-γ (Interferon-gamma), Mx and IRF-1 (Interferon regulatory factor-1) are main immune-related genes and they play important roles in the innate immune system of vertebrates. In this study, the expression level of the three immune-related genes in twelve tissues of normal adult Japanese flounder was detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Thirteen time points (3h, 6h, 9h, 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h, 72h, 84h, 96h, 108h, 120h) were selected to analyze the expression of IFN-γ, Mx and IRF-1 in spleen, head kidney, liver of Japanese flounder infected with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The Japanese flounder IFN-γ, Mx and IRF-1 genes were differently expressed in these tissues and had high expression levels in classical fish immune organs like spleen and head kidney. It was found that the highest expression levels of the Japanese flounder IFN-γ were detected at 24h in spleen, 36h in head kidney and 48h in liver after challenge with LPS. Interestingly, the highest expression levels of Mx in spleen and head kidney were both at 36h and IRF-1 in spleen and liver were both at 24h. The highest expression level of Mx in liver was at 48h and IRF-1 in head kidney was at 12h. The study provides a basis for further research on immune mechanism of IFN-γ, Mx, IRF-1 and the production of recombinant IFN-γ, Mx or IRF-1 used in Japanese flounder cultivation in future.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro antileishmanial activity of four different concentrations of natamycin and nystatin by using MTT 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. In vitro antileishmanial activity revealed that the IC50 of natamycin (80.49 μg/ml) and nystatin (105.7 μg/ml) was less than that of sodium stibogluconate (127.9 μg/ml), and more than amphotericin B (18.91 μg/ml).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Quercetin has potent antioxidant action and a hepatoprotective role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of quercetin pretreatment in paracetamol-induced liver damage (PILD) and structural injury resulting from partial hepatectomy (PH). In the first model, Wistar rats received oral quercetin (50mg/kg/day) during 8 days. On the 8th day, 3g/kg paracetamol were added. In the second model, the same quercetin dose was given during 7 days and rats were submitted to PH on the 8th day. Blood samples were obtained for determination of enzyme levels. Liver, heart, kidney and lung tissue were also collected for assessment of quercetin biodistribution and/or histological analyses. The results obtained after PILD were more pronounced at 24 hours, as reflected by the reduction of serum ALT levels and by the lower concentration of quercetin in liver at this time point. Quercetin also had a protective effect in groups submitted to PH, as shown by decreased ALT levels after 18 hours, and of AST levels after 18 and 36h. The reduction in serum AST and ALT levels suggest that treatment with quercetin is useful as a preoperative pharmacologic measure and for prevention of liver damage caused by drugs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is the catch all terms that used to explain several different modern sequencing technologies which let us to sequence nucleic acids much more rapidly and cheaply than the formerly used Sanger sequencing, and as such have revolutionized the study of molecular biology and genomics with excellent resolution and accuracy. Over the past years, many academic companies and institutions have continued technological advances to expand NGS applications from research to the clinic. In this review, the performance and technical features of current NGS platforms were described. Furthermore, advances in the applying of NGS technologies towards the progress of clinical molecular diagnostics were emphasized. General advantages and disadvantages of each sequencing system are summarized and compared to guide the selection of NGS platforms for specific research aims.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Epidemiology data have established that smoking is a prime threat for the cancers, largely lung cancer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),P53 SNPs have been found to be associated with the predisposition of different cancers. Their decreased expression is reported in breast and lung cancer patients. p53 (rs1614984) had been reported to be linked with the SNPs found associated with breast cancer. The primary aim of this study to determine the association of p53 variant rs1614984 with the cigarette smokers and smoking related cancers in smokers. Among the smokers, 38% were found with CC genotype, 55% were heterozygous CT and 7% were TT, respectively. The homozygous TT genotype was seen in lower percentage of smokers (7%) when compared to non-smokers (8%) whereas; Significant difference was not observed when encompassed by CC, CT and TT genotypes (χ2 = 4.892, p=0.087). However, CC vs CT genotype showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers (p=0.031, OR 1.447 (1.035-2.025) and the dominant model CC vs CT+TT was also significantly different among smoker and non-smokers (p=0.047, OR 1.39 (1.004-1.924). Furthermore, smokers are at the risk of developing variety of diseases including lung cancer. Our finding suggests a higher percentage of heterozygous CT genotype in smokers when compared to non-smokers. Therefore, this finding gives a clue that the transition mutation of C>T (rs1614984) may leads to the lung diseases including cancer in smokers. However, there will be a need of more extensive and elaborated study to set down the aspect of p53(rs1614984) C>T in lung cancer among smokers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT To establish a transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) mouse model with busulfan and fludarabine for effective treatment evaluation. BALB/c (H-2d) mice were injected with busulfan (15 mg/kg) and fludarabine (30 mg/kg) twice a day for 4 days. The mice were transfused with 106 T cell-depleted bone marrow (TCD-BM )and cells in different groups 3 days after chemotherapy: syngeneic BALB/c, MHC minor mismatch DBA/2 (H-2d), or MHC major mismatch C57BL/6(H2-b). Recipient BALB/c mice were injected with either blood only or blood+splenocyte. TA-GVHD was monitored in terms of body weight loss, clinical scores, and survival. Dexamethasone (50 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), cyclosporine A (30 mg/kg), and anti-CD3 (1 mg/kg) were injected to each group to examine the treatments. Blood transfusion alone is insufficient to induce TA-GVHD in a chemotherapy-based mouse model. A MHC-mismatched TA-GVHD model can be induced by splenocyte and blood transfusion. This MHC-mismatched TA-GVHD model was resistant to dexamethasone treatment. Treatment based on anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody slightly ameliorated TA-GVHD. Treatment effectiveness was associated with T-cell depletion following activation by anti-CD3. Busulfan and fludarabine chemotherapy regimen can be used to establish a TA-GVHD mouse model. Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is a potential alternative to treat TA-GVHD.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Spinosad (SPD) is a highly selective insect control product. However, it was reported that SPD has toxicity toward other non-target organisms. This study was conducted to address the toxic effect of two sub-chronic low and high doses; 35 and 350 mg/kg SPD on some biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters of the liver, kidney and cerebellum. Thirty-six male Swiss mice were divided into three groups of 12 mice each; first group (G1) served as a control, second group (G2) received a low sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 35 mg/kg, and third group (G3) received a high sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg. The results showed that mice which were received 350 mg/kg SPD showed a significant decrease in the body weight and a significant increase in their relative kidney and spleen weights. They also showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides and urea levels. Histopathological examination showed cytoplasmic degeneration and cell necrosis in the liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical examination showed that cerebellum illustrated several neurodegenerative changes and a down-regulation of synaptophysin-Syp. In conclusion, exposure to a high dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg could cause a marked toxicity on the liver, kidney and cerebellum in male albino mice.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a novel tumor-suppressor gene that has different alternative splice isoforms. It has been shown that new smallest isoform of human IL-24 gene, lacking three exons, induces higher levels of cytotoxicity than all the isoforms, indicating shortest isoform of IL-24 may be a new promising anti-cancer agent. In this study, we aimed to provide a reproducible method for recombinant production of the smallest isoform of IL-24 (sIL-24). The Structure of sIL-24 was analyzed using bioinformatics tools (I-TASSER, Prosa, RAMPAGE and SPDBV version 4.1). The DNA sequence encoding sIL-24 was chemically synthesized and sub-cloned into the pET-32a (+) vector for further protein expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Upon IPTG induction, sIL-24 peptide was expressed as a thioredoxin fusion protein. The recombinant sIL-24 was released from the fusion by TEV protease cleavage followed by nickel affinity chromatography. The yield of the purified sIL-24 was estimated about 380 μg/ml. MTT assay showed that sIL-24 peptide inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 cancer cells more effectively than full length IL-24 protein, while none affect the survival of MRC-5 normal cells. These results indicate that the presented expression system is an efficient system for the production of small functional recombinant sIL-24 peptide.This functional peptide may have cancer therapeutic application.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Total Coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several antimicrobial resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, including those from Gram-negative group. The oysters were bought from local fishermen and a total of 123 individuals were analyzed. The TC, E. coli and Enterococcus spp. MPN mean were 26,300/100 g, 3,260/100 g and 2,820/100 g, respectively. The only correlation found was between TC and E. coli. Two strains of Enterococcus spp. were resistant to three different antimicrobial categories, including a high level resistance to streptomycin. One strain presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The E. coli levels exceeded the limits established by international legislation. This microbiological contamination in oysters reflects the water pollution and indicates a probable contamination of other seafood species from this mangrove, which can represent a risk for consumers and a threat to the environment and public health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. The cysteine protease cathepsin K has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Resistine is an adipokine which is identified to promote cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we hypothesize that ODN mitigates resistin-induced myocyte hypertrophy. Cell surface area and protein synthesis were measured after treatment with resistin and ODN in H9c2 cells. The expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy marker BNP and β-MHC was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression and phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1 were analyzed with Western blot. Resistin could significantly increase cardiomyocyte cell surface area, protein synthesis, and embryonic gene BNP and β-MHC expression, inhibit phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1. ODN could significantly reverse the effects of resistin. Collectively, our data suggest that ODN can inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by resistin and the underlying mechanism may be involved in LKB1/AMPK pathway.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A natural agent that maintains mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) viability, promotes osteogenic differentiation while modulating the immunological response could achieve success in regeneration during healing and may also prevent bone resorption and improve regeneration. We aimed to demonstrate that a Thymbra spicata var. intricata extract could induce proliferation, differentiation, and modulate the immune responses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Using xCELLigence, a real-time monitoring system, we obtained a growth curve of MSCs. A dose of 10 µg/mL was the most efficient concentration for vitality. Osteogenic differentiation and antiinflammatory activities were determined by using an ELISA Kit to detect early and late markers of differentiation. The Osteonectin (ON, early osteogenic marker) level decreased while the Osteocalcin (OCN, late osteogenic marker) level increased in the T. spicata var. intricata treated group, suggesting that T. spicata var. intricata may accelerate osteogenic differentiation. Reduced level of the IL-6 cytokine in repsonse to TNF-α was evident. T. spicata var. intricata could be a promising osteogenic inducer in dentistry and could be used safely in biocomposites or scaffold fabrications.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Relapse is highly prevalent after detoxification and depression. Due to the advantages of venlafaxine compared with other antidepressants, it is expected that venlafaxine administration may reduce relapse after detoxification and depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of venlafaxine on depression-induced relapse to morphine dependence after methadone detoxification. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated and conditioned with morphine (10 mg/kg, S.C., for 4 days). After that, primary forced swimming and conditioned place preference (CPP) were tested. They were followed by methadone (70 mg/kg/day, P.O., for 7 days) administration, extinguishing, forced swimming stress (FSS) and administration of venlafaxine (80 mg/kg/day, I.P., for 7 days). Finally same tests were performed. Administration of venlafaxine resulted in a decrement in final preference scores associated with a prime morphine injection (PMI) compared to the primary scores in methadone treated (MTD+) animals. In a swimming test, venlafaxine increased the amount of final floating and decreased final activity scores compared with the primary scores after administration of methadone. Venlafaxine reduced locomotor activity in MTD+ animals in the final test with PMI. There was a positive correlation between the final activity and preference scores after PMI. In conclusion, venlafaxine improved anxiety and depression-induced relapse on methadone detoxified rats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible curative effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on radiation-induced damage to the lung and its renin angiotensin system. EPO (200 U/100g) was i.p. injected to male rats one hour post 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The animals were sacrificed after 14 days post irradiation. Irradiation induced significant drop of haematological values, bone marrow (BM) count, lung oxidative stress markers, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) associated with significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and nitric oxide (NO) besides serum inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Also serum and lung renin angiotensin system markers, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were elevated whereas calcium (Ca) was decreased. EPO treatment post irradiation has significantly ameliorated blood parameters and BM count also lung oxidative stress markers were improved associated with decreased serum Na, TNF-α, and LDH levels. Lung K and Ca showed no change compared to irradiated group. The findings of the present study suggest that EPO might contribute to enhance recovery of the lungs from radiation-induced damage due to its erythropoietic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bioflavonoid-containing diets have been reported to be beneficial in diabetes. In the current study, the effect of Biochanin A (BCA) on blood glucose, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers in diabetic rats were investigated. 30 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Two of them were selected as control; group1: control (receiving 0.5%DMSO), and group2: Control+BCA (receiving 10 mg/kg.bw BCA). Diabetes was induced in other rats with injection of (55 mg/kg.bw) streptozotocin; group3: diabetic control (receiving 0.5%DMSO), groups 4 and 5 were treated with 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw BCA respectively. After 6 weeks the following results were obtained. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased and body weight, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) significantly decreased in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Oral administration of BCA in 10 and 15 mg/kg.bw, FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C were decreased significantly in all treated rats. MDA was decreased in all treated rats but it was significant just in 15 mg/kg.bw BCA. HDL, CAT, SOD, and TAS were significantly increased in treated group with 15 mg/kg.bw. The obtained results indicated hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of BCA. Also BCA reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Paper-based devices present low-cost and are versatile, making them very attractive for clinical analysis. To manufacture those devices wax patterns are printed on paper surface and upon heating the wax permeates through the entire thickness of the paper, creating hydrophobic barriers that delimit test areas. Antibodies produced in rabbits against canine distemper virus (CDV) were physically adsorbed on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and incubated with CDV viral antigens, forming the immunocomplex. Anti-CDV antibodies were immobilized into the microchannels by physical adsorption, forming the test region. The test solution containing conjugated AuNPs was applied at the bottom of the microchannel and it was eluted with a phosphate buffer solution 0.01 M pH 7.4. When the solution containing the AuNPs reached the test zone the recognition of antigens contained on the immunocomplex occurred with the consequent development of a red line, which represents a positive outcome for the test. This method demonstrated the success of physical immobilization of antibodies on AuNPs and the physical immobilization of antibodies on cellulose’s surface. This colorimetric assay brings simplicity and versatility to clinical analyses, presenting potential for CDV diagnosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effect of the water deficit on the fresh and dry weight in the various parts of the plant and on several mineral processes in different symbiotic combinations for the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties was studied. The experiment was undertaken in the greenhouse during five weeks.Seedlings were separately inoculated with a suspension of three rhizobia strains and were grown under water deficit (50% of field capacity). Our results showed that the inoculation with the adequate rhizobia may improve the chickpea dry weight by improving the nodules weight, increase NR activity and more K+ accumulation under water deficit. Generally, MC0415 (S1) strain gives the best results, particularly in the dry weight nodules (5% of reduction) and in parallel higher NR activity was notedinthenodule systems (0.8±0.02 μmol NO2-g FW-1h-1) with the combination V46-S1. We note a strong correlation between the dry weights of the various parts of the plantand the studied variables (NRA, Na+, andK+).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background: Alternative splicing (AS), which plays an important role in gene expression and functional regulation, has been analyzed on genome-scale by various bioinformatic approaches based on RNA-seq data. Compared with the huge number of studies on mouse, the AS researches approaching the rat, whose genome is intermedia between mouse and human, were still limited. To enrich the knowledge on AS events in rodents' brain, we perfomed a comprehensive analysis on four transcriptome libraries (mouse cerebrum, mouse cerebellum, rat cerebrum, and rat cerebellum), recruiting high-throughput sequencing technology. An optimized exon-exon junction library approach was introduced to adapt the longer RNA-seq reads and to improve mapping efficiency. Results: In total, 7,106 mouse genes and 2,734 rat genes were differentially expressed between cerebrum and cerebellum, while 7,125 mouse genes and 1,795 rat genes exhibited varieties on transcript variant level. Only half of the differentially expressed exon-exon junctions could be reflected at gene expression level. Functional cluster analysis showed that 32 pathways in mouse and 9 pathways in rat were significantly enriched, and 6 of them were in both. Interestingly, some differentially expressed transcript variants did not show difference on gene expression level, such as PLCβ1 and Kcnma1. Conclusion: Our work provided a case study of a novel exon-exon junction strategy to analyze the expression of genes and isoforms, helping us understand which transcript contributes to the overall expression and further functional change.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Epibiosis was understood as a commensalism relation between two or more organisms. However, some studies have shown that epibionts can cause deleterious effects to their host. Here, we reported the first report of epibiosis between protozoa Epibiont ciliates (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) living on larvae of Ephemeroptera from Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables result in critical losses of production in worldwide. The losses often are caused by fungi and nowadays, most fungal pathogens are controlled by several strategies such as the use of fungicides. However, most of the fungicides are chemical-based compounds and are dangerous to human health and the nature. Therefore, the discovery of healthy and reliable strategies is crucial to control of fungal pathogens. In the paper, it was aimed to evaluate and characterize yeast isolates previously isolated from dairy products for the production of killer toxin. A total of 18 yeasts have been found to produce antagonistic behavior against susceptible fungal species. All of the yeasts expressing killer character were characterized by using several molecular techniques, and isolates TEM8 and 17 identified as D. hansenii have showed the strongest antifungal activities. Improvement of killer toxin production by the yeasts also has been studied, and the highest production was found in YMB medium containing NaCl (6%) and DMSO (1000 ppm) at pH 4.0 and 20oC. The killer characters of these yeasts have indicated the potential use of the yeasts as antagonists for the control of postharvest diseases in agricultural industries.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different feeds/nutrients and temperature on the gonadal development of Clarias gariepinus. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and blood parameters including red blood cell count (RBCs), white blood cell count (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hgb) level, hematocrit (HCT), platelets (PLT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were investigated. Four types of fish feed of 36% protein content [D1(fish meal), D2 (soybean meal), D3 (peameal) and D4 (commercial tilapia feed)] and 3 different levels of temperature (T1(24℃), T2(28℃) and T3(32℃) were tried in this study for a duration of 4 months. The mean values were as follows: female GSI (14.68 ± 4.86), male GSI (0.70 ± 0.32), RBCs x 106(2.45± 0.64), WBCs x 103(9.28 ± 2.34), Hgb (12.42± 2.21g/dl), HCT (29.06 ± 3.54%), PLT (90.75 ± 9.18/mm3), and MCV (118.08 ± 10.3 g/l). Fish meal diet revealed the most significant (p<0.05) increase in weight gain, female GSI, and also exerted significant increases on most of the blood parameters. This study revealed that animal-based protein diet and temperature around 28℃ were the critical requirements for the physiological performance and relative gonadal weight of C. gariepinus. GSI and blood parameters were useful indicators of stress exerted by nutrition and temperature on fish, and their study is critical for fish health and mass production of viable seeds for aquaculture enterprise.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Response surface methodology was used to optimize lincomycin production by Streptomyces lincolnensis NRRL ISP-5355 in submerged fermentation. Screening of fermentation medium components to find their relative effect on lincomycin production was done using Plackett-Burman design. Malt extract, dextrin, soluble starch and (NH4)2SO4 were the most significant nutrient influenced on lincomycin production. Central composite design was applied to determine optimal concentrations of these factors and the effect of their mutual interactions. The interaction between soluble starch and (NH4)2SO4 was found to enhance the production, whereas malt extract and dextrin exhibited an influence independent from the other two factors. Using this statistical optimization method, maximum lincomycin concentration of 1345 μg/ml was obtained which represented a 40.5 % increase in titer than that acquired from the non-optimized medium. This statistically optimized medium was employed for lincomycin production through immobilization of Streptomyces lincolnensis by adsorption on synthetic cotton fibers. Immobilization technique improved the concentration to 1350 μg/ml higher than that produced from free cells cultures and could be maintained for longer than 17 days in a repeated batch system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains from bauxite residue in the southern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical assays. Bacillus cohnii, Bacillus pseudofirmus, and Bacillus clarkii were identified among the isolates. The isolates were able to use a wide range of carbon sources and to grow at NaCl concentrations of up to 10%, temperatures from 10 to 40 °C, and pH from 7 to 10.5, producing a wide variety of organic acids. This is the first report on microbial composition of bauxite residue in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rumen fungi inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and the most non-ruminant herbivores. Rumen fungi produce highly active plant cell wall degrading enzymes, therefore they have gained scientific interest. In this study, genes encoding xylanase (xynA-7) and cellulase (celA-5) were amplified from Neocallimastix sp. GMLF7 and Orpinomyces sp. GMLF5, respectively, and expressed in Escherichia coli. XynA-7 was found to be active only on xylan, however CelA-5 had activity both on carboxymethyl cellulose and lichenan. Lichenase activity of CelA-5 was found to be higher than carboxymethyl cellulase activity. The optimal conditions were at pH 6.0 and 40 °C for CelA-5 and at pH 6.5 and 50 °C for XynA-7. A coexpression vector was constructed to coproduce the XynA-7 and CelA-5 and then transformed into E. coli. The ability of the transformed E. coli strain to produce CMCase, xylanase and lichenase was evaluated. The transformed E. coli strain acquired the capacity to degrade CMC, xylan and lichenan.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Monoaromatics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), are simple aromatic compound that are highly toxic due to their high solubility nature. Many chemical and physical methods for their degradation and breakup into nontoxic products are available, but still use of microorganism is preferred over these processes. In this present study Bacillus pumilus MVSV3 (Accession number JN089707), a less explored bacteria in the field of BTEX degradation, isolated from petroleum contaminated soil is utilized for BTEX degradation. At optimized conditions the isolate degraded 150 mg/L of BTEX completely within 48 h. GC-MS analysis revealed that the microorganism produces catechol and muconic acid during degradation indicating an ortho pathway of degradation. Enzyme assays were carried out to identify and characterize catechol 1, 2- dioxygenase (C12D). The optimal temperature and pH for the enzyme activity was identified as 35 (C and 7.5, respectively. SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular weight of the enzyme to be approximately 35,000 Da. Zymography analysis indicated the presence of three isoforms of the enzyme. Hence Bacillus pumilus MVSV3 and the isolated C12D, proved to be efficient in degrading the toxic aromatic compounds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Quorum sensing is considered one of the most important discoveries in cell-to-cell communication. Although revealed in Bacteria, it has been identified as well as a mechanism present in the other two domains, Eukaryota and Archaea. This phenomenon consists mainly of an exchange and sensing of "words" produced by each cell: chemical signals known as autoinducers. The process takes places at high cell densities and confined environments, triggering the expression of specific genes that manifest in a determined phenotype. Quorum sensing has a fundamental importance in the organisms' fitness in natural ecosystems since it activates many of the traits needed by cells to survive under specific conditions, and thus a wide variety of chemical signals, which are detailed throughout the review, have evolved in response to the needs of an organism in the ecosystem it inhabits. As a counterpart, derived from the natural occurrence of quorum sensing, comes it's antagonistic process named quorum quenching. Acting in the exact opposite way, quorum quenching interferes or degrades the autoinducers confusing and stopping communication, hence affecting transcriptional regulation and expression of a specific phenotype. The main reasons for stopping this mechanism go from fading their own signals when perceiving scarce nutrients conditions, to degrading competitors' signals to take advantage in the ecosystem. Some of the most studied purposes and means known up to date to be used by cells for making quorum quenching in their ecosystems is what will be discussed along this review, offering information for future works on quorum quencher molecules bioprospection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAld) is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-phosphate (FBP) to D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), and plays vital role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, molecular characterization and functional roles of FBAld remain unknown in sago palm. Here we report a modified CTAB-RNA extraction method was developed for the isolation of good quality RNA (RIN>8) from sago leaves and the isolation of FBAld cDNA from sago palm. The isolated sago FBAld (msFBAld) cDNA has total length of 1288 bp with an open reading frame of 1020 bp and a predicted to encode for a protein of 340 amino acid resides. The predicted protein shared a high degree of homology with Class-I FBAld from other plants. Meanwhile, the msFBAld gene spanned 2322 bp and consisted of five exons. Conserved domain search identified fifteen catalytically important amino acids at the active site and phylogenetic tree revealed localization of msFBAld in the chloroplast. A molecular 3D-structure of msFBAld was generated by homology modeling and a Ramachandran plot with 86.7% of the residues in the core region, 13.4% in the allowed region with no residues in the disallowed region. The modeled structure is a homotetramer containing an (/(-TIM-barrel at the center. Superimposition of the model with Class-I aldolases identified a catalytic dyad, Lys209-Glu167, which could be involved in the Schiff's base formation and aldol condensation. Apart from that, overproduction of the recombinant msFBAld in Escherichia coli resulted in increased tolerance towards salinity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The MYB family represents one of the most abundant classes of transcriptional regulators that perform pivotal role under different developmental processes and abiotic stresses. In present study, a MYB gene from Oryza sativa was selected for functional characterization. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that OsMYB1 cDNA encodes R2-R3 type DNA binding domain consisting of 413 amino acids having size of 44 kDa and pI of 6.24. DNA binding domain containing region was cloned and over-expressed in E. coli. Then, the survival of pGEX-OsMYB1 transformed E. coli cells was compared with control plasmid under different concentrations of NaCl, mannitol, high and low temperature. pGEX-OsMYB1 enhanced the survival of cells at high temperature and salinity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) have shown that recombinant OsMYB1 protein was able to bind with DIG labeled probe containing MYB binding site. RT-qPCR analysis revealed high MYB1 expression under wounding, salt, drought and heat stresses in rice. Expression was 23 fold higher in response to wounding demonstrating the worth of OsMYB1 up-regulation in wounding. Intrinsic disorder profile predicted that OsMYB1 exhibits 60% degree of intrinsic disorder proposing that these regions might be involved in DNA binding specificity and protein-protein interaction. The positive response of OsMYB1 suggests that its over-expression in crop plants may help in providing protection to plants to grow under abiotic stresses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In vitro rhizome production, encapsulation and cold storage of Acorus calamus were attempted for its propagation and ‘true-to-type’ conservation. Shoot cultures were initiated using underground rhizome buds, on 6-benzyladenine (BA) containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Maximum microrhizome production was observed in presence of 33.3 µM BA, on modified MS medium containing 6% sucrose, 100 mg/L citric acid and 1 g/L polyvinyl pyrrolidone-40. Synthetic seeds were produced from regenerated microtubers by encapsulation in calcium alginate beads. These synthetic seeds were stored in complete darkness at 100C temperature for different durations for mid-term conservation. After cold storage, synthetic seeds were re-cultured in vitro, 100% survival was recorded after the storage of 1, 3 or 6 months; and 80% survival was observed after the storage of 12 months. The microrhizomes were produced roots in 4.9 µM indole-3-butyric acid containing half strength MS medium. All the regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to field after acclimatization. It is the first report on successful one year in vitro cold storage of A. calamus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The actinobacterial strain Streptomyces lavendulocolor VHB-9 was isolated from granite mine soil samples of Khammam district, Telangana state, India. The strain was identified based on detailed microorphological, cultural and phylogenetic analysis. Bioactive guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of the strain was carried out by growing the strain in optimized medium (0.5% lactose, 0.5% peptone, 0.05% K2HPO4, 0.2% CaCO3 with pH adjusted to 7.0). Separation and purification of the active fractions from the crude ethyl acetate extract was carried out by silica gel column chromatography and resulted in the isolation of two active fractions. Structural elucidation of the two (B2 and B3) active compounds was carried out by FT-IR, Mass and NMR spectroscopy and were identified as Bis (7-methyloctyl) phthalate and (Z)-3-aminoacrylic acid. The antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compounds produced by S. lavendulocolor VHB-9 was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration against opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Both fractions exhibited good antimicrobial potential against the bacteria and fungi tested.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The medium term development plan of Ghana proposed modernization of agriculture to lead the way in transforming the economy. Providing irrigation infrastructure and enhancing farmer access to farm machinery were major interventions proposed. In line with this, the government has been investing in irrigation infrastructure as well as importing farm machinery under various programmes in recent years. This study analyzed access and intensity of mechanization by rice farmers in southern Ghana. The Shai-Osudoku and Ketu North Districts were purposively selected and a total of 360 farmers were randomly sampled from 16 rice growing communities. In general, the results of the descriptive statistics revealed that about 74 % of farmers were still cultivating rice with considerably low level of mechanization. The double hurdle model was employed to estimate the determinants of access to mechanization and the intensity of mechanization. The empirical results of tier one of the double huddle model revealed that size of land, access to credit, availability of farm machinery, expenditure on labour, agrochemical expenditure, the square of age, and gender positively influenced access to mechanization. Seed expenditure, age and district locations negatively influenced access to mechanization. The empirical results of the tier two of the double hurdle model revealed that distance from farm to nearest mechanization centre, rice income, non-farm income and experience were significant variables that positively influenced intensity of mechanization. Land ownership and household size negatively influenced intensity of mechanization. These results have implications for capacity building and government support for rice farmers in southern Ghana.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study, fifty Escherichia coli strains were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the genes expressed carbapenemase and virulence factors in order to determine the presence of carbapenemase and nine virulence factors and investigate the association between these two characteristics. When carbapenemase susceptibility was taken into consideration, OXA-48 type carbapenemase was determined for 22% of the total strains. Also, the frequency of virulence gene regions in E.coli infections and virulence gene profiles of these isolates were examined and the frequency of pap, afa, sfa, fimA, iroN, aer, iutA, hly and cnf-1 genes were 24, 38, 20, 84, 28, 90, 92, 10 and 34% respectively. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fimA and afa gene regions and carbapenem susceptibility (P< 0.05). Based on the combination of carbapenemase and virulence factor genes, 24 different gene profiles were determined for all strains. The results of the study appear to indicate that fimA and afa genes correlate with carbapenem susceptibility, the relations of fimA with urinary tract infections and pap with complicated urinary tract infections. It also indicates that sfa and afa genes correlate with other infections except urinary tract infections.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A sexually mature albino specimen of the Gillbacker Sea Catfish species Sciades parkeri (Siluriformes, Ariidae), a vulnerable species, was captured in northern Amazon estuary, State of Pará, Brazil. Herein we present the first record of albinism phenomenon for this species, including the morphometric description of the albino, and a non-abnormal coloring specimen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nanobiotechnology deals with the properties of nanomaterials and their potential uses. Here we report for the first time novel, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extracts of Myriostachya wightiana. The growth of silver nanoparticles was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy complemented by Zeta potential, dynamic light scattering technique (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band found at 434 nm confirmed the reduction of AgNO3 to AgNPs. TEM micrographs revealed that AgNPs are irregular in shape with the size range from 15-65 nm. The functional groups responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver were analyzed by FTIR and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Further these biogenic AgNP were evaluated for insecticidal activities against stored product pests, Tribolium castaneum (Flour beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)(Lesser grain borer) and Sitophilus oryzae L (Rice weevil). The fabricated AgNPs showed moderate activity on stored pests and strong antibacterial activity with varying degrees against Xanthomonas campestris and Ralstonia solanacearum as evidenced by their zone of inhibition at all concentrations. Hence, these AgNP can be used as control agents against agricultural pests and pathogens in future.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A cross sectional study was conducted in two types of respiratory patients in hospital population. It was found that tuberculosis (T.B) was the most common type (29.66%) followed by the asthma (28.08%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (11.31%). Average age of diagnosis was 42.15 ± 0.65 years and average age at present 47.99 ± 0.70 years. Age group 51-60 years was more prone to this disease (21.13%). Most of the patients were married (80.06%). The highest representation of patients with respiratory diseases was observed in 1st birth order (30.36%) followed by 2nd (26.49%) and 3rd (18.45%), while the lowest was in 10th birth order (0.40%). Tuberculosis, asthma and COPD are the most prevalent types of respiratory diseases. Respiratory diseases were more common in males, in first birth order and in people of age group 51-60 years. This disease was more common in married, unemployed, less educated, and lower socioeconomic status people. Socioeconomic status and urban and rural living had a profound effect on the onset of disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Tacrolimus is a polyketide macrolide produced by Streptomyces species which is widely used as anti-fibrotic agent and potent immunosuppressant. In this article dual mutagenesis approach using mutagens (NTG+EMS+UV) was used to develop a mutant strain of Streptomyces tacrolimicus (ATCC 55098) for higher tacrolimus production and this strain showed higher tacrolimus production at 82.5 mg/l. Interestingly; addition of L-Lysine (0.2 g/l) into the production medium further enhanced the tacrolimus production to ~102 mg/l at 7-L fed-batch bioreactor. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report mentioning efficient strain development for higher production of tacrolimus using dual mutagenesis. The obtained data presents an impressive model for higher production of tacrolimus and enhanced our understanding regarding improvement in production capacity of tacrolimus in Streptomyces tacrolimicus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm) were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C) and reference commercial feed (D) for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein). Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP) and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab). Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum) were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL). N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm) with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm). However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively). Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The protective activity of methanolic (Met E) and aqueous (Aq E) extracts of Globularia alypum L. (G. alypum) against DNA, lipid and protein oxidative damage was investigated. Moreover, the scavenging, chelating, and reducing power activities of the extracts were also evaluated. Phytochemical analysis was performed to determine phenolic compounds. Results showed that Met E and Aq E were rich in phenolic compounds, and were able to scavenge DPPH˙ with IC50 values of 48.61 µg/mL and 51.97 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, both extracts were able to chelate ferrous ions. At 300 μg/mL, the chelating activity was 97.53% and 91.02%, respectively. The reducing power of these extracts was also remarkable and concentration dependent. At 100 µg/mL, both extracts inhibited lipid peroxidatin by only 42.45% and 4.03%. However, the DNA oxidation damage was inhibited dose-dependently in the presence of G. alypum extracts. At 1 mg/mL, both extracts suppressed DNA cleavage by 83%-84%. The protein oxidation was also inhibited by G. alypum extracts. At 1 mg/mL, Aq E and Met E protected BSA fragmentation by 77%-99%. The overall results suggest that G. alypum extracts exerted antioxidant activity and protect biomolecules against oxidative damage; hence it may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies on seasonal dynamics of white fly (Bemesia tabaci) on tomato (Solanum esculentum var. Pusa Ruby) revealed that it appeared first during the 13th and reached maximum during 21st standard meteorological week. A positive correlation between adult population and abiotic factors viz. temperature (maximum and minimum) and sunshine hours was observed, whereas humidity (maximum and minimum) and rainfall showed a negative correlation with it. Taken together, the key weather parameters studied, caused 89.00 per cent variation in whitefly population (R2 value). Combination of carbofuran (soil application) + imidacloprid (seed treatment ) + imidacloprid (foliar application) proved significantly superior and caused maximum reduction in whitefly population followed by imidacloprid (seed treatment) + thiomethoxam (spray), imidacloprid (seed treatment) + imidacloprid (spray), imidacloprid (seed treatment) + dimetheoate (spray), carbofuran (soil application) + malathion (spray), and imidacloprid (seed treatment) + yellow sticky traps. The highest cost benefit ratio of 1:25.04 was recorded in case of carbofuran (soil application) + imidacloprid (seed treatment ) + imidacloprid (foliar application) followed by 1:22.38 for imidacloprid (seed treatment) + thiomethoxam (spray) ; 1:21.81 for imidacloprid (seed treatment) + imidacloprid (spray); 1:19.27 imidacloprid (seed treatment) + dimetheoate (spray); 1:19.48 carbofuran (soil application) + malathion (spray), and 1:8.33 for imidacloprid (seed treatment) + yellow sticky traps. The soil application of carbofuran + seed treatment with imidacloprid and three foliar sprays of imidacloprid at fortnight interval starting 40 days after transplanting is found effective and is advised for whitefly management in susceptible tomato cultivars.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Determination of potential contaminants elements in food packing films arising from contact with acidic aqueous foods was undertaken by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) in accordance with DIN EN 1186-1. Test sections from plastic films were totally immersed in 3% w/v CH3COOH used as the food simulant. Testing was conducted under three conditions: (1) 10 days at 40 ºC; (2) 30 min at 70 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC; and (3) 30 min at 100 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC. These time and temperature conditions were considered to be the most severe situations likely to be encountered in practice. Several different containers were investigated, including a borosilicate glass beaker, a glass bottle used for food canning, as well as one of polystyrene. The glass bottle was selected for testing treatments according to procedure (3) and a polystyrene one was chosen for use with procedures (1) and (2). Limits of quantitation were adequate for the determination of Ag, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn by solution nebulization ICP OES and As by chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES). Results for the analysis of AccuStandard certified reference materials as well as spike recoveries show good agreement with expected concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the determinations. Eleven samples of food packing material were analyzed. The lead was present in the range 4.8 - 85.3 µg L-1 in 10 of 11 evaluated packing material, showing the importance of quality control measures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix); the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica); the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica); the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica) and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands) and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands) as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO), a gene family specific to plants, plays significant roles in the resistance to powdery mildew (PM) and response to a variety of abiotic stresses, plant growth and development. Despite their importance as barley, rice, wheat, few studies are reported in dicots except Arabidopsis; no global analysis has been performed in the burgeoning model fruit plant sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The recent release of the genome sequences of C. sinensis provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview the evolution and features of the MLO gene family in sweet orange. In this study, amount to 14 members of the Citrus sinensis MLO gene (CisMLO) family according to their gene structures, conserved motifs, and similitude among their presumptive Arabidopsis and rice orthologs were identified in silico. Based on these analyses, all CisMLOs were grouped into six clades and expanded partly due to one tandem duplication and two segmental duplication events. Survey of their chromosomal distributions uncovered that 14 CisMLOs are localized across 6 chromosomes. Multiple-sequence alignments showed that 11 of them shared seven highly conserved transmembrane domains (TMs), while all of the sweet orange MLO proteins except CisMLO4/14 had a calmodulin-binding domain for MLO function. Expression analysis demonstrated that the MLO gene family has a diverse tissue-specific expression profiles in the sweet orange development and plays potential critical roles in stress responses. These findings will facilitate further studies of evolutionary pattern and biological functions of MLO genes in sweet orange.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely-used analgesic, while toxic doses of which induce liver injury. Inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is derived prostaglandins which play an anti-inflammatory role in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Selective activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR1, flt -1) on endothelial cells increased mRNA levels of hepatocyte mitogens (IL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor leading to prosurvival effects on hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatoprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; the antidote for APAP) with that of α-Lipoic acid (ALA) and/or Thymoquinone (THQ) either alone or in combination on liver injury induced by APAP. APAP administration elevated most of the previously measured parameters and decreased GSH, SOD, and total protein levels compared with the control group. Liver sections of H&E demonstrate liver injury characterized by centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, COX-2, and flt-1 expressions were also increased. Treatment with all fore mentioned antioxidants ameliorated most of the altered parameters compared to APAP-treated group. Treatment with the combination of ALA and THQ was the most effective therapy in the attenuation of liver injury assessed by a decrease in ALT and ALP activities and down-regulation of COX-2 and flt-1 expression. Section of liver from rat received APAP, ALA and THQ shows a marked improvement of hepatic degeneration which restricted to few hepatocytes with mild vacuolation of their cytoplasm while the nuclei appear normal mimic to control cells. It was concluded that the natural antioxidants such as ALA and THQ, may be considered as a potential antidote in combating liver injury induced by APAP.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as the well-known coordinator of intracellular antioxidant defense system. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Nrf2 silencing on mitochondrial biogenesis markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and cytochrome c as well activities of two enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in three brain regions hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex of male Wistar rats. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Nrf2 was injected in dorsal third ventricle. Next, western blot analysis and biochemical assays were used to evaluation of protein level of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and CS and MDH enzymes activity, respectively. Based on findings, whilst Nrf2-silencing led to notably reduction in protein level of mitochondrial biogenesis upstream PGC-1α in three brain regions compared to the control rats, the level of NRF-1, TFAM and cytochrome c remained unchanged. Furthermore, although Nrf2 silencing increased CS activity, activity of MDH significantly decreased in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex areas. Interestingly, CS and MDH activities in amygdala did not change after Nrf2 knockdown. In conclusion, the present findings highlighted complexity of interaction of Nrf2 and mitochondrial functions in a brain region-specific manner. However, by outlining the exact interaction between Nrf2 and mitochondria, it would be possible to find a new therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders related to oxidative stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria are mostly microaerophilic found at the interface between oxic-anoxic zones. We report a magnetotactic bacterial strain isolated from an oil refinery sludge sample that grows aerobically in simple chemical growth medium, 9K. They open a new window of isolation of magnetic nanoparticles through an easy natural living system.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fungal endophytes constitute a major part of the unexplored fungal diversity. Endophytic fungi (EF) are an important source for novel, potential and active metabolites. Plant-endophyte interaction and endophyte -endophyte interactions study provide insights into mutualism and metabolite production by fungi. Bioactive compounds produced by endophytes main function are helping the host plants to resist external biotic and abiotic stress, which benefit the host survival in return. These organisms mainly consist of members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Oomycota. Recently, the genome sequencing technology has emerged as one of the most efficient tools that can provide whole information of a genome in a small period of time. Endophytes are fertile ground for drug discovery. EFare considered as the hidden members of the microbial world and represent an underutilized resource for new therapeutics and compounds. Endophytes are rich source of natural products displaying broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT (4S)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid is new synthesized substance obtained from cysteine and valine. Thiazolidine derivates have important biological responses so scientists work intensively on these compounds in recent years. It is obvious that thiazolidine contained compounds will be used in future in the pharmaceutical industry to treat important diseases. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) for 48 h and 96 h were found as 1.106±0.052 mM and 0.804mM ± 0.102 respectively. According to LC50, exposure doses were determined as control, 0.4 mM, 0.2 mM and 0.1 mM (4S)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. Developmental toxicity and apoptotic features on zebrafish development were evaluated in this study. The results of this study indicate that (4S)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid exposure cause developmental defects like pericardial edema, bent spine, tail malformation, blood accumulation, yolk sac edema but on the other hand concentration-dependent decrease in apoptotic rate. Likewise, concentration-dependent decrease in hatching and increase in mortality of embryos were also detected.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Effect of salt stress on biomass, cell number, contents of total lipid, omega-3 fatty acids, including ALA (Alpha Linolenic Acid), EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) and their biosynthetic pathway intermediates (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) of two microalgae Dunaliella salina and Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Dilution stress from 1.5 to 0.5 M NaCl and salt stress from 1.5 to 3 M NaCl were incorporated into the D. salina medium. Salt stress of 200 mM NaCl was also applied to C. vulgaris culture. Results indicated that increasing salt concentration resulted in the reduced growth rate of C. vulgaris and substantial increase of the total lipid content in both species. Proper growth rate of D. salina observed at 1.5 M of NaCl, but higher and lower concentrations led to the decreased growth rate of D. salina. In addition, considerable increase in the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and thereby the total omega 3 fatty acid content of D. salina was observed under salt stress. Salt stress had little positive effect on the amount of total omega-3 fatty acid of C. vulgaris due to the slight increase of the EPA content. Results showed that salt stress is an effective way for enhancing the total lipid and omega-3 fatty acid production in D. salina.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The genus Planktothricoides Suda & Watanabe is considered as a 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) producer, affecting water quality and aquatic animal products worldwide. To date, there is limited information about the diversity of this genus from Thailand. In this study, Thai Planktothricoides strains were isolated from fish ponds and reservoirs in North, Northeast and Central regions for morphological examination, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, rbcLX and MIB synthase genes as well as GC/MS/MS analyses. The morphological results and the 16S rRNA and rbcLX phylogenies of Thai Planktothricodes strains enabled them to be designated as Planktothricoides raciborskii. Cell dimensions of Thai strains tested were in 1.86 to 5.96 µm length (L), 2.83 to 13.70 µm width (W), and the L/W ratio ranged from 1:6 to 1:1. Among Planktothricoides strains, the 16S rRNA phylogenies demonstrated that three subclades (A, B and C groups) were apparently divided. The similarity of 16S rRNA genes between subclades were 96-98%. From the detection of MIB synthase genes and GC/MS/MS analyses, some strains grouped into A group were considered as MIB-producers. In this study, most Thai Planktothricoides strains belonging to the A group were found in all three regions, while the strains forming the B and C groups were not distributed in the North region. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report investigation and characterization of the potential MIB-producing Planktothricoides from Thailand. Therefore, providing a valuable tool as a model for the early prediction and detection of taste and odor event is necessary.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss.) with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the expression and mechanism of N- methyl -D- aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Eighty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20 each) to receive an injection of 0, 5, 7 and 10 μl of 1 μg/μl amyloid-β 42 (Aβ1-42) in the hippocampus. Twenty rats in normal control group were injected with equal volume of saline. After 10 days, the hippocampus was isolated from 5 randomly selected rats in each group. The NMDAR1 protein and mRNA expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR. The aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) mRNA expression was also measured by qRT-PCR. We found that both NMDAR1 and AQP-1 expression in Aβ1-42 groups was increased in a dose-dependent manner. NMDAR1 and AQP-1 expression in 7 and 10 μl Aβ1-42 groups was significantly higher compared with 0 μl Aβ1-42 group (P <0.01). Further, the 10 μl Aβ1-42 group was randomly divided into 3 subgroups: AD-NMDA, AD-MK-801, and AD-Ctrl subgroup, which was given an intraperitoneal injection of NMDAR agonist NMDA, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 and saline, respectively. The relative APQ-1 expression in each subgroup was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis after 24 h. The AQP-1 expression was significantly decreased in AD-MK-801 group (P < 0.05), but was markedly increased in AD-NMDA group when compared with AD-Ctrl group (P <0.01). Our study suggested that expression abnormity of NMDAR1 is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. NMDAR1 might regulate the pathogenic process through stimulating the expression of AQP-1.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nowadays, radiation technology is widely used to produce changes in Biosystems. The goal of this work is to determine the variation induced male Pectinophora gossypiella in gamma-irradiated as pupae using 50Gy and 150Gy. Comparing elements composition and DNA (using RAPD-PCR) between substerile 50Gy and the sterile dose 150Gy in P. gossypiella showed variation between them. Potassium (K) was the most abundant elements in unirradiated and irradiated males followed by magnesium (Mg). The percentage of heavy metals as copper, zinc, and cadmium concurrent with K was directly proportional to the radiation dose. While the percentage of Mg, Phosphorous and calcium decreased as the radiation dose increased. The results also revealed that some extra bands appeared and others disappeared, as a result of irradiation. The appearance of extra bands may be due to the repair mechanism of the irradiation damaged DNA. The banding patterns obtained and the dendrograms drawn on the basis of presence and absence of bands revealed that 150Gy irradiated pupae are more different from the unirradiated pupae than the 50Gy irradiated pupae. It was concluded that the sterile male technique could be used as a benefit tool in controlling P. gossypiella.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Present study aim to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of crude extract of Marine Streptomyces carpaticus MK-01 isolated from seawater collected from Daejeong-cost of Jeju Island. About 24 actinomycetes strains were isolated and subjected to morphological and molecular analysis that confirmed the isolate as S. carpaticus MK-01. Crude ethyl acetate extract of MK-01 strain showed extensive antibacterial activity against Gram-positive fish pathogenic bacteria namely Streptococcus iniae and S. parauberis with a maximum zone of inhibition (0.92±0.03mm) was recorded against S. parauberis at the minimum extract concentration (3.12µg/ml). The MK-01 ethyl acetate extract shows dose dependant significant increase in antioxidant activity. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of MK-01 ethyl acetate extract was attained at 53.71 μg/ml and the effective concentration 50 (EC50) against virus-infected Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell lines was 8.72 μg/ml of S. carpaticus MK-01 crude ethyl acetate extract.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT >The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Gymnopetulum chinense (Cucurbitaceae), a lesser known climber of Eastern Ghats and recently recorded species from Odisha, India was studied against five selected human pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, S. pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi), by agar well diffusion (AWD), disc diffusion (DD) and broth dilution methods. Different solvent extracts were prepared from the leaves of G. chinense using various solvents viz. n-hexane, chloroform, methanol, acetone and aqueous. The nomenclature, detailed description and photographs of the plant are provided to facilitate its easy identification. The leaf extract showed presence of phenolic compounds, tannin, saponin, flavonoids and glycosides. It was examined that methanol extract showed highest zone of inhibition (16.66 mm) against S. pyogenes using DD assay. Similar results were examined as lowest MIC values were found with methanol leaf extract against S. pyogenes and S. mutans (200 µg/ml). Present study showed first report of this plant as natural antibacterial agents and highlights the importance of G. chinense in curing the bacterial infections.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Stress can inhibit gonadal activity via Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad (HPG) axis activity suppression. In the present study, effects of intermittent feeding (IF) on gonadal function under stress in male and female mice were evaluated. Twenty eight male and twenty eight female mice's were divided into four groups. The control group received adequate food and water without stress. The second group received four days of electric shock without food deprivation. The third group was deprived of food two hours/day for a week, and the fourth group was deprived of food (2 hours/day for seven consecutive days) and then electric foot shock stress was applied to them for four days. Blood samples were collected from all animals for plasma testosterone, estrogen and/or Interlukin-6 (IL-6) evaluation. The animals’ gonads were also removed and fixed for the measure of their weight. Results showed that stress reduces both testosterone and estrogen levels, whereas IF did not change the hormone levels. In addition, stress increases blood IL-6 concentration. The combination of IF and stress, increased the hormone levels in animals. Stress and IF alone had no significant effect on gonadal weight in the male mice, whereas stress decreased gonadal weight in the females. Combination of stress with IF increased gonadal weight in both male and female mice. In conclusion stress showed a negative effect on gonadal function in both animals with more effect on females. Intermittent feeding inhibits the stress effect and even promotes the gonadal function in both sexes. The effect may be due to IL-6 reduction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Among the nutrients involved in the chicken diet, the microminerals deserve attention as they exert essential functions in the organism. These compounds can be provided in inorganic (traditional) and organic (chelate) forms. In organic form, the micromimerals can attend a new concept related to a better bio-availability. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the partial and total substitution of inorganic by organic sources of microminerals on the animal diet, assessing its concentration in the blood and liver after 21 and 40 days and also in the bones after 40 days. Moreover, the effect on the physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of the muscle after 15 days of storage at 4°C was also evaluated. The animals were divided into five treatments: 100% inorganic, 70% inorganic and 30% organic, 50% inorganic and 50% organic, 30% inorganic and 70% organic and 100% organic-chelate. It is shown that the use of organic sources of microminerals in the diet of poultry induced to an increase of its concentrations in the blood and liver, with no significant alterations in the compositions of bones, compared to the use of inorganic sources. Feed formulated using 50% of organic minerals and 50% of inorganic minerals led to similar results. The diet with organic minerals or mixture with inorganic sources results in a low lipid oxidation in the drumsticks stored at 4°C for 15 days, in comparison with those using only inorganic minerals. No sensory alterations were observed for all different treatments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) contains many neurotrophic and growth factors, acts as a growth medium for cortical progenitors, and can modulate proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that can differentiate into several types of mesenchymal cells as well as nonmesenchymal cells, such as neural cells. In the present study, the effect of E-CSF on proliferation and neural differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was investigated to test whether E-CSF is capable of driving these cells down the neuronal line. To verify the multipotential characteristics of BM-MSCs, the cells were analyzed for their osteogenic and adipogenic potential. Expression of the neural markers, MAP-2 and β-III tubulin, was determined by Immunocytochemistry. BM-MSCs differentiate into neuronal cell types when exposed to b-FGF. BMMSCs cells cultured in medium supplemented with CSF showed significantly elevated proliferation relative to control cells in media alone. E-CSF (E17-E19) supports viability and stimulates proliferation and, significantly, neurogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs. The data presented support an important role for CSF components, specifically neurotrophic factors, in stem cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation. It is crucial to understand this control by CSF to ensure success in neural stem cell therapies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuels production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in pulp and paper mill effluent contaminated soil which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Four different bacterial strains were isolated and screened for cellulase production by using CMC agar medium. All isolates showed cellulase activity these strains were further characterized by morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene analyses. These isolates were identified as two Bacillus subtilis sub sps, Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus cereus.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Ischemia-reperfusion injury was seen in strokes, myocardial infarctions, acute kidney injury, mesenteric ischemia, liver and systemic shock. Renal ischemia-reperfusion is more importance in the setting of kidney transplantation that affects distant organs. In this study forty Male Albino Wistar rats (200-250g) were randomly divided in four group (n=10) including control, sham operation group, nephrectomy and IRI group. All rats anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) and maintained the core body temperature at approximately 37°C. For inducing IRI group, it was performed right nephrectomy, and in continuing, the left kidney pedicle occluded to 45 min via nontraumatic microvascular clamp for making ischemia that followed 24 hours reperfusion. TUNEL assay was used to detect the cardiac apoptotic cells. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) procedure was used to histopathological assessment and glycogen accumulation respectively. There was more heart damage at 24 h reperfusion in IRI group. Renal IRI group showed myocardial degeneration, necrosis and increasing connective tissue in myofibril. There were apparent hypertrophy and swelling of myofibril, fragmentation and vacuolization of sarcoplasm. In addition, it was shown elevated apoptotic cell at 24 hours reperfusion in renal IRI group than sham group. There were increases of glycogen accumulation in cardimyocyte of renal IRI group. Our findings suggest that renal IRI-induced cardiac damage, accompanied by an accumulation of glycogen granules, induced apoptosis and histological changes in cardiomyocytes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Albumin protein profiles were investigated in electrophoresis system in relation to the whole body exposition to the radiation. Two groups of rats Wistar were set up as the control (CG) and the irradiated one (IG). The IG was exposed to Co-60 at a dose of 5 Gy. After a 72-hour exposition, 300 μL of blood was collected in the inferior vena cava, renal, jugular, hepatic, and pulmonary veins and the serum separated. The albumin protein was identified by vertical electrophoresis in acrylamide Commassi blue or silver stained. The calibration procedure was applied to albumin samples with well-known concentrations. The mathematical correlation was developed involving electrophoretic parameters of band intensities and sizes from gel representation, providing values of protein concentrations in comparison with standard bands with known concentrations. There were significant differences in the physiological concentrations in the jugular and pulmonary sites in relation to renal and cava regional sites. Significant differences induced by radiation in serum albumin concentration were also found in hepatic and jugular sites. Alteration of albumin concentration was found as a nearly effect from whole body irradiation. This phenomenon points out to alterations in cell metabolism in the liver justified by a possible indication of proteomics damage from radiation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present investigation details an assessment of genetic relationship of E. coli isolates collected from two different environmental sources viz. sewage water and soiled bedding materials of laboratory rodents. Five sewage water samples were collected from the industrial area of Lucknow city and 5 samples of soiled bedding materials of laboratory animals were collected from Animal facility at CSIR-IITR, Lucknow. For this study Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPD) was chosen as the molecular fingerprinting method. In this study, 10 RAPD primers were used to evaluate the genetic similarity of E. coli. isolates. The RAPD-PCR fingerprints were analyzed and data were scored as 1, 0 matrix. The generated data were fed on Popgene software for calculating genetic diversity and creating dendrogram. The genetic similarity of 85% was recorded from soiled bedding materials and only 71% in sewage water samples in E.coli samples. The dendrogram based generation of clustering of E. coli isolates show two major clusters. Within major cluster sub-cluster were also observed which indicating diversity within isolates of E. coli. The RAPD-PCR based fingerprinting provided a rapid means of discriminating E. coli isolates and considered a relevant tool for molecular typing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Cerebral ischemia commonly occurs when the blood flow to the entire brain or some part of the brain is disrupted. Global cerebral ischemia attenuates the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) EEG rhythm, increases the free radicals production and brain inflammation. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects against neural damages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ellagic acid on EEG power in the global cerebral ischemia.Rats were divided into four groups: SO (sham) received normal saline, EA+SO, I/R (normal saline + ischemia/reperfusion), and EA + I/R. EA (100 mg/kg, dissolved in normal saline) or normal saline was administered orally (gavage) for 10 days. Animal underwent to 20 minutes of ischemia followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion in I/R and I/R+EA groups. EEG was recorded from NTS and serum antioxidant enzyme activity was measured.Data showed that ellagic acid improved electrical power of NTS. Theta and delta bands frequencies in the ischemic animals were decreased in I/R group with compared to SO group significantly (P<0.001). Ellagic acid has beneficial effect on superoxide dismutase activity in the ischemic animals with compared to I/R group (P<0.01). In contrast, ellagic acid has no significant role on glutathione peroxidase activity in the pretreated ischemic rats in comparison with I/R group.These findings suggest that ellagic acid increased antioxidant enzymes activity that scavenge the ROS due to ischemia so that it may have neuroprotective effect on NTS neurons and consequently reverse its electrophysiology pattern.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This review article highlights the role of glutaraldehyde as a matrix activator/stabilizer in imparting higher operational and thermal stability to β-galactosidase (βG) for biotechnological applications. Glutaraldehyde has been used extensively as a crosslinking agent as well as for functionalization of matrices to immobilize β-galactosidase. Immobilized β-galactosidase systems (IβGS) obtained as a result of glutaraldehyde treatment has been employed to hydrolyze whey and milk lactose in batch reactors, continuous packed-bed and fluidized bed reactors under various operational conditions. Moreover, these IβGS have also been utilized for the production of galactooligosaccharides in food, dairy and fermentation industries. It was observed that glutaraldehyde provided remarkable stability to immobilize βG against various physical/chemical denaturants, thus enhancing thermal/operational stability and rendering it more suitable for repeated utilization in industrial scale operations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We evaluated the incidental catch of the blue crab in artisanal fisheries through the analysis of sex ratio, catch per unit effort, net positioning, and size in which the capture probability was 50% (P50). The specimens were collected from 2011 to 2013 in the estuary of Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil. The analysis showed a higher occurrence of males. Variations in the catch per unit effort showed greatest abundance values close to the mouth of the estuary. Catch per unit effort was similar when comparing fishing seasons and net positions. P50 indicated a low selectivity of the nets since it varied between studied areas but stayed below the size at first maturity. Catches indicated a greater effort on males, since females migrated to spawn in the ocean area adjacent to the estuary during the fishing period studied. The spatial variation of the catch per unit effort showed heterogeneity in fishing catches. Thus, optimal management of the resource should consider the particularities of each area.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of erythrocytes of Channa punctata exposed to two sublethal doses of lindane over a period of 21 days revealed myriads of anomalies. High frequency of micronucleus appeared progressively in the erythrocyte, ranging from 3.8-7.5%, when monitored weekly for 21 d at 0.25 g/L and 1.0-3.0% at 0.025 g/L lindane. Prominent structural anomalies of erythrocytes included abnormal shapes, vacuolation, membrane invagination and disintegration. At higher dose and at later duration, a unique tendency of abnormal cells to stick together was observed. It could be concluded that commercial formulation of lindane could induce genotoxicity and structural anomalies in the erythrocytes of fish.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to describe the behavior of newly-hatched juveniles and maternal care in Aegla schmitti. The experiment was conducted using seven ovigerous females with eggs at different stages of embryonic development and 12 eggs that had been placed in a separate aquarium. We observed asynchronous hatching in all females, with a mean of 66 hatched juveniles per female. The females also exhibited extended maternal care, allowing the juveniles to remain inside their abdominal chamber or on other parts of their body in the first few days after hatching. The juveniles that hatched in a separate aquarium fed on the remaining eggs, despite food being available. The incubation period and number of hatched eggs are highly variable between species with direct development, with no clear pattern being evident. However, asynchrony in hatching time is apparently common among freshwater anomurans, most likely due to the environmental conditions in which they live. Parental care is an important trait for crustaceans that live in osmotically unfavorable environments, such as freshwater, increasing the survival rate of juveniles.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The rhizosphere zone has been defined as the volume of soil directly influenced by the presence of living plant roots or soil compartment influenced by the root. During the growing season of 2014, the rhizobacteria of 23 sugar beet plants sampled from 12 sites in the west and north west of Iran were inventoried. Using a cultivation-dependent approach, a total of 217 bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere. The bacterial isolates were tentatively grouped and documented based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins and were found to represent 43 different protein electrotypes. The majority of the fingerprint types were found only on a single occasion. Fifty-nine percent of the strains belonged to the five bacterial species and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and Serratia marcescens. Minor occurring fingerprint types were identified as Flavobacterium spp, Erwinia spp, Acetobacter spp, Agrobacterium spp, Enterobacter spp, Aeromonas spp and Bacillus spp.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Trichosporon asahii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated from wastewater effluents were identified as chromium-resistant yeasts. Cr(VI) concentrations at 8 mM and 6 mM were inhibitory for R. mucilaginosa and T. asahii. Remarkably elevated GSH (69.88 ± 10.01) and GSSG (11.24 ± 0.96) was observed under metal stress in T. asahii as compared to R. mucilaginosa GSH (18.95 ± 3.19) and GSSG (3.7 ± 2.74) mM g-1 8 level. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher GSH/GSSG ratio in both strains. NPSH (29.84 ± 0.54) level in T. asahii was much higher than in R. mucilaginosa (6.05 ± 0.24). Chromate reductase (ChR) was assayed and its activity was optimum at 50°C (pH 6) in T. asahii while R. mucilaginosa showed higher activity at 30°C (pH 7). Activity of both ChRs was enhanced in the presence of Mg, Na, Co and Ca but strongly inhibited by Hg cations. Cr(VI) uptake capabilities were ranged between 43-97% in R. mucilaginosa and 35-88% in T. asahii. One dimensional electrophoresis revealed enriched bands of cysteine rich metallothioneins suggesting some differential proteins could be overexpressed under Cr(VI) stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluates the influence of initial nitrogen concentration, temperature and stirring speed on specific anammox activity (SAA). The biomass was tested in single batch reactors with different initial nitrogen concentrations (Assay 1) ranging from 60 to 140 mg Ntotal/L in equimolar ratio (NO2--N/NH4+-N) and in another test to 67.3 mg NH4+-N/L and 92.2 mg NO2--N/L (close to anammox stoichiometric ratio). The anammox biomass was also tested in single batch at different temperatures (from 20 to 37° C) to determine the short-term effects on SAA (Assay 2). In the third assay the stirring speed ranged from 50 to 150 rpm in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) at 37 ºC. SAA was affected by the stoichiometric molar ratio but not by equimolar initial concentrations. The maximum specific anammox activities were 26.2 mg NH4+-N/g VSS.h in the single batch reactor at 37 ºC with NO2--N/NH4+-N stoichiometric ratio and 33.5 mg NH4+-N/g VSS.h in the SBR at 37 ºC and 50 rpm. The NO2--N/NH4+-N molar ratio affected specific anammox activity, and SAA showed to be more hindered by low increases of stirring speed than reported in the literature.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Identification of Thysanoptera is based mainly on external morphology examination that can be time-consuming and difficult for non taxonomic experts. In this work, we propose a rapid and efficient molecular method to identify Frankliniella schultzei, an important and widespread pest thrips vector of tospoviruses in South America countries. Species-specific primers designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI) were optimized for detection by conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The primers were tested on immature and adult thrips collected from crops and weeds found in São Paulo State. All samples collected were identified as F. schultzei, indicating the high prevalence of this species as vector of tospoviruses in Brazilian fields.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Equisetum arvense, a fern species possesses a number of pharmaceutical prospective. In the present study, a total of 103 endophytic bacteria isolated from E. arvense and were evaluated for their anticandidal property against five Candida species, two C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. saitoana and C. geochares. Out of them fifty one were identified as per the morphological and molecular characterisation using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and among them, ten promising endophytic bacteria were mentioned in the present study. Among ten endophytic bacteria, Psychrobacillus insolitus and Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum exerted highest anticandidal effect against C. albicans KACC 30062 and C. glabrata KBNO6P00368, with diameter of inhibition zones of 21.30±0.41 and 18.24±0.12 mm, respectively. When the endophytic bacteria cultures were successively fractionated using different solvents, only the butanol fraction of Psychrobacillus insolitus and Curtobacterium oceanosedimentum had anticandidal activity, with inhibition zones of 20.12±0.28 mm and 12.33±0.11 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of the butanol fractions ranged from 250 to 500 and 500 to 1,000 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed impaired membrane of C. albicans and C. glabrata at the MIC, indicating that butanol extract lysed the cell membrane and caused cell death. The endophytic bacteria derived from E. arvense can be a valuable resource for the development of natural anticandidal agents to manage candidiasis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nanoparticles due to their unique properties have attracted more attention and their bacterial biosynthesis is more favorable because is environmental friendly and the size and yield of nanoparticles can be optimized. The aim of the present study was biosynthesis of Selenium nanoparticles using Bacillus cereus. For this purpose, bacterial culture was prepared in the presence of sodium selenate solution and incubated (30°C, 24 h). The produced nanoparticles were purified through consequent centrifugation, washing with 0.9% NaCl, sonication, washing with Tris- HCl containing Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and finally isolation with water- octanol two phase systems. Then using Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scaning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, nanoparticle production was confirmed. The bioavailability of nanoparticles was also investigated in rat. As a result of this study spherical selenium nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 170 nm were biosynthesized. MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of selenium for Bacillus cereus were same and equal to 75mM. Absorption and secretion of nanoselenium was significantly higher than bulk Selenium (P<0.05). In conclusion in the present study without any chemical substance, spherical Selenium nanoparticles were produced that do not have any environmental contamination. Furthermore, the metabolism of these particles suggests higher absorption rate of them that facilitates its application in medicine and also veterinary medicine.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rock phosphate (RP) is traditionally solubilized by chemical process causing high cost and environmental pollution. To reduce process cost and protect environment, RP solubilization by Aspergillus japonicus was studied and its mechanisms were discussed. Results show that A. japonicus could effectively solubilize RP in NBRIP medium. RP solubilization by A. japonicus included direct and indirect actions of the strain on RP. Cells of A. japonicus attached rapidly to RP surface and the RP surface was seriously corroded by the strain. A. japonicus excreted multiple organic acids, and followed by a significant increase of titratable acidity and decrease of pH in the culture. A positive correlation between content of soluble phosphate and quantity of titratable acidity but a negative correlation between content of soluble phosphate and pH were observed. Results of abiotic solubilization of RP using organic and inorganic acids indicated that the release of soluble phosphate was significantly lower than that of inoculated with A. japonicus. Higher release of soluble phosphate and pH reduction achieved when using ammonium nitrogen rather than nitrate nitrogen.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, the causative agent of ECF, is an important pathogen affecting both domestic and wild animals, causing major economic losses in the world. Problems such as high cost of drugs, development of resistance, and absence of effective vaccines prevent effective combating of the pathogen. Thus, it is necessary to explore new targets for affordable and higher therapeutic value drugs. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in the non-mevalonate isoprene biosynthesis pathway is vital to the organism and therefore has been selected as a target for developing antitheilerial drugs. In this study, the 3D structure of TpDXR was identified by template-based in silico homology modelling method, the constructed model was validated and structurally analysed, and possible ligand binding pockets were identified for the first time in the literature. A reliable 3D model for TpLDH was modelled by using 3AU9 chain ‘A’ Plasmodium falciparum as a template. The obtained result showed that the model has a good resolution structure with 86.768 overall quality factor and a -9.15 z-score for TpDXR. The present study promises the possibility of exploiting new and safe inhibitors using the structure-based drug design that is effective against ECF through docking studies.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The species richness and relative abundances of different aboveground plant-dwelling pest and predator species were assessed in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) ecosystem under mid-hill conditions of eastern Himalayas. The experiment was conducted in winter seasons during 2004-2013 at the Regional Research Station (Hill Zone), Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalimpong, West Bengal, India. Twenty five species of phytophagous arthropods under 13 families were observed belonging to 6 different orders. The gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), aphid, Myzus persicae (Aphididae: Hemiptera), shield bug, Plautia fimbriata (Pentatomidae: Hemiptera) and leaf webber, Nacoleia sp. (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) were found as the most common and major insect of flax. In terms of species composition, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera occupied top position (nine species) while Coleoptera ranked second position (five species). By the size of population, aphid was found to be the most frequent species followed by shield bug and leaf webber. Although, the incidence of gram pod borer was low in the field, it was the major pest of flax in respect of bud and capsule damage. The Gini-Simpson index and Effective number of species for the pest faunal complex of flax was calculated as 0.914 and 11.628, respectively. Similarly, 16 species of predatory arthropods under nine families were observed belonging to 7 different orders. The lynx spider (17.24 %) and 7-spotted lady beetle (15.52 %) dominated the predatory community by sheer number. The Gini-Simpson index and Effective number of species for the predatory fauna was derived as 0.898 and 9.804, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Shark-skin surfaces show the non-smoothness characteristics due to the presence of riblet structures. In this work, biomimetic shark-skins were prepared by means of different bio-replicated forming techniques. These techniques include the PDMS elastomeric stamping method (e.g., PES method) and the PDMS embedded-elastomeric stamping method (e.g., PEES method). The study characterized the fabricated biomimetic surfaces through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as 3D microscope. The accuracy of the two replication routes were compared, which included measuring the surface integrity and dimensional parameters ( s, h ) of the riblet-groove structure. The results show that fresh shark-skin without chemical treatments should be used as a replication template whenever possible to attain a satisfactory replication accuracy of the riblet structure. The PES and PEES methods proposed here are effective bio-replicated forming routes in simulating the microstructures of a shark-skin surface. Compared with the PES method, the PEES method has greater precision in simulating the microstructures of a shark-skin surface.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Increasingly burden of inhabitants growing in coastlines has led to damage in various mangrove expanses. Though these regions play as fish nursery grounds and are actual vital in stock assessments, there is no precise and state-of-the-art accessible information about them. Herein the catch records in the Qeshm island marine protected area (MPA) was studied by means of 11 stake-nets. Thoroughly, 81 specimens of 69 genera and 63 families were caught, which the main stream of them were discards. The salable fish were undeveloped which were frequently undersized in comparison with LM50. For Pampus argenteus as well, lone 15.3% of the caught those remained in the permissible catch size. Henceforward, this catch conformation would be there an impending hazard to fish stocks. The chief relative abundance and weight based specimens were Dussumieria acuta (10.05%) and Arius maculatus (5.9%), respectively. Encompassing seven species, the Clupeidae was the utmost rich family in the catch conformation. Ultimately, overall once yearly catch by aforementioned stake-nets surrounded by the mangrove woodlands in the Qeshm Island marine protected area was appraised to be 186.77-188.75 tonnes, approximately.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Protease is an enzyme which has a wide range of applications in various fields. Extracellular protease was produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus hirae which were isolated from the effluents of diary industries. Protease immobilized with super paramagnetic nanoparticles was characterized by DLS, XRD and TEM methods in relation to their size and structure. The protease enzyme was bound to magnetic nanoparticles via surface transformation technique including Silica coated magnetic Nano composite, amine and cysteine functioned Nano composite formation. Successful binding of protease onto the particles was confirmed by TEM imaging. The maximal enzyme activity of immobilized protease was determined using universal protease assay and was found to be 105µg mL -1 & 290µg mL -1 for Pseudomonas sp. and Enterococcus sp. respectively. The immobilization capacity of protease onto nanoparticles was 6000µM/g. The stability of the immobilized enzyme increased in comparison with the free enzyme. Overall, this study showed that the stability and activity of the protease was enhanced by immobilization to the magnetic nanoparticles. This suggested that immobilized enzyme on the magnetic beads of nanoparticles could be used in an interesting range of applications, both in broader temperature and pH ranges, also permitting magnetic recovery of the enzyme for reuse or purification of the product.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different seed coatings consisting of various combinations of three nutrients (calcium, magnesium and silicon) on two soybean cultivars (BRS 243 RR and CD 233 RR). Dolomitic limestone and aluminum silicate were chosen as the nutrient sources. Leaf area, plant height, shoots dry matter, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were the studied variables, evincing that the seed coating that comprised calcium, magnesium and silicon led to better performance in terms of growth rates 30 days after emergence. Significant differences in the response to the seed coatings were also observed between the two studied soybean genotypes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effects of various sucrose concentrations as carbon source and natural additives in different media on plantlet growth of Phalaenopsis hybrid 'Pink' were studied. Plantlets were cultured on two media (Murashige and Skoog [MS] and Vacin and Went [VW]) supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g L-1 sucrose either with 0, 10 and 20% (v/v) coconut water (CW) or carrot juice (CJ) as natural additives. After four months of culture, the combination of sucrose and CW supplemented with both media affected plantlet growth where most of the plantlets showed slow growth and survival frequency (0-80%) with increasing concentrations of CW in all sucrose concentrations. However, plantlet growth on both media containing only 20 g L-1 sucrose without CW was optimal in terms of root number, root length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, fresh weight, dry weight and plant height. The combination of sucrose and CJ supplemented with MS medium resulted in overall good plantlet growth with 100% survival frequency. The combination of sucrose (20 g L-1) and CJ (10%) supplemented with MS medium increased root length, leaf length, leaf width and plant height. Plantlet growth was also optimal in the combination of 20 g L-1 sucrose and 10% CJ supplemented with VW medium. The results of this study indicate that Phalaenopsis hybrid 'Pink' cultured on the combination of sucrose (20 g L-1) and CJ (10%) supplemented with either MS or VW media can be used for plantlet growth of this species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs) and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP) for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs) and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82) seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) (p<0.05), slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05) levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) and Cr (Creatinine) were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Screening promising L. thermophiles with high productivity, high efficiency and strong adaptability are very important in lactic acid industry. For this purpose, 80MeV/u carbon ions were applied to irradiate L. thermophiles. After high-throughput screening, a mutant, named SRZ50, was obtained. Different carbon sources or nitrogen sources were provided to investigate carbon or nitrogen source utilization between mutant SRZ50 and wild type, and different fermentation periods were also chose to study fermentation characteristic between mutant SRZ50 and wild type. The results showed that mutant SRZ50 exhibited the enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production from wild type. When glucose or fructose was the sole carbon source, the L(+)-lactic acid production by mutant SRZ50 was both the highest, respectively, 23.16 ± 0.72 g/L or 23.24 ± 0.66 g/L, which had a significant increase from that of wild type (P<0.01), following obvious increase in biomass (P<0.05). When yeast powder was the sole nitrogen source, it can promote mutant SRZ50 to accumulate the highest L-(+)-lactic acid accumulation, which also had a significant increase from that of wild type (P<0.01). Under different fermentation periods, it was obtained that mutant SRZ50 all exhibited significant increase in L-(+)-lactic acid accumulation from wild type. In conclusion, a mutant strain with improved production profiles for L-(+)-lactic acid, was obtained, indicating that heavy ions can be an efficient tool to improve metabolic product accumulations in microbes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Biohydrogen production from starch processing wastewater in this study resulted the highest yield of 61.75 mL H2/g COD at initial pH 7.0, thermophilic temperature, and iron concentration 800 mg Fe/L. The yield was 2-folded higher than the operation at mesophilic temperature or without iron addition. Cell immobilization by addition of biomaterials (BM) could improve the hydrogen yield by 2-folded comparing to the non-addition. BM from plants (loofa sponge) was found producing higher yield than that from animals (silk cocoon), and optimal concentration of BM was 5% (V/V). Furthermore, it was revealed further inside its ecosystem using SEM, 16S rDNA sequencing and FISH. There was found rod-shaped microorganisms of Bacillus cereus, which reported as efficient starch-utilizing hydrogen producers, was dominant in the system with population of 47% of all specie identified.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine if the quality of macauba pulp oil is affected by drying the whole fruits at 60 ºC. Mature fruits were collected at every five days on the ground under 10 palm trees. A mixed batch of 3 kg of whole fruits, with three replications each, was dried in an oven with air circulation for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h at 60 ºC. After every drying time, dried fruits were pulped using an automated device, followed by oil extraction with hexane. Moisture and oil content were determined in the pulp, and the pulp oil quality was analyzed for fatty acid composition, free fatty acids content, peroxide value, molar absorptivity at 232 and 270 nm, refractive index, and total carotene content. The tested temperature was sufficient to decrease moisture to a range suitable for automated pulping, with the best combination and easier pulping being reached after 24 h of drying. In the first 12 h there was an apparent synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and carotenes. The tested temperature was insufficient to avoid the enhancement of acidity since the beginning and throughout the drying period, nor the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it is concluded that drying of fresh fruits of macauba palm at 60 ºC is not appropriate to obtain an overall good quality pulp oil for industrial purposes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the biosorption of the anionic textile dyes: Reactive Red 239 (RR239), Reactive Black B (RBB) and Direct Blue 85 (DB85) according to pH, biomass dosage, contact time and dye concentration onto waste beer yeast slurry. The kinetics and isotherm of the removal of dyes were also studied. The equilibrium of biosorption reaction was reached after 30 min for the reactive dyes and after 60 min for the direct dye. Optimum decolorization was observed at pH 2 and 0.63 g/L of biomass dosage. The kinetic data of the three dyes were better described by the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model and the biosorption capacity being estimated to be 152.9, 162.7 and 139.2 mg/g for RR239, RBB and DB85, respectively. Our findings indicated that the waste beer yeast slurry was an attractive low-cost biosorbent for the removal of anionic textile dyes from aqueous solution.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study describes a comparative analysis of the essential oil (EO) chemical composition of leaves and reproductive organs (inflorescences and fruits) of Piper gaudichaudianum during the seasons of a year in order to determine the best collection time and the most suitable plant organ to obtain this extractive. The chemical composition of EO obtained from fresh leaves was compared to the dried ones, to verify if the drying process interferes in the extractive quality. The leaves were collected from a native population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, twice in each season, in triplicate, while inflorescences and fruits were sampled when they were present. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of the different plant organs for 3 h. The 20 EO samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry and GC with flame ionization detector, in triplicate. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to verify a possible formation of chemical groups (CG) and the cohesion among them. The phenylpropanoid dillapiole was the major constituent of the EO in all seasons and in all plant organs, and myristicin was observed only in reproductive organs. The EO samples of this population were divided into two CG by HCA and PCA, showing the variability in chemical composition between different plant organs, however there was no chemical variability due to seasonality and phenophases. Since the drying of the leaves did not alter the EO chemical composition, this post-harvest procedure can be used without compromising the extrative quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In photography, face recognition and face retrieval play an important role in many applications such as security, criminology and image forensics. Advancements in face recognition make easier for identity matching of an individual with attributes. Latest development in computer vision technologies enables us to extract facial attributes from the input image and provide similar image results. In this paper, we propose a novel LOP and sparse codewords method to provide similar matching results with respect to input query image. To improve accuracy in image results with input image and dynamic facial attributes, Local octal pattern algorithm [LOP] and Sparse codeword applied in offline and online. The offline and online procedures in face image binning techniques apply with sparse code. Experimental results with Pubfig dataset shows that the proposed LOP along with sparse codewords able to provide matching results with increased accuracy of 90%.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Smart Health Surveillance system is to measure and display the Electrocardiogram (ECG) and temperature of patient’s body continuously and also to communicate to the doctor. The system measures ECG using infrared sensor and the temperatures at oral and wrist of the patient using temperature sensors. Microcontroller, receives the data from the sensors, displays the same and communicates to the web server automatically. In the existing system, patient’s vital parameters are obtained and the obtained values are entered into database and then uploaded into a web-based server manually. The existing system has no alert signal, during abnormal condition to the surrounding and to the doctor. The proposed system consists of a visualization module of the server program, which graphically displays the recorded biomedical signals on android mobile devices used by doctors at the receiver end. It also gives a buzzer or an alarm in case of abnormal condition of the patient.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this paper, we compute various Domination numbers like Outer Connected Domination (OCD), Doubly Connected Domination (DCD), Fair Domination (FD), Independence Domination (ID), 2-Packing (2-P) for Rolf Nevanlinna Prize Winners's Collaboration Graph (RNPCG).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nanotubes with their unique properties have diversified mechanical and biological applications. Due to similarity of dimensions with extracellular matrix (ECM) elements, these materials are used in designing scaffolds. In this research, Carboxylated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in optimization of decellularized scaffold of bovine articular cartilage was used. At first, the articular cartilage was decellularized. Then the scaffolds were analyzed in: (i) decellularized scaffolds, and (ii) scaffolds plunged into homogenous suspension of nanotubes in distilled water, were smeared with Carboxylated-SWCNT. The tissue rings derived from the rabbit's ear were assembled with reinforced scaffolds and they were placed in a culture media for 15 days. The scaffolds in two groups and the assembled scaffolds underwent histologic and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the structure of ECM of articular cartilage has been maintained well after decellularization. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the contents of ECM have not been changed under treatment process. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the difference in surface topography and roughness of group (ii) scaffolds in comparison with group (i). Transmission electron microscopy studies showed the Carboxylated-SWCNT bond with the surface of decellularized scaffold and no penetration of these compounds into the scaffold. The porosity percentage with median rate of 91.04 in group (i) scaffolds did not have significant difference with group (ii) scaffolds. The electron microscopy observations confirmed migration and penetration of the blastema cells into the group (ii) assembled scaffolds. This research presents a technique for provision of nanocomposite scaffolds for cartilage engineering applications.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domestic sewage treatment. The effluent quality was also analyzed after biomass recovery. Coagulants represented by modified tannin, cationic starch and aluminum sulfate recovered more than 90% of algae biomass, at concentrations greater than 80 mg/L, in the pH range 7-10. Cationic starch promoted higher microalgal biomass recovery with a wider pH range. Powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus esculentus(okra) gum promoted biomass removal of 50%, only in the acidic range of pH. After sedimentation of the microalgal biomass, the effluents showed a removal of >80% for phosphorus and nitrogen values and >50% for BOD and COD when using aluminum sulfate, cationic starch and modified tannin as coagulants. Natural organic coagulants in a wide pH range can replace aluminum sulfate, a reference coagulant in microalgal biomass recovery, without decreasing microalgal biomass harvesting efficiency and the quality of the final effluent.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) has received much interest in the application of manure deodorization and hazardous gas mitigation in livestock rearing conditions. The main objective of this review article was to summarize the current knowledge regarding YSE towards its gas mitigation from livestock excrement. Saponins have been considered to be vital components of YSE in odor control and gas reduction in intensive farming industry due to their potentials in lowering methane for ruminants and ammonia for monogastric animals. This review article mainly covered the studies in ruminants, especially focused on in vitro environment. It also summarized possible reasons of the conflicting results among studies from the perspective of experimental design such as incubation time (in vitro) or storage time of manure, and some other factors such as feed source and dietary composition. In addition to traditional dietary inclusion of YSE alone, recent studies prone to apply YSE in new ways such as combining it with other natural compounds or using it to treat manure directly. Until now, there are still controversies in terms of the effectiveness of YSE in intensive-farming environment among researches, therefore further deeper studies on the expression of YSE bioactivity are needed, especially on the molecular level.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In wetlands, the knowledge accumulated on the role of aquatic plants in the methane cycle focused on emergent macrophytes, to the detriment of other typologies. Herein, we evaluated whether the free-floating macrophyte Salvinia auriculata Aubl. and the floating-leaved macrophyte Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth. decrease the water column methane concentrations compared to a plant-free surface. We prepared microcosms by inserting an individual of S. auriculata or of E. azurea into chambers filled with lagoon water previously bubbled with CH4. Another set of chambers was incubated only with the prepared water, representing the plant-free surface. Half of the chambers were kept in the dark and half in sunlight to simulate a diel cycle. We observed greater loss of CH4, higher O2 uptake and lower CO2 outflow in the plants treatments. The decrease in methane concentrations in the E. azurea treatments was 93.5% in the light and 77.2% in the dark. In the S. auriculata treatments, the decreases were 74.2% and 67.4% in the light and in the dark, respectively. In plant-free surface the decrease was 58.7% in the light and 36.3% in the dark. These results indicate a role of floating aquatic macrophytes in the methane cycle in the water column. Moreover, our results suggest a diel variation of methane oxidation and methane emission, according to the differences observed in O2 uptake and CO2 outflow between dark and light conditions. Thus, future predictions of global methane budget should include the role played by floating aquatic macrophytes.