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Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Volume: 61, Published: 2018
  • Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Extracted Flavonoids from Morus Alba Leaves and its interaction with DNA Human and Animal Health

    Fallah, Soudabeh; Hajihassan, Zahra; Zarkar, Nasrin; Chadegani, Azra Rabbani-; Mohammadnejad, Javad; Hajimirzamohammad, Milad

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Morous Alba, known as white mulberry contains many oxidative flavonoids, widely used in the treatment of many diseases like hyperglycemia, inflammation, fever and cancer. In the present study we investigated the interaction of extracted flavonoids from Iranian Morus Alba leaves with DNA as a main target for anticancer drugs. Various spectroscopic techniques (UV/Vis, CD and Fluorescence Spectroscopy) were used to detect the interaction. In vivo studies also were done to confirm the effectiveness of the extracted flavonoids. The spectroscopic results showed that the extracted flavonoids bind to DNA especially to the sugar-phosphate backbone and making DNA conformational changes upon this binding. Experiments on the cancerous mice with solid tumors indicated that the treatment of mice with these extracted flavonoids increased significantly the life span but they did not have any effects on the tumor size reduction. These data suggest that Morus Alba flavonoids may use as an effective natural anticancer drug in the near future.
  • Benefits Associated with the Interaction of Endophytic Bacteria and Plants Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Santos, Miriam Langner dos; Berlitz, Diouneia Lisiane; Wiest, Shana Leticia Felice; Schünemann, Rogerio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The endophytic bacteria belong to a larger group of microorganisms that have their life-cycle partly or entirely inside the plant and are located in intra and inter-cellular spaces or in the vascular tissue. These bacteria can be found colonizing aerial parts or roots. This review aims to analyze the colonization strategies of endophytic bacteria through interaction with plants, as well as to highlight the metabolic influence of these organisms in plant tissues, which result in physiological and biochemical changes. Depending on the different mechanisms used internally to colonize a plant, these microorganisms are called obligate, facultative, or passive endophytes. Phytostimulation, biofertilization and biological control are mechanisms that result in the development of the plant through the production of plant hormones, bioavailability of nutrients and antagonistic action to phytopathogens, respectively. The association between endophytic bacteria and plants features important benefits such as significant increases in growth, plant biomass, length of roots, dry matter production, and grain yield. Studies show that there is a great diversity of endophytic bacteria colonizing plant structures that result in several benefits to the host plant.
  • Enzyme Detection and Metabolic Process Tracking of Ethanol Fermentation by a Natural Alginate Fermentation Strain Agriculture, Agrobusiness and Biotechnology

    Zhang, Wen; Ren, Xiaohui; Bao, Liyin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Alginate is a major component of brown algae, but it cannot be utilized for ethanol fermentation by industrial microorganisms. A natural alginate degrading and ethanol producing strain was obtained in our previous research. However, the research on the ethanol metabolism process of the natural alginate fermentation strain is lacked. In this research, the key enzyme and metabolic process of ethanol fermentation were studied. Three kinds of key enzyme including alginate lyase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase were determined. The enzyme activity in the metabolic process was relatively high at 60-96 h which was the most important period during the fermentation. Meanwhile the concentration change of the important substances including soluble sugar, reducing sugar, acidity, pyruvic acid and ethanol were tracked and analyzed. Total soluble sugar and reducing sugar change tendency during the fermentation was similar. In the whole fermentation process, the fermentation broth was acidic. The value of pyruvic acid content reached highest at 72 h. During 48-96 h, the growth of ethanol concentration was very obvious. The alginate metabolic process in natural alginate fermentation strain was to generate extracellular alginate lyase to degrade alginate to produce reducing sugar, and then some intermediate metabolites formed such as pyruvic acid. Finally under the effect of pyruvate dehydrogenase and ethanol dehydrogenase, ethanol was produced.
  • Evaluation of Rubber Tree Clones Under Different Tapping Systems in Northwestern Paraná State, Brazil. Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Pereira, Jomar da Paes; Leal, Alex Carneiro; Ramos, Andre Luiz Medeiros

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluates the potential of rubber tree clones (Hevea spp.) under four tapping systems for the Northwestern region of the State of Paraná with the objective of enhance genetic diversification and increase natural rubber production in this new and promising region for rubber tree cultivation by selecting the better combination of clone and tapping system. The experiment was installed at Guanabara Farm, municipality of Paranapoema, Paraná State, in a split-plot randomized complete blocks experimental design with three replications. In the plots 12 clones were tested, namely RRIM 600 (control), IRCA 18, IRCA 111, IRCA 130, PB 235, PB 252, PB 260, PB 330, IAC 15, IAC 35, IAC 41 and RO 38. The subplot treatments consisted of four tapping systems: 1) ½ S d/4 ET 2.5%, 2) ½ S d/4, 3) ½ S d/7 ET 2.5% and 4) ½ S d/7. Dry rubber production was evaluated over a period of two years. Due to the higher productivity the clones IRCA 130, IRCA 111, IRCA 18, IAC 35, IAC 41, IAC 15, PB 260 and PB 235 are suggested to be planted at a proportion of 5% to 10% of the total area in commercial plantings for more detailed evaluation. Because of their significantly lower productivity, the clones PB 330, PB 252 and RO 38 should not be recommended, as well as the tapping system S d/7 ½ without stimulation.
  • Ecofriendly Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Potato Steroidal Alkaloids and Their Activity Against Phytopathogenic Fungi Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Almadiy, Abdulrhman A.; Nenaah, Gomah E.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In order to reduce the excessive reliance on the toxic chemical fungicides, the present study aimed to isolate the total potato glycoalkaloids (TPAs), and the two steroidal alkaloids α-chaconine and α-solanine from potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. Their structures were characterized using physical and spectroscopic methods including (UV, IR, 1H, 13C--NMR, 2D 1H-1H COSY, HMBC and NOESY). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared from potato alkaloids through a green synthesis approach. Potato alkaloids and their nanoparticles inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternate, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with low minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations. R. solani was the most susceptible, while F. oxysporum was the most resistant. TPAs was the most fungitoxic (EC50's were 19.8, 22.5, 26.5 and 32.3 µg/ml against R. solani, A. alternate, B. cinerea and F. oxysporum respectively). A mixture of α-solanine and α-chaconine (1:1) showed a marked antifungal activity. AgNPs (size 39.5-80.3 diameter) from alkaloids showed improved fungitoxic activity (EC50's of TPAs nanoparticles ranged between 10.9 and 16.1 µg/ml). Alkaloids exhibited no or a slight phytotoxicity against wheat and radish. Results recommend the potential of using potato alkaloids and their nanoparticles as biorational alternatives to conventional fungicides.
  • Alternative Control of Plant Pathogen Fungi Through Ethanolic Extracts of Avocado Seeds (Persea Americana Mill.) Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Fagundes, Miriã Cristina Pereira; Oliveira, Adelson Francisco de; Carvalho, Vicente Luiz de; Ramos, José Darlan; Santos, Verônica Andrade dos; Rufini, José Carlos Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal action of ethanolic extracts of avocado seeds, by conducting two experiments in the laboratory of plant pathology of EPAMIG SUL/Lavras, MG, Brazil, in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The first consisted of the following treatments ('Breda' 3%, 'Breda' 2%, 'Margarida' 3%, 'Margarida' 2%, Control, and Ethanol) testing its inhibitory effect on two fungal species (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Monilinia fructicola) and the second consisted of different concentrations of extracts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%) on the fungus F fructicola. The evaluations were performed at three times (7, 14, and 21 days of incubation) by measurements of the mycelial diameter using a digital caliper. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The results demonstrated the positive potential of the ethanolic extracts of avocado seed on the mycelial development of fungi M. fructicola and C. gloeosporioides during the evaluated days.
  • Biofumigation Studies by Using Raphanus sativus and Eruca sativa as a Winter Cycle Crops to Control Root-knot Nematodes Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Aydınlı, Gökhan; Mennan, Sevilhan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to search the efficacy of radish (Raphanus sativus) and arugula (Eruca sativa) for the control of Meloidogyne arenaria in the commercial tomato growing greenhouse. R. sativus and E. sativa were used as winter cycle crops and lettuce as a susceptible crop and 4 months after sowing, host level of the treatment plants was evaluated. All parts of R. sativus and E. sativa were incorporated except lettuce was covered with transparent polyethylene film for 4 weeks. R. sativus and E. sativa had not any root galls, and these plants caused reducing number of juveniles in the soil, in contrast to control and lettuce plots before growing tomato. Gall index and egg masses were significantly decreased on tomatoes in plots of applied biofumigation with E. sativa and R. sativus. It was concluded that growing R. sativus and E. sativa as a winter cycle plants before susceptible plants would be helpful to reduce the damage of root-knot nematode M. arenaria and increased crop yields.
  • Action of Essential Oils on Sprouting of Non-Dormant Potato Tubers Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Finger, Fernando Luiz; Santos, Mirelle Mayana de Sousa; Araujo, Fernanda Ferreira; Lima, Paula Cristina Carvalho; Costa, Lucas Cavalcante da; França, Christiane de Fatima Martins; Queiroz, Matheus da Costa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The breakdown of dormancy and early sprouting is one of the main causes of losses of stored potatoes. Sprouting control becomes important especially when tubers are submitted to long-term storage for further processing by the potato industry. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of organic sprout inhibitors, eugenol and menthol essential oils, on the suppression of growth on non-dormant ‘Asterix’ tubers stored at 8 °C. Administration of eugenol and menthol essential oils reduced the number and the length of sprouts during cold storage up to fifty days. Nevertheless, the essential oils stimulated the break of bud apical dominance, stimulating auxiliary buds growth. The effect of the oils was restricted to inducing necrosis of superficial sprout cells without any apparent effect on the skin periderm structure. Repeated applications of oils are necessary to prolong the inhibitory effects of the essential oils on sprouts growth.
  • Cassava Pulp Enzymatic Hydrolysate as a Promising Feedstock for Ethanol Production Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

    Valeriano, Ixthá Hasselmann; Marques, Gabriel Lessa Lisboa; Freitas, Suely Pereira; Couri, Sonia; Penha, Edmar das Mercês; Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to produce bioethanol from enzymatic hydrolysates of cassava pulp, a by-product of cassava flour manufacturing, using an alcohol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. First, the best operational condition of the starch hydrolysis process was determined through a complete factorial design (24), with triplicates at the central point. The independent variables evaluated were: the concentrations of α-amylase (Termamyl 2X) and glucoamylase (AMG 300L) and both liquefaction and saccharification times. The most favorable hydrolysis condition in the assay was achieved using 0.517 mL AMG.g starch-1 and 0.270 mL Termamyl.g starch-1, with liquefaction and saccharification times of 1 and 2 h, respectively. The broth obtained at this hydrolysis condition contained a high glucose concentration (160 g.L-1). Once the best reaction conditions were determined, fermentation tests were carried out in a 3 L bioreactor, in a batch system, at 30 °C, 100 rpm and pH 5.5, using 3 g.L-1 (dry biomass) of yeast as inoculum. After 24 h of fermentation, an ethanol concentration of 68 g.L-1 was obtained, with 0.48 ethanol yield and 2.83 g.L-1.h-1 productivity. These results indicate the potential use of cassava pulp, a by-product of cassava flour industries in Brazil, as a raw material for bioethanol production.
  • Novel Food Supplements Formulated With S pirulina To Meet Athletes’ Needs Human and Animal Health

    Carvalho, Lisiane Fernandes de; Moreira, Juliana Botelho; Oliveira, Mariana Souza; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The food, training, and health are crucial for a good performance in sports. Intense physical activity takes the athlete to maintain a very unstable balance between energy demand and consumption of nutrients. Spirulina microalga has a nutritional profile that renders it an ideal food supplement, because has high protein content, also contains vitamins, minerals, and pigments. In this context, the study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the stability of foods enhanced with Spirulina, which are intended for athletes. In this study, six different supplements were developed (electrolyte replenisher, muscle enhancer, and recovery supplement), without and with Spirulina. The electrolyte replenisher with Spirulina compared to the product without the microalga, showed an increase of 0.35% (w/w) in mineral content. The carbohydrates content of the developed recovery supplement with Spirulina was 2% (w/w) higher than the muscle enhancer without Spirulina. It was not observed increased in the nutritional content of muscle recovery when added Spirulina. However, it is known that Spirulina presents active compounds with important functions for the body. Thus, the composition of the foods satisfied the nutritional needs of athletes. Regarding the stability of developed foods, the shelf life was estimated between 9 and 11 months.
  • Polyphenols From Cutch Tree ( Acacia catechu Willd.): Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity Human and Animal Health

    Kumar, Rakesh; Arora, Rohit; Mahajan, Jyoti; Mahey, Sonia; Arora, Saroj

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME). It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.
  • Gene Expression Analyses of HER-2/neu and ESR1 in Patients with Breast Cancer Human and Animal Health

    Nadergoli, Omid Kheyri; Feizi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Pouladi, Nasser; Hosseinzadeh, Ali; Rostamizadeh, Leila; Montazeri, Vahid; Fakhrjou, Ashraf; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Seifi, Morteza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background: Her-2 and ESR1 genes, that interact in the cell signaling pathway, are the most important molecular markers of breast cancer, which have been amplified or overexpressed in 30% and 70%, respectively. This study was performed to evaluate the gene expression levels of Her-2 and ESR1 genes in tumor cells and its adjacent normal tissue of breast cancer patients and compared them whit clinical-pathological features. Methods: In total, 80 tissue specimens from 40 patients, with an average age of 48.47 years, were examined by Real-time PCR technique, and ultimately evaluated the expression level of Her-2 and ESR1genes. The data were analyzed by REST 2009 V2.0.13 statistical software. Results: HER2 and ESR1 overexpression was identified in 19 (48%) and 12 (30%) of 40 patients respectively, which was higher and lower than that recorded in international statistics, respectively. ESR1 overexpression was associated with Stage 3A and lymph node involvement 2 (N2) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.047, respectively). No significant correlation was observed between the expression of HER2 and ESR1 and other clinical-pathological features, however, the relative differences were identified in the expression levels of genes between main group and groups that were classified according to the clinical-pathological features and age. Conclusions: Overexpression of Her-2 and ESR1 genes in the patients of our study are higher and lower than international statistics, respectively, indicating the differences in genetic, environmental and ethnic factors that involved in the developing of breast cancer.
  • Determination of the Effect of the Elimination Diet Applied for Overweight and Obese People with Food Intolerance on Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters Human and Animal Health

    Gubur, Sema

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Food Intolerance, is a reaction against food, but not immunological manner, and may be confused with real food allergies. In this study, effects of special weight-loss diet together with an elimination diet on body composition and biochemical parameters of overweight and obese people who were diagnosed with food intolerance were investigated. The study group consists of 20 patients in total who were followed-up and treated in Yorktest Turkey Laboratory; who were diagnosed with food intolerance, and whose BMI was > 26kg/m2. Bloodletting for these patients was executed with Lancet from their fingertips, and the blood drawn from these patients was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA) method, and food reactions of patients were determined for each food. Biochemical parameters of these patients are routine tests, which are necessary for food intolerance tests, and they are analyzed at Yorktest Turkey Laboratory for two times: before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet. It has been determined that, the most common sensivity is obtained against yeast, egg yolk and white, cranberry, cow’s milk, chicken, lentils and parsley. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet applied to participants, were significantly improved in statistical manner. Due to positive changes in body composition and biochemical parameters obtained through application of special weight-loss diets together with elimination diet applied to fat and obese people, we think that this diet might be used for medical nutrition treatment of obesity as a treatment option.
  • Phenolic Composition and Leishmanicidal Activity of Red Propolis and Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub (Fabaceae) Extracts from Sergipe, Brazil Human and Animal Health

    Araujo, Jaltaira Montalvão Etinger; Mendonça-Melo, Lucyana Santos; Araujo, Edilson Divino; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda; Scher, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus. It may manifest in visceral and tegumentary forms, and pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs used for the treatment. Frequently these drugs show low efficiency and high toxicity to mammalian host. The present study describes the chemical profile and the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of red propolis and Dalbergia ecastaphyllum extracts from Sergipe, Brazil, in Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The phenolic composition of the extracts was evaluated by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) fingerprinting. The leishmanicidal effect was evaluated by the Resazurin colorimetric method. Similar composition profiles have been found for D. ecastaphyllum and propolis samples. The isoflavones formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein and pinocembrin were identified in both extracts. Propolis extract showed leishmanicidal activity in both L. chagasi and L. amazonensis, with IC50 values of 21.54 and 9.73 µg/mL, respectively. The D. ecastaphyllum extract presented activity only in L. amazonensis, with IC50 of 53.42 µg/mL. These results suggest that red propolis extract from Sergipe has the leguminosae D. ecastaphyllum as botanical origin, and that it presents potential leishmanicidal activity, which may be associated with the presence of the phenolic compounds found in its composition.
  • Solexa Profiling Identifies Differentially Expressed MiRNAs Between Sexually Immature and Mature Equine Testis Human and Animal Health

    He, Liangjun; Wang, Shiwei; Deng, Haifeng; Dong, Hong; Chen, Jingbo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs identified as potent regulators of gene expression. Previous studies have suggested that miRNAs are involved in mammalian spermatogenesis. Stallion fertility is an important trait for the horse breeding industry, but stallion fertility traits are largely ignored in the industry. In this study, we generated expression profiles of miRNAs in foal (immature) and stallion (mature) testes using Solexa sequencing. We identified 438 known and homologous equine miRNAs and 199 novel miRNAs which were distributed among all the chromosomes. The two developmental stages showed significant differences in miRNA expression patterns. Our result expands the horse miRNA database and provided additional information on the stallion fertility and possible spermatogenesis regulation through specific miRNAs.
  • Early and Accurate Model of Malignant Lung Nodule Detection System with Less False Positives Human and Animal Health

    Krishnamurthy, Senthilkumar; Narasimhan, Ganesh; Rengasamy, Umamaheswari

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this work is to identify the malignant lung nodules accurately and early with less false positives. ‘Nodule’ is the 3mm to 30mm diameter size tissue clusters present inside the lung parenchyma region. Segmenting such a small nodules from consecutive CT scan slices are a challenging task. In our work Auto-seed clustering based segmentation technique is used to segment all the possible nodule candidates. Efficient shape and texture features (2D and 3D) were computed to eliminate the false nodule candidates. The change in centroid position of nodule candidates from consecutive slices was used as a measure to remove the vessels. The two-stage classifier is used in this work to classify the malignant and benign nodules. First stage rule-based classifier producing 100 % sensitivity, but with high false positive of 12.5 per patient scan. The BPN based ANN classifier is used as the second-stage classifier which reduces a false positive to 2.26 per patient scan with a reasonable sensitivity of 88.8%. The Rate of Nodule Growth (RNG) was computed in our work to measure the nodules growth between the two scans of the same patient taken at different time interval. Finally, the nodule growth predictive measure was modeled through the features such as compactness (CO), mass deficit (MD), mass excess (ME) and isotropic factor(IF). The developed model results show that the nodules which have low CO, low IF, high MD and high ME values might have the potential to grow in future.
  • Exosomes as Biomarker of Cancer Human and Animal Health

    Sumrin, Aleena; Moazzam, Shumaila; Khan, Aleena Ahmad; Ramzan, Irsa; Batool, Zunaira; Kaleem, Sana; Ali, Moazzam; Bashir, Hamid; Bilal, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Rapid advances in medicine and biotechnology resulted in the development of non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers enabling convenient and accurate detection. Exosomes has recently emerged as non-invasive biomarker for a number of diseases including cancer. Exosomes are the small endosome originated membranous vesicles secreted in a number of biological fluids such as serum, saliva, urine, ascites, cerebrospinal fluid, etc. Exosomes contain microRNA proteins and mRNA which can be used as disease specific biomarkers. Here we reviewed recent advancement in the field of exosomes as diagnostic biomarker for cancer along with a brief overview of their biogenesis, function and isolation.
  • Chromosome Mapping and Molecular Characterization of the Tc1/Mariner Element in Rineloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) Human and Animal Health

    Primo, Cleberson Cezario; Glugoski, Larissa; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Tc1/Mariner sequence was isolated and mapped on chromosomes aiming to verify the association of this transposable element (TE) and chromosomal rearrangements in Rineloricaria. Cytogenetic analysis showed that Tc1/Mariner does not co-localize with chromosomal fusion points, in addition the analysis revealed intense molecular degeneration in its DNA sequence.
  • Decreased mRNA Expression of Cystathionine Gamma lyase and H2S Concentration in Gastric Mucosal Tissue in Diabetic Rats Human and Animal Health

    Mard, Seyyed Ali; Dehkohneh, Kobra Alinejad; Ahangarpour, Akram

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Background and aim: It is well established that the rate of gastric lesions increases in diabetic rats. Recently, the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in gastric mucosa has been proven. This study aimed to determine the release of H2S and mRNA expression of cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) in gastric mucosa in alloxan-diabetic rats in response to distention-induced gastric acid secretion. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (6 in each). They were the normal-control, distention-control, diabetic-control, and distention-diabetic groups. Under anesthesia, animals underwent a tracheotomy and midline laparotomy. To washout the gastric contents, a catheter was inserted in the stomach through the duodenum. To determine the effect of distention-induced gastric acid secretion on H2S release and mRNA expression of CSE, the stomachs were distended by normal saline. At the end of experiments, animals were sacrificed and the gastric mucosa was collected to determine H2S concentration and to quantify mRNA expression of CSE by quantitative real-time PCR. Mucosal release of H2S and mRNA expression of CSE significantly increased in response to stimulated gastric acid secretion in normal rats (P<0.01), while the increases in diabetic rats were not significant. Basal release of H2S and mRNA expression of CSE in gastric mucosa were significantly in diabetic rats lower than normal rats. On the basis of the results, we conclude that the decreased release of H2S in response to basal and stimulated gastric acid output in alloxan-diabetic rats compared to normal rats is largely due to downregulation of mRNA expression of CSE.
  • Evaluation of Gamma Irradiation Effect on the Oxidative Stress Factors in Septic Rats Treated With Iranian Plant Essential Oils Human and Animal Health

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Yazdi, Atefeh Jalali; Ghanooni, Shirin; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cuminum cyminum L. (CM), Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZM) and Mentha piperita L. (MP) are traditional medicinal plants with various pharmacological properties. This study was designed to assess the role of gamma irradiation -a modern decontamination method- in hepatoprotective effects of their essential oil (E.Os) in septic rats induced by experimental cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. The rats were divided into 20 groups; sham-operated (SOP); CLP; CLP + CM, ZM and MP (E.Os) (100 & 200 mg/kg b.w) and CLP + gamma irradiated (10 and 25 kGy) E.Os (100 & 200 mg/kg b.w) as treatment groups. All E.Os were injected i.p immediately after sepsis induction. 24 hour after CLP, the rats were sacrificed and the liver tissue was examined considering lipid peroxiation (LP), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The results indicated that CLP operation caused significant (P<0.05) increase in the LP and MPO levels concomitant with decreased GSH level. Administration of the E.Os (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) extracted from non irradiated plants as well as the irradiated (10 and 25 kGy) plant E.Os could significantly (P<0.05) modulate the levels of LP, MPO and GSH. It can be concluded that all E.Os even after irradiation exposure could modulate the oxidative injury parameters related to liver damages in CLP rat model. In conclusion, the plant irradiation didn’t have any adverse effects on the hepatoprotective activities of the extracted oils.
  • Co-Infection by Sarcoptes scabiei and Microsporum gypseum in Free-Ranging Crab-Eating Fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766). Human and Animal Health

    Almeida, Jonatas Campos de; Leal, Carlos Adriano de Santana; Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira de; Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de; Pedrosa, Camila de Morais; Zermiani, Fabiana Correa; Farias, Roberto Citelli de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical manifestation, treatment and outcome of a case of co- infection by Sarcoptes scabiei and Microsporum gypseum in Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox) from Northeastern Brazil.
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Traditional Chinese Herbs by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method and Real-Time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR Human and Animal Health

    Ma, Min Min; Jiang, Dan; Li, Shuang Ya; Wu, Yuan; Meng, Ju; Huang, Jiang Yao

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Adulterant herbal materials are threats to import and export trade and consumer safety. In this study, we established a simple and rapid examination system for the detection of Phellodendron chinense Schneid. Two detection methods, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (real-time PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), were developed for traditional Chinese medicine detection, and their specificity and sensitivity were compared. The DNA of P. chinense was extracted and its special periods amplified with designed primers. Real-time PCR and LAMP experiments were conducted to test the specificity of primers in contrast to other similar species. The template concentration was diluted from 101 ng/µL to 10-5 ng/µL in order to contrast sensitivity between real-time PCR and LAMP. Real-time PCR and Lamp method has shown specificity because P. chinense was positive as opposed to other negative similar species. The Lamp method could detect a limited DNA concentration of 10-4ng/µL in 60 minutes with same sensitivity to real-time PCR. The results indicate that real-time PCR and LAMP are sensitive, accurate and specific in detection of P. chinense. However, LAMP is more convenient and cast less time. What’s more, expensive equipments are not necessary for LAMP detector. For a better detection, we suggest an establishment of a real-time PCR and LAMP method for TCM market supervision which depends on DNA barcode sequences and LAMP.
  • Relationship Between the Anxious Symptoms and the Neurotransmitter in Parkinson's Mice with Different Dosages of MPTP Human and Animal Health

    Xia, Yu; Ye, Suzhen; Shi, Jian; Huang, Hanjin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims to explore the relationship between the anxious symptoms and the impairment of 5-hydroxytryptamine system in PD mice induced by different dosages of MPTP. The mice from the three model groups, the low-dose, dose and high-dose group, took longer time in the dark box than those in the control group (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found among the model groups. The number of open arm entry (OE) and the open arm time (OT) were significant lower in the model group than those in the control group in the elevated plus-maze test (P<0.05). The percentage of OE in modle group was significantly lower compared with the control group (P<0.05). The concentrations of striatum DA, HVA, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA were significantly reduced in the three model groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). The 5-HT concentrations of high-dose group was significantly lower than those of the control group in the prefrontal cortex (P<0.05). Anxiety symptoms were appeared in the three model groups of early PD mice, but no difference existed among these groups. The 5-hydroxytryptamine system was damaged after MPTP injection, which could lead to anxiety. However, the impairment of 5-hydroxytryptamine system induced by MPTP was dose-independent.
  • Brown Flaxseed Prevents DNA Damage Induced by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine in a Pre-Clinical Model Human and Animal Health

    Pamplona-Silva, Maria Tereza; Morandi, Walter Vinicius; Bernardi, Luana; Tura, Bethânia Borges; Oliveira, Diego Duarte Marques de; Antoniolli-Silva, Andreia Conceição Milan Brochado; Mauro, Mariana de Oliveira; Oliveira, Rodrigo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The study evaluated the effects of brown flaxseed supplementation in natura on the prevention of DNA damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in vivo. The experimental groups were Negative and Positive Controls and the protocols of Pre-treatment, Simultaneous, Post-treatment, Pre+continuous in relation to the supplementation of brown flaxseed and administration with carcinogenic compound. The results showed that brown flaxseed supplementation does not cause genomic and genetic damage. In addition, brown flaxseed showed a chemopreventive food that reduced the damages assessed by the comet assay up to 94.07x and the damages assessed by the micronucleus assay up to 91.88x. Brown flaxseed supplementation also increased the frequency of monocytes and lymphocytes indicating immunological improvements. Thus, brown flaxseed supplementation is considered safe and reduces the frequency of DNA damage that can lead to tumors. Therefore, if these events are confirmed in humans, flaxseed will have reinforced its indication as a functional chemopreventive food in the prevention of cancer.
  • Productive and Reproductive Perfomance of Dairy Cows During Peripartum Human and Animal Health

    Pinto Neto, Adalgiza; Menegoto, Juliano; Skonieski, Fernando; Mota, Marcelo Falci; Martinez, Antônio Campanha; Merlini, Luiz Sérgio; Berber, Rodolfo Cassimiro de Araujo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Dairy activity is of great importance for the national economy. It is also an important source of income for families in the south east region of Paraná that work in this area. There has been a notable expansion in the activities as well as in the quantity of production and the quality of the products. With this has come problems in the reproductive efficiency of the dairy cattle principally in relation to those with the greatest production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive profile and the reproductive efficiency of dairy cows. The evaluation covered 30 days before calving and 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after the calving. The study covered cows from two properties in the Municipality of Realza-PR in Brazil. In order to do the aforementioned, we used the Body Condition Score (BCS). We evaluated the production of milk and through the use of gynecological exams and we looked at uterine involution (UI) and ovarian cyclicality. The results showed falls in the BCS in the prepartum period and in the first weeks of lactation (p<0.05) and the differences in the BCS were based on the season of the year in which the calving took place (p<0.05) with the highest BCS being noted to occur in the hot seasons. The UI correlates with the presence of corpus luteum where animals were late in their uterine involution and had delays in their first postpartum ovulation (p<0.05). The average service period and calving interval were similar to those described for dairy cattle, however, we observed variations based on the seasons of the year which was possibly related to the greater availability and quality of the forage in the hot seasons.
  • Evaluation of the Toxicity of Silver/Silica and Titanium Dioxide Particles in Mammalian Cells Human and Animal Health

    Pittol, Michele; Tomacheski, Daiane; Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The increasing concern over the spread of diseases has lead to a high consumption of antimicrobial additives in the medical and industrial fields. Since these particles can lixiviate from loaded materials, the contact between this additive and mammalian cells can occur during manufacture, use and disposal of the products. Silver on fumed silica (AgNP_SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be used as antimicrobial additives that are applied in polymeric formulation. While these additives can inhibit bacteria, fungus and virus proliferation; they may also be harmful to humans. Standard toxicological studies were undertaken using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide), CBPI (cytokinesis-block proliferation index) and micronucleus assay using different sets of additive concentrations. The nanosize of the samples evaluated was confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. No significant micronucleus frequency increase or cell viability reduction were observed with the exposure of L-929 murine fibroblast cells to AgNP_SiO2 and TiO2 particles at any of the tested concentrations. The non toxic effect of the analyzed particles can be explained by considering its agglomeration tendency, composition, and crystalline form. Further investigations should be done to understand the interference of agglomeration and how it affects the toxicological study.
  • Effects of Low-level Laser Therapy on Muscle Repair in Rats with Chronic Alcohol Intake Human and Animal Health

    Cespedes, Isabel Cristina; Assis, Livia; Thomaz, Rafael Moraes; Panfilio, Carlos Eduardo; Gonçalves, Luis; Muniz, Ana Claudia Renno

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle repair in rats with chronic alcohol intake. Thirty male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: injured tibialis anterior (TA) muscle without treatment (IC); chronic ingestion of alcohol plus injured TA muscle (AI); and chronic ingestion of alcohol plus injured TA plus LLLT (AIL). Each group was divided into two different subgroups, and rats were sacrificed on days 3 and 7 post-injury. Morphological features in the injured areas were similar with or without alcohol intake (IC and AI); however, LLLT promoted a decrease in the number of inflammatory cells and destroyed zones, as well as improved tissue organization (AIL). In general, alcohol intake caused a decrease in myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and vascular endothelial growth factor in the AI group. Moreover, LLLT promoted recovery of these factors to the same level as in animals without alcohol intake (IC and AIL). LLLT was able to increase the expression of myogenic and vascular growth factors and stimulate skeletal muscle regeneration in rats with chronic alcohol intake.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Mineral Density and Mechanical Properties of Bone Human and Animal Health

    Cicek, Ekrem; Cakmak, Enes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Hydrogen peroxide is a common reactive oxygen species involved in the catalytic mechanism though it is toxic to cells due to its oxidative nature. This work investigates the effects of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage on bone mineral density and mechanical properties of bone which is primarily a composite material composed primarily of collagen fibers and biominerals. Sheep leg bones were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for a week. Bone mineral density was measured by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Compressive modulus tests were applied to bone in order to determine mechanical properties. Our study shows that the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress has negative effects on bone mineral density and stiffness. We observed higher control curve slopes than that of hydrogen peroxide curves which account for lesser stiffness values in the exposed tissue (p<0.05).
  • Dry Extract of Passiflora incarnata L. leaves as a Cardiac and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Protector in LDLr-/- Mice Fed High-Fat Diet Human and Animal Health

    Sarto, Danielle Aparecida Quintino Silva; Siqueira, Ana Helena D’Arcadia de; Magalhaes, Francisco Monteiro de Almeida; Caproni, Karine de Paula; Martins, Ângela Maria; Santos, Gérsika Bitencourt; Silva, Délcio Bueno da; Boas, Brígida Monteiro Vilas; Garcia, José Antônio Dias

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The control of dyslipidemia by using herbal products is an important subject for studies. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dry Passiflora incarnata L. extract over dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, and hepatic oxidative stress of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-). Forty 4-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: Group standard diet; Group standard diet and 200 mg/kg of body weight of Passiflora incarnata L. leaf dry extract; Group high-fat diet; Group high-fat diet and 200 mg/kg of body weight of Passiflora incarnata L. leaf dry extract. After 30 days, Passiflora incarnata L. dry extract reduced the effects of the high-fat diet, with a decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), as well as a reduction of C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase and insulin. There was no effect on glucose, Homa index and enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. However, the prevention of left ventricular hypertrophy occurred, as well as lipid peroxidation and the production of carbonyl proteins, which are both oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, Passiflora incarnata L. dry extract acts in the prevention of dyslipidemia, consequently, hindering the occurrence of hepatic oxidative stress and the development of left ventricular hypertrophy by the increase of serum HDL, in mice that had the effects of a high-fat diet.
  • Some Hematological and Non-Specific Immune Responses of Rosehip (Rosa canina) - Fed Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833) to Mycobacterium salmoniphilum Human and Animal Health

    Duman, Selçuk; Şahan, Aysel

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In the study, the immunostimulant effects of rosehip (Rosa canina) on the health indicator hematological and non-specific immune parameters of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum-infected sturgeon were investigated. The rosehip was applied in the ratios of R5 (5%), R10 (10%), and R15 (15%) in three repetitions. After a 35-day feeding period, the fish were infected with M. salmoniphilum and analyzed after day 7, when symptoms were observed at elevated levels. Erythrocyte, erythrocyte indices, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte levels and the non-specific immune parameters including lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, cytokines, phagocytic activity levels were comparatively examined using positive and negative control groups. The evaluations revealed that the RBC, Hb, Hct and WBC counts in the R15 group were significantly higher than those of the C+ group. Moreover, depending on the level of the immune response of the fish, among the immune parameters, significant increases in the lymphocyte, monocyte, cytokine, and phagocytic activity levels were observed in the R15 group. The results showed that the hematological and immune response to M. salmoniphilum infection was stimulated significantly in the 15% rosehip-fed fish. Hence, the effective dose of rosehip in fish was determined to be 15% and rosehip is suggested as an alternative to currently recommended immunostimulants.
  • Isolation and Identification of a Potential Amylolytic Probiotic Bacterium from the Gut of Jundiá Catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Human and Animal Health

    Poletto, Tatiana Vieira; Vieira, Cleide Rosana Werneck; Silva, Carlos Peres; Fracalossi, Debora Machado

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to isolate a potential probiotic amylolytic strain from the gut of jundiá catfish to improve carbohydrate digestibility in fish. Two of 31 strains isolated from the foregut of Rhamdia quelen were able to grow on starch-agar medium and were considered amylolytic. The strain that presented higher amylolytic potential, based on a qualitative amylase assay, was chosen. The strain was phenotypically characterized and analysed to determine bile and pH tolerance and extracellular quantitative amylase activity. The probiotic candidate, identified as Aeromonas veronii, showed the ability to survive stresses from a range of pH and bile salt conditions and secreted an interesting enzymatic profile, which may exhibit a synergistic effect when combined with the enzymes secreted by the jundiá catfish, improving carbohydrate digestion in the host. The results demonstrated the potential of A. veronii to improve the digestion process in jundiá by providing exogenous enzymes for the breakdown and absorption of nutrients.
  • Probing the Pharmacological Parameters, Molecular Docking and Quantum Computations of Plant Derived Compounds Exhibiting Strong Inhibitory Potential Against NS5 from Zika Virus Human and Animal Health

    Rasool, Nouman; Jalal, Amir; Amjad, Adnan; Hussain, Waqar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is known for microcephaly and neurological disease in humans and the nonstructural proteins of ZIKV play a fundamental role in the viral replication. Among the seven nonstructural proteins, NS5 is the most conserved and largest protein. Two major functional domains of NS5 i.e. methyltransferase (MTase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are imperative for the virus life cycle and survival. The present study explicates the inhibitory action of phytochemicals from medicinal plants against NS5 from ZIKV, leading to the identification of potential inhibitors. The crystal structure of the protein is retrieved from RCSB protein data bank. A total of 2035 phytochemicals from 505 various medicinal plants are analysed for their pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics. Compounds having effective drug-likeness are docked against the protein and further analysed using density functional theory approach. Among the 2035 phytochemicals, 13 are selected as potential inhibitors against MTase having high binding affinities and 17 compounds are selected for RdRp. HOMO and LUMO energies are calculated for the docked compounds within and outside binding pockets of MTase and RdRp, adapting the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation functional with def2-SV(P) basis set. Physicochemical properties such as ionization energy, electronic chemical potential, electronegativity, electron affinity, molecular softness, molecular hardness and electrophilicity index have also been analysed for selected phytochemicals. Based upon the results, it is concluded that the selected phytochemicals are highly competent to impede the replication of the virus by inhibiting the ZIKV-NS5.
  • Brown Stink Bug Mortality by Seed Extracts of Tephrosia Vogelii Containing Deguelin and Tephrosin Human and Animal Health

    Mikami, Adriana Yatie; Ventura, Maurício Ursi; Andrei, Cesar Cornelio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Extracts of the seeds of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. were studied in relation to its chemical composition and toxicity to the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (F.). The extracts were obtained in ethyl acetate and ethanol in the sequence according to the polar nature of the solvents. Extracts were sprayed in concentration of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% on third-instars nymphs and adults, and mortality was recorded. Presence two rotenoids in ethyl acetate was detected, with analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Crude fraction analyses confirmed the presence of these rotenoids (tephrosin - 2.71% in ethyl acetate and 3.66% in methanol; and deguelin - 10.46% in ethyl acetate and 1.22% in methanol) and three other rotenoids in small amounts. Eight days after applications, ethyl acetate caused more stink bugs mortality and on less time than ethanol extract, because great quantity of rotenoids, as polarity. Concentrations above to 1 and 2.5% of the ethyl acetate extracts caused mortality above 80% of the nymphs and adults of E. heros, respectively. Concentration were considered high, thus chemist analyzes demonstrated high rotenoids presence. In conclusion, seed T. vogelli extracts, rich in deguelin and tephrosin (3:1), cause mortality of E. heros, however, high concentration are necessary.
  • Savitzky-Golay Filter for Denoising Lung Sound Human and Animal Health

    Haider, Nishi Shahnaj; Periyasamy, R; Joshi, Deepak; Singh, B K

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT For computerized analysis of respiratory sounds to be effective, the acquired signal must be free from all the interfering elements. Different forms of noise which can degrade the quality of lung sounds are recording artifacts, power line/Radio Frequency (RF) interferences, ambient acoustic interferences, heart sound interference etc. Such interferences adversely affect the diagnostic interpretations. Powerful denoising techniques are necessary to resolve this issue. A denoising scheme for lung sounds, based on Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter is proposed in this paper. The order and frame length of the SG filter is determined objectively using the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and computational time as objective function. Maximum SNR is observed when the frame length is nearest to the value just higher than the polynomial order. This observation holds good for different levels of simulated addictive Gaussian noise. The polynomial order of 8 and frame size of 9 are found to be promising with SNR of 10.401db at computation time of 2.1ms.
  • Diet, Epidemiological Factors and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Elderly Population Human and Animal Health

    França, Vivian Francielle; Azzolini, Thairine; Pissaia, Ediane; Bortoloti, Durcelina Schiavoni; Signorini, Taise; Costa, Lediana Dalla; Souza, Marília Moraes Queiroz; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida dos Reis; Lovato, Evellyn Claudia Wietzikoski

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Purpose Population aging is one of the great achievements of humanity. However, with aging, the incidence of chronic diseases and those related to cognition deficits increase. In this way, strategies aimed at preventing or delaying cognitive deficit are extremely necessary. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between cognitive deficits, schooling and eating habits in a Brazilian elderly population. Methods The dietary habits of 400 older adults were investigated through structured questionnaires. Unhealthy eating habits such as low consumption of fruits, vegetables and beans, consumption of fatty meats and whole milk, adjusted for other variables, were evaluated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and binary logistic regression. Results There was cognitive deficit prevalence of 17.7% in the study population, which increases with age progression. The low frequency of vegetable consumption increased the risk of cognitive deficit in the crude analysis by 47.6% and increased these odds by 44.1% after the final adjustment. Low educational level was also associated with cognitive deficit of individuals (28.25%). Conclusion Educational level and vegetable consumption in adult life and in later adulthood improve cognition.
  • Evaluation of the Redox State of Wistar Rats Submitted to High-Fat Diet Supplemented With Infusion of Ilex paraguariensis Human and Animal Health

    Silva, Clédia Flores; Nardin, Patrícia; Grings, Mateus; Uecker, Julia Neitzel; Cerqueira, Jenifer Heller; Rincón, Joao Alvarado; Abib, Renata Torres; Schneider, Augusto; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Andreazza, Robson; Pieniz, Simone

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ilex paraguariensis infusion on redox state of Wistar rats submitted to high-fat and standard diet. Glutathione determination and lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus tissues and liver was performed, as well as the analysis of gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results from hippocampus showed that the groups fed with standard diet exhibited significant reduction of lipid peroxidation when supplemented with Ilex paraguariensis. The analysis from glutathione determination in the hippocampus showed a significant increase in glutathione activity in the group treated with high-fat diet and Ilex paraguariensis. In the liver, results showed no significant difference in both glutatione and lipid peroxidation analisys. Gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase showed that there was significant difference in the groups treated with high-fat diet and Ilex paraguariensis. In summary, the Ilex paraguariensis showed substantial potential for antioxidant activities.
  • SSR-Marker assisted evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Mungbean ( Vigna radiata (L.) Wilcezk) genotypes Biological and Applied Sciences

    Kaur, Gunnjeet; Joshi, Arunabh; Jain, Devendra

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) also known as green gram is an important source of protein in the category of food legumes. In the present study, SSR marker is used to analyze the genetic diversity amongst 23 genotypes of mungbean. Out of a total of 10 primers used for SSR analysis revealed generation of 15 alleles. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one (CEDG006, CEDG010, CEDG050, CEDG088, CEDG092 and CEDG232) to three (CEDG 214), with an average of 1.5 allele per primer. The index for expected heterozygosity was 0.29 ranging from 0.15 to 0.49 revealed a deficit in heterozygosity. The size of amplification products varied in case of each primer and the range was found to be 100 bp to 190 bp. 13 out of 15 alleles were found polymorphic. The average PIC value of SSR marker was found to be 0.205. The value of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient had ranged from 0.28-1.00 with an average value of 0.64. The dendrogram constructed on SSR molecular marker data through UPGMA method and PCA using average linkage, had enabled grouping of the genotypes into three main clusters. Clustering pattern based on SSR marker data clearly indicated the narrow genetic base of mungbean genotypes that emphasizes the need to explore and exploit more number of germplasm from additional source to study genetic variation in mungbean for genetic improvement. The results indicated the marked usefulness of SSR in the assessment of genetic diversity in mungbean crop.
  • Alterations in Biomarkers Associated with Sterility in Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) Induced by Gamma Irradiation Biological and Applied Sciences

    Ali, Hanaa Mahmoud; Moustafa, Hemat Zakaria; Sayed, Rehab Mahmoud

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Nowadays, radiation technology is widely used to produce changes in Biosystems. The goal of this work is to determine the variation induced male Pectinophora gossypiella in gamma-irradiated as pupae using 50Gy and 150Gy. Comparing elements composition and DNA (using RAPD-PCR) between substerile 50Gy and the sterile dose 150Gy in P. gossypiella showed variation between them. Potassium (K) was the most abundant elements in unirradiated and irradiated males followed by magnesium (Mg). The percentage of heavy metals as copper, zinc, and cadmium concurrent with K was directly proportional to the radiation dose. While the percentage of Mg, Phosphorous and calcium decreased as the radiation dose increased. The results also revealed that some extra bands appeared and others disappeared, as a result of irradiation. The appearance of extra bands may be due to the repair mechanism of the irradiation damaged DNA. The banding patterns obtained and the dendrograms drawn on the basis of presence and absence of bands revealed that 150Gy irradiated pupae are more different from the unirradiated pupae than the 50Gy irradiated pupae. It was concluded that the sterile male technique could be used as a benefit tool in controlling P. gossypiella.
  • Secure Deduplication for Cloud Storage Using Interactive Message-Locked Encryption with Convergent Encryption, To Reduce Storage Space Biological and Applied Sciences

    Jayapandian, N; Md Zubair Rahman, A M J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The digital data stored in the cloud requires much space due to copy of the same data. It can be reduced by dedupilcation, eliminating the copy of the repeated data in the cloud provided services. Identifying common checkoff data both files storing them only once. Deduplication can yield cost savings by increasing the utility of a given amount of storage. Unfortunately, deduplication has many security problems so more than one encryption is required to authenticate data. We have developed a solution that provides both data security and space efficiency in server storage and distributed content checksum storage systems. Here we adopt a method called interactive Message-Locked Encryption with Convergent Encryption (iMLEwCE). In this iMLEwCE the data is encrypted firstly then the cipher text is again encrypted. Block-level deduplication is used to reduce the storage space. Encryption keys are generated in a consistent configuration of data dependency from the chunk data. The identical chunks will always encrypt to the same cipher text. The keys configuration cannot be deduced by the hacker from the encrypted chunk data. So the information is protected from cloud server. This paper focuses on reducing the storage space and providing security in online cloud deduplication.
  • Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Antioxidant Quercetin and Resveratrol Biological and Applied Sciences

    Erdönmez, Demet; Rad, Abbas Yousefi; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing system plays an active role in the regulation of pathogenicity of many microorganisms. Inhibition of pathogenicity or virulence factors will increase the success of treatment by preventing the development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, anti-quorum sensing activities of quercetin and resveratrol compounds, which have antioxidant property without damaging to host, have been determined via using biosensor bacteria: Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. As quorum sensing inhibitors, quercetin and resveratrol's cutting off the bacterial communication will prevent the treatment failures caused by the development of bacterial resistance. The development of layered drugs with antioxidant compounds such as quercetin and resveratrol will pave the way for new horizons for new therapeutic strategies.
  • Production of Cellulose and Profile Metabolites by Fermentation of Glycerol by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus Biological and Applied Sciences

    Vidotto, Francielle Lina; Ribeiro, Geovana Piveta; Tischer, Cesar Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Because of the widespread occurrence of cellulose in nature, many organisms use glycerol as a source of carbon and energy, so these organisms have drawn attention to the potential use of glycerol bioconversion. The bacteria Gluconacetobacter xylinus, a strictly aerobic strain that performing incomplete oxidation of various sugars and alcohols to cellulose biosynthesis. For this reason, we modify the Hestrim-Schram medium, associating glycerol, glucose and sucrose varying their concentration. The fermentations were performed statically at a temperature of 28˚C for a period of 10 days. The pH, membrane formation, crystallinity and the production of some metabolites of the 4th, 7th and 10th days was evaluated. The results showed a higher yield of membrane in the medium containing glucose, gly 1 + glu2 on 10 fermentation of 3.5 g %. Through solid-state NMR gave the crystallinity of the membranes, where there was a clear trend toward higher crystallinity membranes with 7 days of fermentation. Metabolic products found in the media by analysis of NMR spectroscopy in liquid were similar, especially for the production of alanine and lactate that were present in all media. The leucine and threonine were present in various media, although in small quantities has been found glutamate.
  • Effects of clonal integration on the proximal and distal ramets of Cynodon dactylon under shade stress Biological and Applied Sciences

    Shi, Tao Ying; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Li, Yun-Xiang

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In a pot experiment, clonal ramets of Cynodon dactylon, a stolon herbaceous plant, were treated with heterogeneous lighting. Proximal ramets (elder ramets) were subjected to shade stress at three different degrees, and stolons between proximal and distal ramets of each pair were treated in a connected or severed manner. Results showed that in moderate shade stress, the number of ramets and leaves, biomass, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield of PSII (ФPSII), and soil and plant analysis development values (SPAD) of proximal ramets were significantly reduced, regardless of whether stolons were kept intact or severed. However, the growth of distal ramets was not significantly influenced, and keeping the stolons intact also did not bring apparent benefits for the whole clonal fragments. These results show that clonal integration does not help alleviate the shade stress suffered by proximal ramets and the costs of distal ramets and does not significantly influence the whole clonal fragments. The possible reasons are that distal ramets may be at the cost of metabolism for resource transportation when the proximal ramets suffer from shade stress; thus, clonal integration is not favorable.
  • Assesment of the Genotoxic Effect of the Diazinon on Root Cells of Allium cepa (L.) Biological and Applied Sciences

    Pandir, Dilek

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) posses a great potential of acute toxicity for exposed animals and men. To evaluate the toxic potential of the organophosphate diazinon on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L., was created two groups: In group 1 (control group), was not given any chemical. In group 2 (diazinon-treatment group), different doses (10, 40, 80 and 160 ppm) and times periods (24, 48 and 72 h) were administered. After exposure, cell death, effective concentration (EC50), mitotic index, cellular /chromosome aberrations, DNA damage by comet assay and RAPD-PCR were assessed at exposure times. EC50 value of diazinon was detected approximately 80 ppm. Hyperchromasia, later segragation, micronucleus, pulverised nucleus, nuclear cytoplasmic shrinkage and cell death, cytoplasmic vacuolation were detected in meristem cells as chromosome/celular aberrations for 72 h at 80 ppm. DNA damage was identified using tail DNA%, tail lengths and tail moment from these cells. Increasing exposure doses of diazinon caused increasing tail DNA% and tail lengths at 72 h. DNA bands of increasing concentrations treated groups were more distant to compare with the control group according to RAPD-PCR method. Diazinon cause cytotoxic and genotoxic on A. cepa root and could be considered for further toxicological evaluations.
  • Effect of Nutrient Sources on the Alginate Accumulation in the Culture Liquid of Azotobacter vinelandii D-05 and Obtaining Biocomposite Materials Biological and Applied Sciences

    Revin, Victor Vasilevich; Kostina, Elena Gennadievna; Revina, Nadezhda Victorovna; Shutova, Vitalina Victorovna

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Using the classic biotechnological methods, the dependence of A. vinelandii D-05 culture alginate production from the media carbon and nitrogen content was investigated. The maximal alginate production was observed during cultivation bacterium in the medium with 2 to 4% of sucrose, but the maximal growth was found in the medium with 4% glucose. It was found that for the alginate production the optimal nitrogen contents could take from 0.05% yeast extract (carbon: nitrogen ratio 168:1). For the first time we demonstrated possibility the A. vinelandii growth during the cultivation in a medium with molasses (a by-product of sugar production) and the significant polysaccharide production (16.6 g/l) was obtained. It was established, that A. vinelandii culture broth could be used as a biological binder for obtaining the biocomposite materials.
  • Pandan (Pandanus sp), Rotan (Calamus sp), and Rengas (Gluta sp) from Kajuik Lake, Riau Province, Indonesia Biological and Applied Sciences

    Roslim, Dewi Indriyani

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Pandan (Pandanus sp), Rotan (Calamus sp), and Rengas (Gluta sp) are the three most important plants growing at Kajuik Lake, Langgam, Riau Province, Indonesia; however, their species names have not been identified. This study aimed to identify their species names using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequences. The method employed was DNA isolation from fresh leaves, PCR using primer pairs of ITS region for Pandanus sp and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer for Calamus sp and Gluta sp, electrophoresis, sequencing, and data analysis using BLASTn program and MEGA software version 6.0. Pandanus tectorius was the only one accession that was similar to Pandanus sp with the identity was 90%, however the query cover was too small, only 39%. On the contrary, Calamus sp showed the highest genetic similarity to Calamus travancoricus, but in fact, both were differed morphologically. There was no database of psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequence available for species in Gluta. In conclusion, the species names for those plants still could not be determined. It because they might be the identified plants but their sequences databases were not available in large quantities or they were new species which had never been identified and published in public database.
  • Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Thermal Inactivation of β-Galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae Biological and Applied Sciences

    Klein, Manuela Poletto; Sant’Ana, Voltaire; Hertz, Plinho Francisco; Rodrigues, Rafael Costa; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT For optimization of biochemical processes in food and pharmaceutical industries, the evaluation of enzyme inactivation kinetic models is necessary to allow their adequate use. Kinetic studies of thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were conducted in order to critically evaluate mathematical equations presented in the literature. Statistical analysis showed that Weibull model presented the best adequacy to residual enzymatic activity data through the processing time and its kinetic parameters as a function of the temperature, in the range of 58-66 ºC. The investigation suggests the existence of a non-sensitive heat fraction on the enzyme structure, which is relatively stable up to temperatures close to 59 ºC. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and showed that such β-galactosidase presents activation energy of 277 kJ mol-1 and that the enzyme inactivation is due to molecular structural changes. Results shown that the enzyme is quite stable for biotechnological applications.
  • Carbon Dioxide Biofixation and Production of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Biomass with Different Concentrations of NaNO3 and NaCl Biological and Applied Sciences

    Moraes, Luiza; Rosa, Gabriel Martins da; Souza, Michele da Rosa Andrade Zimmermann de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Microalgae are efficient at using solar energy to turn CO2 and nutrients into biomass containing lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other compounds that may be used to produce bioproducts for human and animal consumption and pharmaceutical use. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the NaNO3 and NaCl concentration on the growth kinetics, the biomass composition and the ability to biofix CO2 using the microalga Spirulina sp. LEB 18. The assays were carried out according to a 22 central composite design (CCD) with different concentrations of NaNO3 (1.25, 1.88 and 2.50 g L-1) and NaCl (1.00, 15.0 and 30.0 g L-1). The assays were carried out in 2 L vertical tubular photobioreactors at 30°C, 12 h light/dark and an injection of 12.0% v/v of CO2 at 0.3 vvm. The best growing results (Xmax = 1.60 g L-1, Pmax = 0.109 g L-1 d-1, μmax = 0.208 d-1) and CO2 biofixation rate (197.4 mg L-1 d-1) were observed in the assay with 1.25 g L-1 NaNO3 and 1.00 g L-1 NaCl. Increasing the NaCl concentration produced biomass with a higher carbohydrate content, while increasing the NaNO3 concentration reduced the protein concentration. According to the results, in addition to using Spirulina as a source of protein, it can also be used as a source of carbohydrates and to biologically remove CO2 from the atmosphere.
  • Modelling the growth of lactic acid bacteria at different temperatures Biological and Applied Sciences

    Silva, Ana Paula Rosa da; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Dalcanton, Francieli; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Mathematical models are widely used to predict the shelf life of foods. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella viridescens and Lactobacillus sakei, are the main spoilage bacteria of refrigerated, vacuum-packed meat products, stored in modified atmosphere, and their growth determines the shelf life length of these products. The objective of this study was to model the growth of L. plantarum, W. viridescens and L. sakei under different isothermal cultivation conditions and establish secondary models to describe the effect of temperature on the growth parameters of these bacteria. The LAB growth was evaluated in culture medium at temperatures of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 30 ºC. The fit of Baranyi and Roberts (BAR) and Gompertz (GO) primary models to the growth curves of LAB was compared by statistical indices, in which the BAR model showed slightly better fits to the experimental data. The BAR growth parameters were used to establish the secondary models, µmax and Nmax were established for the three LAB. The power model described the influence of temperature on the parameter λ for L. plantarum, and other bacteria showed no lag phase. The growth of LAB was strongly influenced by storage temperature and the obtained models allow predicting the growth of these bacteria within the temperature range from 4 to 30 ºC.
  • A Novel Raw Starch Hydrolyzing Thermostable α-Amylase Produced by Newly Isolated Bacillus mojavensis SO-10: Purification, Characterization and Usage in Starch Industries Biological and Applied Sciences

    Ozdemir, Sadin; Fincan, Sema Aguloglu; Karakaya, Adem; Enez, Baris

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is the production, purification, and characterisation of thermostable raw starch hydrolyzing α-amylase produced by Bacillus mojavensis SO-10. The maximum production conditions of α-amylase were found at 36th hour, 35 °C and pH 7.0. We utilized three steps to purify the thermostable α-amylase and as a result, 34-fold and 18% yield were obtained. The molecular weight of purified α-amylase was determined as 73 kD. The Km and Vmax rates were detected as 0.010 mM and 3.38 µmol min−1, respectively. This purified α-amylase exhibited the highest activity at pH 5.0-6.0 and 70 ºC and showed stability over a wide variety of pH and temperature at 4.0-8.0, and 40-50 ºC, respectively. The thermostable purified α-amylase exhibited stability in the presence of denaturing agents and heavy metal ions. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the raw starches of corn and wheat grains in the ratio of 36.7% and 39.2% respectively. The end-yields of soluble starch hydrolysis were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the usage of purified α-amylase in clarification of apple juice and domestic washing detergent industries were evaluated.
  • Can lychee reducing the adipose tissue mass in rats? Biological and Applied Sciences

    Almeida, Martha Elisa Ferreira de; Ferreira, Juliana Thays; Augusto-Obara, Thalita Riquelme; Cruz, Richtier Gonçalves da; Arruda, Henrique Silvano; Santos, Virgínia Souza; Ramos, José Antônio de Souza Cruz; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Botrel, Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Lychee fruit has been studied owing to the presence of several bioactive compounds that can contribute to weight loss in obese individuals. However, the anti-obese potential of the fruit has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different parts of lychee in reducing the adipose tissue mass of cafeteria diet-fed rats. Phenolic compounds and scavenging capacities were quantified. The food intake, apparent digestibility, weight of the body and liver, body mass, Lee Index, and the mass of epididymal and visceral adipose tissues were evaluated. The results were estimated by Tukey’s Test at 5% probability. A higher amount of phenolic compounds and scavenging capacity were observed in the peel of lychee as compared to the other parts of the fruit. The hypercaloric diet with lychee flour resulted in a higher apparent digestibility. There was no difference between groups control (C), hypercaloric (H), hypercaloric with lychee flour - 50.00% peel and 50.00% seeds (H2F), and hypercaloric with lychee flour - 33.33% peel, 33.33% pulp and 33.34% seeds (H3F) with respect to body and liver weight, corporal mass, and Lee Index. The hypercaloric diet-fed group exhibited an increase in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue mass, whereas the group fed with hypercaloric diets and flour made from the peel and seed of lychee presented a lower visceral adipose tissue mass. In conclusion, the use of lychee flour was considered viable because it decreased visceral adipose tissue mass in rats.
  • Arsenic tolerance of Microcystis novacekii (Komárek-Compère, 1974) and its arsenic decontamination potential Biological and Applied Sciences

    Ferreira, Fernanda Aires Guedes; Franco, Maione Wittig; Oliveira, Dirce Maria De; Magalhães, Sérgia Maria Starling; Barbosa, Francisco Antônio Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria possess metallic ion interaction properties that should be explored with the aim of recovering arsenic (As) contaminated areas. Contamination of As is an issue of worldwide concern due to the risk of human chronic intoxication and negative environmental health effects. In this study the potential decontamination of As(III) and As(V) using cyanobacteria cultures was assessed. Microcystis novacekii (Komárek-Compere, 1974) showed normal growth in concentrations of As(V) similar to those found in natural environments contaminated with As, demonstrating its resistance to As(V). Growth rates gradually decreased upon exposure to high As(V) concentrations from 600 to 5630 mg.L-1 while As(III) affected growth from 14.7 - 85.7 mg.L-1. The As(III) EC50 value (41.0 mg.L-1) was 140-fold lower possibly due to differences in As(III) and As(V) absorption pathways. Upon exposure to 14.7 mg.L-1 As(III), 21.2% of As was removed from culture medium. The absorption capacity (12000 mg.kg-1) remained constant with increasing As(III) concentrations in a dose independent effect. The potential of M. novacekii for As decontamination was demonstrated in this study. This microorganism is recommended in As bioremoval studies due to its autotrophic-mixotrophic growth, low nutritional requirements and high As(III) absorption capacity.
  • Combining a probiotic with organic salts presents synergistic in vitro inhibition against aquaculture bacterial pathogens Biological and Applied Sciences

    Bolivar, Norha Constanza; Legarda, Esmeralda Chamorro; Seiffert, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate 1) the in vitro effect of organic salts on the growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and then 2) the combined use of a probiotic with organic salts on the in vitro inhibition of V. alginolyticus, A. hydrophila, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. agalactiae. In vitro tests were performed with eight different organic salts, including butyrate, propionate, succinate, citrate, formate, fumarate, glutamate, and acetate, at two pH values (6.2 and 7.1) to determine their effect on the growth kinetics of L. plantarum. In addition, each organic salt was tested alone and in combination with L. plantarum to evaluate the inhibitory effect against the pathogenic bacteria noted above in either condition. Sodium citrate and formate inhibited the growth of L. plantarum, but sodium glutamate, succinate and fumarate stimulated it. Sodium propionate, butyrate, and acetate did not affect probiotic growth at all. Inhibition against all pathogens was significantly higher in the presence of the probiotic and lower pH. Comparing all organic salts at the two pH values, butyrate, acetate, and propionate exhibited more inhibition against V. alginolyticus than the others, while propionate had higher inhibition against A. hydrophila, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and fumarate successfully inhibited S. agalactiae. Based on these results, it can be concluded that organic salts showed better in vitro inhibition against the aquaculture pathogenic bacteria tested when combined with the probiotic L. plantarum.
  • Working Optimally with Serial Sections in Glycol Methacrylate Resin Biological and Applied Sciences

    Leitão, Carlos André Espolador

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present work presents an optimized form for distributing serial sections in a glycol methacrylate slide set. This consists of filling the first row with sections from each slide, thus proceeding in the same way with the other rows. Therefore each slide will contain sections of three distinct sample segments.
  • Inulin Induces IL-10 Secretion and Increased FOXP3 Gene Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Biological and Applied Sciences

    Amarante, Marla Karine; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral de; Gualtieri, Karina de Almeida; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Inulin is an effective prebiotic and its potential in modulating systemic immunity have been proposed. A subpopulation of T cells, named T regulatory cells (Tregs), expressing the Forkhead boxP3 transcription factor are key mediators of peripheral tolerance and suppress undesirable immune responses. These Tregs can be induced by cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). This work aimed to evaluate inulin effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. PBMC were incubated with inulin, and the expression of TGF-(1, FOXP3 and IL-10 was analyzed. Increased supernatant IL-10 levels were observed in PBMC of inulin-treated group (p=0.03). Moreover, FOXP3 gene expression was 7.6 fold higher in inulin-treated PBMC, whereas a trend in TGF-β1 expression was detected (p=0.055). These data suggest that inulin induces an immunosuppressive environment in cultured PBMC by promoting FOXP3 gene expression and IL-10 secretion. These studies offer prospects for further fundamental research in this field.
  • Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Response in Chenopodium murale L. Exposed to Elevated Levels of Zn Biological and Applied Sciences

    Zoufan, Parzhak; Karimiafshar, Amer; Shokati, Sara; Hassibi, Payman; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Present study was carried out to investigate the effects of different Zn concentrations on growth and some antioxidant responses in Chenopodium murale L. The seeds were sown on the pots. 45-day plants were transferred to hydroponic solution containing 0.2 (control), 150, 300 and 600 µM Zn. The plants were harvested at 6 days after applying Zn treatments and some parameters were evaluated including plant length, fresh weight, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbate, proline and enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Zn concentration showed a considerable increase in the shoot and root as the concentration of Zn increased in the medium, meanwhile the roots were characterized by higher Zn accumulation. At 150 µM Zn, the length and fresh weight did not show important changes compared to the control, but these parameters decreased at 300 and 600 µM Zn. With increasing Zn doses, the content of total chlorophyll declined, and also the content of carotenoids elevated. Excess Zn led to an increase in lipid peroxidation, free proline and ascorbate pool. Moreover, elevated Zn levels enhanced the activities of CAT, GPX and SOD. C. murale probably tolerates Zn concentrations up to 150 µM using the production of carotenoid, proline and ascorbate as well as enhanced activity of enzymatic antioxidants. Higher Zn treatments seem to be toxic due to a severe decline in growth.
  • Investigation of Some Parameters Affecting Methyl OrangeRemoval by Fusarium acuminatum Biological and Applied Sciences

    Yucel, Tugba Tugrul

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Dye stuff released to the ecosystem from textile industries cause a serious contamination and become a major environmental problem over the last few decades. As biological decolorization of textile wastewater is an important issue, Fusarium . acuminatum was used to removal of a frequently used textile dye, methyl orange. Live pellet of Fusarium acuminatum was used and decolorization studies performed in various temperatures and pH conditions with different dye concentrations. The highest decolorization rate was observed at 35ᴼC. 60 mg/L was found as the optimum initial dye concentration. In the pH range of 3-4, decolorization rate was approximately 70%. It was seen that Fusarium acuminatum have the great ability of the methyl orange removal. To our knowledge, it took place for the first time in the literature.
  • Evaluation of Dietary Supplement Intake (Yeast Tablets) on Pregnant Albino Rats and Their Fetuses (Implications of Yeast Tablets on Rats & Fetuses) Biological and Applied Sciences

    Omar, Amel Ramadan; El-Din, Eman Youssri Salah; Abdelrahman, Heba Ali; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Histopathological studies in placenta, liver, kidney, apoptotic DNA damage and p53 mutation estimation of pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to dietary supplement yeast tablets, were carried out. Pregnant female albino rats were orally administrated yeast tablets at concentration 41.1 mg/kg during gestation period. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were used for examination. Neutral comet assay was performed to assess the apoptotic DNA damage and single strand conformational analysis was performed to screen the mutations inductions in p53 exons 7 and 8. Statistical analysis is applied to found the relation of apoptotic fraction in liver, kidney and placenta of pregnant rats and their offspring. Oral administration of yeast tablets to pregnant rats induced histopathological alterations in the hepatic, kidney tissues of both mothers and fetuses and placenta tissues. In addition, it induced apoptotic DNA damage as revealed by the significant elevations in apoptotic fractions (p<0.001) in liver and kidney tissues of both treated rats and their fetuses and even in the placenta (p<0.001). On contrary, no any mutation was induced in p53 exons 7 and 8 by yeast administration either in pregnant rats or their fetuses examined organs. The histopathological changes and apoptotic DNA damage recorded in female rats and fetus’s tissues which can result in definite hormonal and atrophic effects on adult rats and the fetuses, the possibility of early or late physiological effects in the mature and progeny under the administration of yeast tablets must be taken into consideration.
  • Optimization of an Activity Assay of Coprinus Cinereus Peroxidase Biological and Applied Sciences

    Dong, Bing Xue; Zhang, Yu Hong; Li, Gang; Fang, Jin Tao; Zheng, Ji Huan; Mao, Run Qian

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To seek a simple, rapid and sensitive Coprinus cinereus Peroxidase (CIP) activity assay, a convenient one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method and a response surface methodology (RSM) were used. The recombinant CIP expressed in Pichia pastoris was purified with the Ni-NTA spin column. Based on the results of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) analysis, 2,2'-azinobis (ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulfonate) (ABTS) was selected as the optimal enzyme substrate. Results of the OFAT method showed that enzymatic reaction performed in 0.1 mol/L sodium acetate (pH 5.0) buffer in a 200-µl reaction mixture containing 0.5 mmol/L ABTS, 10 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 49.7 ng CIP at 25°C gave an average CIP activity of 88 U/mL. The ABTS and H2O2 concentrations were then further optimized to improve the sensitivity of the assay. To do that, RSM was conducted through central composite design, and a reduced quadratic model with good fit regression equation was generated. ANOVA analysis of this model indicated that the concentrations of ABTS and H2O2 and their interaction had significant impact on the assay sensitivity. The optimal reaction mixture was determined to include an initial ABTS concentration of 0.82 mmol/L 49.7 ng CIP and 16.36 mmol/L H2O2, and the activity under this condition was determined to be 138.89 U/mL.
  • Phytoene Synthase Gene ( PSY ) from Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam . ) Enhances Tolerance to Abiotic Stress Biological and Applied Sciences

    Shao, Huanhuan; Yong, Bin; Xu, Pan; Zheng, Haiyan; Liao, Ruoxing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Li; Shen, Jiabin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Phytoene synthase (PSY) is the rate-limiting enzyme for carotenoid biosynthesis. To date, several studies focused on PSY genes in the context of abiotic stress responses. In this study, two phytoene synthase encoding genes, IbPSY1 and IbPSY2, were identified from a published transcriptome and bioinformatic analysis showed that they shared conserved domains with phytoene synthases from other plants. The IbPSY1 gene was cloned and carefully characterized. Digital gene expression profiling (DGE) showed that the highest transcription level of IbPSY1 was in young leaves, and the lowest level was in stems. In vivo expression levels of IbPSY1 under abiotic stress were observed to be highest in stems at day 11. Over-expression of IbPSY1 in Escherichia coli and yeast cells endowed the cells with better growth under salt and drought stress than the control cells. This study demonstrated that IbPSY1 not only played an important role in vivo, but also in E. coli and yeast to improve tolerance to salinity and drought stress. Thus, IbPSY1 may be aid in the development of transgenic plants with enhanced stress tolerance.
  • Targeting of Virulence Factors and Plasmid Profiling of Klebsiella pneumoniae Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Sylhet City of Bangladesh Biological and Applied Sciences

    Foysal, Md Javed; Majlish, Al-Nahian Khan; Islam, Kamrul; Alam, Md Jahangir; Ali, Md Hazrat; Momtaz, Farhana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to characterize Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from urinary tract infection (UTI) patients in Sylhet city of Bangladesh. At the same time, all isolates were screened for some common virulence genes and four significant isolates were searched for plasmid number and sizes by mini alkaline-lysis method. Among five tested isolates from female UTI patients, gyrase subunit B2 (gyrb2) amplified in all isolates, lipase and nuclease detected in three isolates and serine protease amplifies in two isolates and gave the expected band of 1130 bp, 517 bp, 1055 bp and 211 bp respectively. Two of four isolates showed 9.82 kb plasmid band on agarose gel. Isolates bearing 9.82 kb plasmid were found to be resistant to multiple commercial antibiotics. At the same time all isolates were screened for in-vitro plate assay for proteolytic, lypolytic and hemolytic activity. Isolates with positive plasmid and more than one virulent gene with gyrB2 showed positive result in in-vitro culture plate with clear zone of proteolysis, hemolysis or lipolysis. This study will be helpful for further study in finding correlation or pattern of virulence properties for K. pneumoniae associated UTI in Bangladesh.
  • Isolation and Identification of Novel IndigenousBacterial Strain as a Low Cost Pectinase Source Biological and Applied Sciences

    Bibi, Nowshad; Ali, Sikander; Tabassum, Romana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was concerned with the searching of novel bacterial cultures from different samples for the lab scale production of pectinase. Keeping in view the increasing demand of pectinase specially in Faisalabad, an industrial city of Pakistan, isolation of new hyper producer bacterial strains locally is an easy and cheap way of getting the desirable products at low cost. Therefore, isolation of new strains for industrial enzyme production has been and will be remained a part of research every time. This method alone can also provide raw material for further research such as enzyme engineering or molecular directed evolution. For the identification of hyper producer strain colony PCR was done for 16S rRNA analysis. Reason to use the 16S rRNA for identification purpose is that the gene is fairly short and can be amplified quickly and easily. The bacterial isolate (sources of pectinase enzyme) was identified based on PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and for this purpose the amplified product was run in agarose gel against a known species of Bacillus licheniformis. The 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed the Bacillus status of the strain.
  • Brassinosteroids Reciprocates Heavy Metals Induced Oxidative Stress in Radish by Regulating the Expression of Key Antioxidant Enzyme Genes Biological and Applied Sciences

    Sharma, Indu; Sharma, Ashutosh; Pati, Pratap; Bhardwaj, Renu

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Heavy metal toxicity in plants lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant enzyme system is also not able to revert altered ROS homeostasis. The present study reports the heavy metal induced ROS toxicity by up-regulating the expression of key antioxidant enzyme genes through Brassinosteroids pre-soaking treatment in radish.
  • In Vitro Study Towards Role of Acrylamide-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes and the Protective Effect of L- Carnitine Biological and Applied Sciences

    Zamani, Ehsan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Modanloo, Mona; Shaki, Fatemeh

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Acrylamide (AA), is an important industrial compound, formed during food processing under high temperature. Due to its potential carcinogenic effect, it has been recognized as a human health concern. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in acrylamide’s genotoxicity and protective role of L- carnitine (LCA) in human lymphocytes. The micronucleus test (MNT) was used to monitor AA genotoxicity after 20h exposure to concentrations of 0.25,50 and 100 mM. Furthermore we evaluated oxidative stress markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content. In MNT, It has been found that AA at high concentrations (50 and 100 µM) significantly increased the micronuclei (MN) frequencies. On the one hand, AA exposure induced ROS formation, LPO and also GSH oxidation in treated lymphocytes. On the other hand, pretreatment with LCA (100 and 200µM) inhibited AA-induced oxidative stress which subsequently led to decreasing of the micronuclei (MN) frequencies in human lymphocytes. In overall, the clastugenic effect of acrylamide was confirmed. Also, it has been observed that LCA prevented AA genotoxicity via amelioration of oxidative stress in human lymphocytes. Therefore, oxidative stress suggested as an important factor involved in acrylamide-induced genotoxicity.
  • Crude Fermented Extract Containing Gibberellic Acid Produced by Fusarium moniliforme is an Alternative to Cost Reduction in Biofactories Biological and Applied Sciences

    Costa, Jefferson da Luz; Silva, André Luís Lopes da; Gollo, André Luiz; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Santos, Leandro Freire dos; Rodrigues, Cristine; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Nidularium procerum and Nidularium innocentii (Bromeliaceae) were cultivated in vitro on media supplemented with different sources and levels of GA3 (gibberellic acid). These sources were the commercial powder (analytical degree) and fermented extract obtained by Fusarium moniliforme via solid state fermentation. The in vitro elongation and rooting of these plants were evaluated after 50 days of cultivation. The GA3 present in the fermented extract possess the same effect of purified GA3 (analytical degree) for the increase of the height of aerial part of shoots of N. innocentii, but not for the N. procerum being the GA3 fermented extract in a lesser degree. The GA3 fermented extract influences negatively the rooting in N. innocentii, while GA3 analytical degree practically does not interfere in the rooting. On the other hand, in N. procerum, both the GA3 sources reduce the root number and do not interfere in rooting percentage. GA3 crude fermented extract is an alternative to reduce costs, however, its results can vary depending on the species and parameter evaluated. The fermented extract was stored at temperature during 260 days and its shelf life presented a suitable stability, maintaining 92% of its initial GA3 amount.
  • A Simple and High-yield Synthesis of Hexadecyl Ferulate and Its In Vitro Antioxidant Potential Biological and Applied Sciences

    Nadal, Jessica; Pedroso, Flávia de B.; Minozzo, Bruno Rodrigo; Brito, Priscilla Salles de; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Miyoshi, Edmar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with well-known antioxidant potential that can be used as a promising anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer molecule. Furthermore, it has been reported to have neuroprotective activity. One of the main problems, which limit its clinical use, is its low bioavailability when administered orally. This limitation can be circumvented by changes in their structure and/or for preparing lipid-based formulations. The aim of this study was to synthesize a derivative of FA, the hexadecyl ferulate (HF). This compound would be more susceptible to pass through blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to its lipophilic character. The HF was obtained by Steglich esterification and yielded 76.77 ± 1.35%. Its structural characterization was performed by spectroscopic methods of Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR spectrum of HF presented two typical bands of ester group, a C=O ester stretching band at 1725 cm-1 and a C-O stretching band at 1159 cm-1. The 1H and 13C spectral data confirmed the chemical structure of HF. Regarding the 13C NMR spectrum, HF showed a chemical shift at δ 167.39 ppm which corresponded to the carbonyl carbon of the ester group. Concerning the in vitro antioxidant potential, HF had equivalent or improved scavenger activity than FA leading to IC50 values of 0.083 ± 0.009 nmol.mL-1 and 0.027 ± 0.002 nmol.mL-1 in DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical cation decolorization assays, respectively. Further studies are required in order to investigate the antioxidant effect of HF in biological media.
  • Statistical Optimisation of Fermentation Media for Novel Clostridium novyi -NT Using Response Surface Methodology. Biological and Applied Sciences

    Krishnamoorthy, Kannan; Landge, Anil Vijay

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Clostridial collagenase is recognized as one of the important proteolytic enzymes used in treatment of varieties of fibro-proliferative disorders. The present work aimed to optimise the biomass concentration and collagenase enzyme activity of novel bacilli Clostridium novyi-NT. The response surface methodology tool was used to identify the optimal fermentation parameters. Central composite design (CCD) was applied with respect to three influencing factors - pH, proteose peptone and trypticase soya broth. These factors showed significant effect on the overall biomass concentration and collagenase enzyme activity (p<0.05). The maximum biomass concentration in terms of absorbance and collagenase activity (of crude enzyme) was achieved and recorded as 0.8309±0.0012 and 298.88±1.36 units/mg respectively after 22 hours of fermentation period while optimisation of media factors with help of response surface quadratic model. This is the first study to report maximum biomass concentration and collagenase activity by Clostridium novyi-NT till date by combining statistical designs.
  • Morpho and Cytological Differentiation of Calli of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla During Somatic Embryogenesis Biological and Applied Sciences

    Batista, Tânia Regna; Mendonça, Evânia Galvão; Pádua, Marlúcia Souza; Stein, Vanessa Cristina; Paiva, Luciano

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to induce and analyze embryogenic calli from two types of explants (leaves and meristems) of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Leaves and meristems of plants kept in a nursery were disinfected and inoculated in Petri dishes containing MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of the growth regulator dicamba (1.13, 4.52, and 9.04 µM) and without it. At 60 days of culturing, the calli were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and at 90 days were evaluated by light microscopy in regard to the embryogenic characteristics of the cells. Different type of calli were induced in leaf explants, designated as Type I with light yellow coloring, Type II with dark yellow coloring, and Type III of brown coloring; however, only Type I had embryogenic characteristics. In the meristematic explants, only one type of callus was induced, and it had embryogenic characteristics. At 90 days of culturing, the formation of somatic embryos in the different embryogenic stages was observed and the formation of procambium, protoderm, and ground meristem tissues. At 150 days of culturing, the concentration of 1.13 µM of dicamba was prominent in the formation of somatic embryos in the different embryogenic stages.
  • Evaluation of the Folin-Ciocalteu Method and Quantification of Total Tannins in Stem Barks and Pods from Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul) L. P. Queiroz Biological and Applied Sciences

    Galvão, Marcos Aurelio Morais; Arruda, Alice Oliveira de; Bezerra, Isabelle Cristinne Ferraz; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The stem bark and pods of “jucá” are widely used in Brazilian folk medicine and, despite their therapeutic relevancies, there are insufficient reports about their quality control. Both herbal drugs from the species are rich in tannins, which showed a lot of biological and economic interest. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the method for quantification of tannins in the stem bark and pods from L. ferrea. The performance of the method was tested against the influence of the most relevant parameters (reaction time; amount of drug; type and amount of precipitationagents; and, concentration of the reagents). The procedure was validated according to the literature. After optimization, the experimental conditions were established as: 30 min of reaction; λ of 760 nm; 1.0 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu; 29% of Na2CO3 (w/v); and, skin powder as complexion agent. The method validation showed that the instrumental response was linear and sensitive to the investigated analyte. The method presented the necessary precision (RSD < 2.19%) and accuracy (96.84%-109.13%), as recommended by the official codex. Moreover, the deliberate introduction of experimental variations showed the stability of the procedure error against external sources (RSD < 2.42%). In conclusion, the data demonstrated the suitability of the method and can be used as anappropriate analytical tool for quality control of herbal drugs from L. ferrea.
  • Morphological, Chemical and Molecular Characterization of ‘Old olive’ (Olea europaea L.) from Montenegro Biological and Applied Sciences

    Adakalic, Mirjana; Lazovic, Biljana

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Thousands of years of tradition of olive cultivation in Montenegro is witnessed with the ‘Old olive’ estimated to be more than 2000 years old. ‘Old olive’ draws attention to its genetic potential and the relation to the closest grown olive cultivars. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to give the basic description of ‘Old olive’ (through 20 morphological and 37 chemical properties) as well as to determine its DNA profile and to examine the closeness with major olive cultivar grown, cv. ‘Žutica’. The obtained data showed the differences between examined samples. ‘Old olive’ started flowering (27. May) more than 10 days later than cv. ‘Žutica’ (14. May), and began ripening 15 days later (20th October and 5th October, respectively). From 21 morphological parameters analysed all traits of fruit (weight 2.11g in ‘Old olive’ and 3.55g in cv. ‘Žutica’), and inflorescence density (6.39 versus 5.55) showed very significant and significant differences, respectively. The chemical properties also showed very significant differences in olive oil content in the fresh (11.28 versus 19.68%) and dry matter (27.97 versus 47.78%), and significant differences in the content of linolenic acid (0.76 versus 0.54g/100 of FA and of campesterol (3.4 versus 3.1%). Three out of eleven SSR markers (DCA05, DCA09, DCA16) distinguished obtained DNA fragments, and showed as important tool in differentiation of two samples. Further study of the ‘Old olive’ as a living memory of olive cultivation in Montenegro, should be to examine its relation with other ancient olive trees and local varieties.
  • Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Marine Sponges Aplysina Caissara, Haliclona sp. and Dragmacidon Reticulatum Biological and Applied Sciences

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Silva Júnior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da; Garcia, Edariane Menestrino; Peraza, Gianni Goulart; Soares, Andrea; Lerner, Clea; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive natural products with multiple pharmacological properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of extracts obtained from Aplysina caissara, Haliclona sp. and Dragmacidon reticulatum were evaluated by using the writhing test and formalin-induced mouse paw edema model in mice. All extracts were administered via oral pathway in the doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg. In the writhing test the pre-treatment with all sponges resulted in significant inhibition of the acetic acid-induced response, suggesting an antinociceptive effect. The formalin test showed that the extracts from A. caissara, Haliclona sp. and D. reticulatum, in the tested doses, did not affect the first formalin phase, however, they were effective in the late phase. To assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the test of formalin-induced paw edema was used. The oral administration of A. caissara, Haliclona sp. and D. reticulatum extracts significantly reduced the formalin-induced paw edema in mice. In conclusion, our data show that marine sponges can be an important source of anti-inflammatory and antinocicpetive products that can be promising therapeutical leads. Furthermore, pharmacological and chemical studies have been developed not only to characterize the mechanism(s) that is/are responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action but also to identify the active principles of sponges.
  • New Faunistic Records of Armoured Scale Insects of Southern Iran (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) Biological and Applied Sciences

    Rouhani, Mohammad; Vahedi, Hassan Ali; Marefat, Alireza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT As a result of recent field work in southern Iran from 2012 to 2016, twenty species of armoured scale insects were collected, representing two subfamilies (Aspidiotinae and Diaspidinae) and 4 tribes including Aspidiotini (8 species in 5 genera), Diaspidini (4 species in 2 genera), Leucaspidini (5 species in 4 genera) and Parlatoriini (3 species in 1 genus). The species Diaspidiotus gigas (Thiem and Gerneck), is illustrated and redescribed from Iran for the first time. In addition, four species are reported and redescribed from south of Iran for the first time: Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, Diaspidiotus armenicus Borchsenius, Leucaspis pusilla Löw, Melanaspis louristana Balachowsky and Kaussari.
  • Comparative Cytogenetics Among Three Sympatric Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): An Evolutionary Analysis in a High Endemic Region Biological and Applied Sciences

    Lorscheider, Carla Andreia; Oliveira, Jordana Inácio Nascimento; Dulz, Thais Aparecida; Nogaroto, Viviane; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The karyotypes of three armored catfish species (Loricariidae) from the Iguaçu river, southern of the Brazil, were compared using different techniques: C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which used 5S and 18S rDNAs and total Cot-1 fraction as probes. Hypostomus commersoni and Hypostomus derbyi presented 2n = 68 chromosomes, with karyotype formulae 12m+12sm+14st+30a and 12m+12sm+10st+34a, respectively; whereas Hypostomus myersi presented 2n = 74 chromosomes and 12m+16sm+12st+34a. The chromosomal localization of the Ag-NORs, 5S and 18S rDNAs differed in number of sites and chromosomal localization among the studied species. The total Cot-1 probe permitted the visualization of the repetitive DNA fraction in karyotypes of each species. Cross-hybridizations using total Cot-1 probe revealed that these species have repetitive DNAs in common. However, this does not occur in H. commersoni in relation to the other species. The apparent karyotype similarity suggests a close relationship between the sympatric H. commersoni and H. derbyi species, but the small differences detected in the examined chromosomal markers indicate evolutionary divergence due to gene flow restriction among them. Hence, the present findings indicate different composition of repetitive sequences among studied species, which permit to infer its role in chromosomal differentiation of Hypostomus.
  • Botanical Knowledge in the Law Enforcement: a Preliminary Approach Towards its Potential Use in Brazilian Criminal Caseworks Biological and Applied Sciences

    Manvailer, Vinicius; Leandro, Thales D.; Scremin-Dias, Edna

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We surveyed Brazilian forensic institutes in order to provide a baseline for botanical knowledge used in forensic applications. Our approach provides a better understanding of the law enforcement dynamics as a whole, and establishes perspectives and guidelines for implementing this discipline in Brazil, enhancing the elucidative power of Brazilian forensic institutes.
  • The p38 MAPK and NF-κB Pathways are Involved in Cyclic Compressive Force-induced IL-6 Secretion in MLO-Y4 Cells Biological and Applied Sciences

    Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Wenchuan; He, Yun; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Chenfeng; Zhu, Zhimin; Wang, Hang

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We previously revealed the involvement of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion induced by cyclic compressive force (CCF) in MLO-Y4 cells. In this study, we investigated the contributions of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways to IL-6 secretion by stimulating MLO-Y4 cells with CCF. At 80% confluence, different magnitudes (1000μstrain, 2000 μstrain and 4000 μstrain), frequencies (0.5 Hz, 1.0 Hz and 2.0 Hz) and durations (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h) of CCF were loaded onto cells using a four-point bending system. Flow Cytometry (FCM) analysis was used to analyze cell mortality rates after CCF loading. p38 and p65 phosphorylation as well as IκBα degradation in MLO-Y4 cells were detected by Western blotting (WB). Changes in IL-6 secretion after inhibitor treatment were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Cellular viability was over 90 percent after CCF. p38 and p65 phosphorylation increased under all conditions, whereas IκBα protein levels decreased. However, phosphorylation and degradation were not completely dependent on the loading magnitude, frequency or duration. Furthermore, p38 inhibition using the specific inhibitor SB203580 reduced both p38 phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion. Similarly, NF-κB inhibition using BAY 11-7082 decreased p65 phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion but increased the concentration of IκBα. These findings reveal significant roles for the p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways in IL-6 secretion induced by CCF in MLO-Y4 cells.
  • Cloning and Characterization of the Gene Encoding 3-hydroxy-3- Methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase from Fritillaria Cirrhosa D. Don Biological and Applied Sciences

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Rui; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Qian; Li, Jian

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR; EC1.1.1.34) catalyzes the first committed step of isoprenoids biosynthesis in Mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Here we report for the first time the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding HMGR from Fritillaria cirrhosa (FcHMGR), a bulbous medicinal plant. The full-length cDNA of FcHMGR was 2072 base pair (bp), containing a 1680-bp open reading frame. Bioinformatical analyses revealed that FcHMGR had HMG CoA-binding domains and two NADPH binding domains, which are required for HMGR activity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that FcHMGR expressed high in mature bulbs. A truncated version of FcHMGR protein lacking the N-terminal 249-bp GC rich area was expressed in Escherichia coli. The crude cell lysate containing the recombinant protein showed a better HMGR activity than the control and the relative enzyme activity was calculated to be 1.62 U/mg. The cloning, characterization and functional analysis of FcHMGR gene allowed us to further understand the role of FcHMGR involved in steroidal alkaloid biosynthetic pathway in F. cirrhosa at the molecular level.
  • Genome-wide Analysis of LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain) Gene Family in Brassica rapa Biological and Applied Sciences

    Huang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwei

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT LOB (lateral organ boundaries)-domain proteins define a family of plant-specific transcription factors involved in developmental process from embryogenesis to seed production. They play a crucial role in shaping the plant architecture through coordinating cell fate at meristem to organ boundaries. Identification of LBD genes from Brassica rapa genome, and analysis of phylogeny,gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic and tissue expression pattern analysis of LBD family genes in Chinese cabbage will be useful to the functions identification of plant LBD genes. Based on Brassica rapa genome database and bioinformatic method, Chinese cabbage LBD family genes were identified and the genes were sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was created using the MEGA5 program. Gene structure and chromosomes location were done by MapDraw, GSDS and Clustal X. Expression pattern of LBD genes at different development stages was analyzed based on RNA-seq. A total of 62 LBD genes were identified and could be classified into two classes and four subclasses according to the gene structure and conserved domain phylogeny relationship. Distribution mapping showed that the predicted LBDs were unevenly localized on all the 10 chromosomes, suggesting that they have an extensive distribution on the Brassica rapa chromosomes. Most of the LBD genes had differential expression pattern and showed highly diverse tissue-specific expression and functional diversity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome wide analysis of the Brassica rapa LBD gene family, which would provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the gene family.
  • Expression and Localization of Olfactory Receptor AcerOr1 from Chinese Honey Bee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Biological and Applied Sciences

    Guo, Lina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Olfactory receptors are essential for recognition and detection of odor in honeybees. Although we have cloned and characterized the sequence of olfactory receptor AcerOr1 before, the tissue distribution and location of this gene in the nurse and the forager worker Apis cerana cerana were not very clear. To further investigate this information of AcerOr1 gene, we analyzed its expression and localization. The results showed that AcerOr1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the antennae of nurse and forager bees, while the AcerOr1 protein was predominant in thorax, and its expression in antennae was higher in forager than in nurse. IHC revealed that AcerOr1 mainly localized in the olfactory neurons of the antennae. In addition, the staining intensity of AcerOr1 protein by IHC was consistent with the results of qRT- PCR and western blotting. The expression of AcerOr1 in non-olfactory tissues implied that, in addition to olfaction, it may involve in other physiological processes. The localization of AcerOr1 in antennae further suggests that it is involved in the olfactory system. Our research suggest that AcerOr1 may participated in perceive pheromone and odours of floral in nurse and forager bees, and also critical for the behavior of collecting, defending, cleaning between the nurse and the forager worker bees.
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of The Essential Oil And Anatomical Markers Of Lavandula Dentata L. Cultivated In Brazil Biological and Applied Sciences

    Justus, Barbara; Almeida, Valter Paes de; Gonçalves, Melissa Marques; Assunção, Daniele Priscila da Silva Fardin de; Borsato, Debora Maria; Arana, Andres Fernando Montenegro; Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro Noronha Sales; Paula, Josiane de Fátima Padilha de; Budel, Jane Manfron; Farago, Paulo Vitor

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Lavandula dentata, popularly known as lavender, is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of digestive and inflammatory disorders. The objective of this study was to analyzed the chemical oil composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil and anatomical markers of the leaf and stem of L. dentata cultivated in South Brazil. Essential oil showed an antioxidant activity similar to rutin and gallic acid when analyzed by phosphomolybdenum method. However, by the free radical DPPH and ABTS methods, it showed a slight potential antioxidant. Essential oil presented 1,8-cineol (63%) as major component, antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria strains and Candida albicans, by broth microdilution. The anatomical profile provided the following main microscopic markers: hypostomatic leaves; diacytic stomata, thin and striate cuticle; multicellular and branched non-glandular trichomes; capitate glandular trichomes; peltate glandular trichomes; dorsiventral mesophyll; flat-convex shape midrib, truncated on the abaxial side; one collateral vascular bundle in the midrib; square stem shape, angular collenchyma alternated with cortical parenchyma; sclerenchymatic fibers well-developed on the four edges.
  • Signatures of Selection From Candidate Gene Polymorphisms Panel in Five Zebu Breeds Biological and Applied Sciences

    Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola la

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The signals of selection using candidate genes polymorphism were studied in five zebu breeds of Mexico. Three loci from GHRH and complementarily Steroyl Co Desaturase F762, Dopamine Beta Hydroxilase 17299, and LEP3272 were identified under selection. Findings depict Zebu selection pressure mainly on Brahman breed resulting in a divergent structure pattern.
  • The Antinociceptive Effect of the Leaves and Flowers Ethanolic Extracts of Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth & Hook. F. ex S. Moore Biological and Applied Sciences

    Silva, Suellen Maria Albuquerque da; Silva Neto, Geraldo José da; Nascimento, Ivenis Raphael Cavalcante do; Viana, Max Denisson Maurício; Lima, Alyne Almeida de; Bezerra, Pedro Henrique Simões; Bastos, Maria Lysete de Assis; Moreira, Magna Suzana Alexandre; Campesatto, Eliane Aparecida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In view of the traditional use of Tabebuia aurea for treating pain and inflammation, the antinociceptive pharmacological potential of T. aurea ethanolic extracts (TAEE) was investigated through in vivo experimental models. First, the MTT assay was conducted to determine the potential cytotoxicity of the TAEEs. Afterwards, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin-, and glutamate-induced nociception tests were performed on Swiss adult mice treated with TAEEs (100 and 200 mg/kg doses, p.o.), or saline solution (control groups, 10mL/kg, p.o.), or standard drugs: dipyrone 40 mg/kg (p.o.), and morphine 5,7 mg/kg (i.p). In the MTT assay, none of the tested concentrations demonstrated signals of cytotoxicity. In the in vivo experimental models of acetic acid-induced writhing and glutamate-induced nociception, all TAEEs doses were able to statistically reduce the nociceptive response. However, the TAEEs did not show significant decrease in the amount of time that the animals spent licking the stimulated paw in the neurogenic phase of formalin-induced nociception test, differently of what was observed in the inflammatory phase. The results showed that T. aurea species induce an antinociceptive effect in rodents, which encourages the study of new drugs and contributes to the research on natural products.
  • Development of Adrenal Glands from the Embryonic Phase to Puberty in Spix’s Yellow-toothed Cavies (Galea spixii, Wagler, 1831) Biological and Applied Sciences

    Lobo, Luis Miguel; Santos, Amílton Cesar dos; Oliveira, Moacir Franco de; Assis-Neto, Antônio Chaves

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Several authors have underscored the importance of establishing parameters in morphological development by gender comparison to establish clinical and pre-clinical assays through the use of experimental models. Current research compares the morphometry of right and left adrenal glands of males and females and describes differentiation of the cortex and medulla tissue during the embryonic, pre-puberty and puberty phases in Spix´s yellow-toothed cavies. Embryos aged 22 (22D), 25 (25D), 30 (30D), 40 (44D) and >50 (50D) days of gestation and neonates aged 15 (15DPN) (DPN= Days postnatal), 30 (30DPN) and 90 (90DPN) days after birth were analyzed. Comparisons included morphometric and histological analysis in all periods described. When compared the right and left adrenal glands, results show that the length and width have statistical differences (p<0.05). Statistical difference between right and left glans for weight occurred only after 30D in males and after 50D in females. When compared male and females, no statistical difference in the right and left glands was extant. In the case of tissue differences, the glomerular zone is the first to emerge after 22D, followed by the fasciculate zone after 25D and by the reticular zone during the post-natal period. Medullar tissue was spread between the cortical tissue at the onset of development, establishing itself at the center of the organ since the end of pregnancy (>50D) up to puberty. Considering tissue differentiation, there was no difference between the adrenal glands of male and female cavies or between the right and left adrenal glands.
  • Influence of Drying Conditions on the Final Quality of Cherry and Grape Tomatoes Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Altino, Heitor Otacílio Nogueira; Locatelli, Karyna Maria de Mello; Cunha, Renata Nepomuceno da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The convective drying process of cherry and grape tomatoes for dried tomato production was studied taking into account operational and sensorial aspects. The tomatoes were physicochemical characterized and dried at three air temperatures in a drying chamber. Thus, it was possible to the determinate the physicochemical characteristics, drying kinetics, thickness shrinkage, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy. The effects of tomato type (cherry and grape), air temperature (60°C and 80°C), and final moisture (25% and 35% w.b.) were sensory evaluated utilizing a factorial experiment. The drying kinetics demonstrated that the drying processes occurred preferably in the falling rate-drying periods. The grape tomato showed a faster drying process, which was attributed to its higher surface area and also its internal structure. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the cherry tomato, dried at lower air temperatures, resulted in better sensorial characteristics and higher purchasing intention, whereas the final moisture had no effect.
  • Effect of Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Bioactive Compounds of Blackberry Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Noreña, Caciano Zapata; Rigon, Renata Trindade

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The inactivation of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and the degradation of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity in blackberry were investigated during blanching in water at 80-90 °C, and in steam, from 0 to 10 minutes. The enzyme kinetics indicated the presence of two isoenzymes with different thermal stability, following two-phase model, in which the reaction rate constant increased with increasing temperature for both the heat labile and heat resistant component. The phenolic compounds also followed a biphasic pattern, indicating a more heat resistant fraction, and the rate constants increased with increasing temperature. For the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins, the first order kinetic model (R2>0.982) indicated an increase in degradation rate constants with temperature, from 0.050 to 0.137min-1 for DPPH, 0.085 to 0.285min-1 for ABTS, and 0.017 to 0.052 min-1 for anthocyanins.
  • Evaluation of Oxidative Stability of Compound Oils under Accelerated Storage Conditions Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Pazzoti, Geisa; Souza, Camila; Veronezi, Carolina; Luzia, Débora; Jorge, Neuza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The oxidative stability of linseed (L), cotton (A), and coconut (C) oils, as well as of linseed:cotton (LA), linseed:coconut (LC), and linseed:cotton:coconut (LAC) compound oils was evaluated under accelerated storage at 60°C/20 days. Coconut oil showed to be rather stable, mainly due to low levels of peroxides, conjugated dienes, ρ-anisidine, and long induction period. In addition, along with cotton oil, it improved the stability of linseed oil in the formulation of LAC compound oil. As to fatty acid profile, the compound oils showed to be composed mainly by unsaturated fatty acids. Cotton and coconut oils presented higher retention of total phytosterols, 78.87 and 76.16%, respectively, after 20 days of storage, when compared to linseed oil. The highest retention of total tocopherols at the end of storage was observed in LA (90.81%). In relation to antioxidant activity, by the DPPH method, with the increase in storage time, a reduction in the antioxidant substances of linseed, LC, and LAC oils was observed. Through the FRAP method, oscillations were observed, especially in linseed and compound oils. Although the oils were degraded over time, it was possible to verify that cotton and coconut oils contributed to increase the stability of linseed oil, which, in turn, raised the levels of coconut oil bioactive compounds.
  • Influence of Prolonged Salting on the Physicochemical Properties of Duck Egg White Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Venkatachalam, Karthikeyan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Salted duck eggs are unique among the important authentic foods of Thailand. They are mainly produced in Chaiya district, Surat Thani province, in the southern part of Thailand. The egg whites of salted duck eggs are normally unusable due to heavily salty taste upon prolonged storage. The present study was aimed to examine the foaming characteristics of egg white after being cured for a prolonged period (30 days). At 5-day intervals the egg whites were measured for salt, moisture, water activity, hydrophobicity, pH, zeta potential, particle size, SH groups, surface tension and foaming properties (index of whipping, foam durability, specific density, overrun, air phase and yield stress). The results showed that prolonged curing significantly affected egg white and its foam. Salt content, hydrophobicity, particle size, and exposed SH groups gradually increased with storage period. On the other hand, moisture, water activity, pH, zeta potential, surface tension and total SH groups decreased continuously throughout the storage. In addition, foaming properties slightly declined due to accumulation of salt content with extended storage. Conversely, the yield stress - an important indicator of foam quality - increased from 32.33 to 70.55 % during storage. Overall, the egg whites could possibly serve as a key and/or a substitute ingredient in foam-based food products.
  • Starch Films Added of Açaí Pulp ( Euterpe oleracea Martius) Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Pessanha, Kênia Letícia Ferreira; Farias, Mônica Guimarães; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Edible films are an alternative to synthetic materials used for packaging foods. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize films made from cassava starch, freeze-dried acai and glycerol. The films were characterized for thickness, water vapor permeability, water solubility, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and mechanical properties. The results indicated a rich edible film in anthocyanins with considerable antioxidant capacity (150.70 micromol Trolox), which can extend the commercial validity of the packaged food and meets the growing demand for biodegradable packaging that tends to reduce the environmental impact. The addition results in a significant effect on the polymer matrix reducing the water solubility and water activity. The elongation test at rupture reported to be 17.738%, indicating that addition of pulp increased film flexibility.
  • Turkey Meat. Seasonal Effect on Meat Quality and on Dead on Arrival Index in a Commercial Plant Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto de; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Guarnieri, Paulo Donizete; Oba, Alexandre; Ida, Elza Iouko; Shimokomaki, Massami

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of Pale, Soft, Exudative (PSE) meat and to characterize the Dark, Fim, Dry (DFD) meat as well as the Dead on Arrival (DOA) index in a commercial turkey slaughterhouse in southern Brazil during the summer and winter seasons. The journeys (n=64) were over a distance of 36 ± 20 km and took approximately 95 ± 20 min. Color (L*) and pH distribution of turkey breast meat (n=5,352) were evaluated from different farms (n=64) during the 2015-2016 years. The pH, water-holding capacity, color (L*, a*, b*) were used to establish cutoff values for DFD meat (L* < 44.0 and pH > 5.90) and presented correlation among them. The L* value was the highest during the summer (P<0.01), indicating the highest incidence of PSE meat (28.35 %), and lowest during winter, observing the highest incidence of DFD meat (10.3 %). Finally, the obtained summer DOA index was 0.23 % higher in relation to winter.
  • Antithrombotic Activity of Milk Protein Hydrolysates by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Commercial Fermented Milks Food/Feed Science and Technology

    Pérez-Escalante, Emmanuel; Jaimez-Ordaz, Judith; Castañeda-Ovando, Araceli; Contreras-López, Elizabeth; Añorve-Morga, Javier; González-Olivares, Luis Guillermo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, thrombosis has been one of the pathologies with high incidence creating great concern in Health Institutes all around the world. Considering this, the aim of this research was to determine the antithrombotic activity of peptides released during lactic fermentation. Reconstituted skim milk powder was fermented by Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 isolated from commercial fermented milks. The hydrolysis degree and proteolytic profile were analyzed by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid spectrophotometry method and by peptide polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel separation. The milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei Shirota exhibited a higher concentration of free amino groups than that fermented by Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1. Additionally, in both fermentation systems peptides with molecular weights lower than 1.4 kDa were observed. The highest inhibition of thrombin (31.67±2.35%) was observed in milk fermented by Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 at 10 hours of fermentation. Finally, no relationship was found between the antithrombotic capacity and the proteolytic profile.
  • Content Based Geographic Image Retrieval using Local Vector Pattern Engineering, Technology and Techniques

    Jenitta, A.; Ravindran, R. Samson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Large image archives formed by satellite remote sensing missions are getting an increasing valuable source of information in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The need for retrieving a required image from a huge image database is increasing significantly for the purpose of analyzing resources in GIS. Content Based Geographic Image Retrieval (CBGIR) in the image processing field is the best solution to meet the requirement. In this work, we used Local Vector Pattern (LVP) to extract fine features present in the geographical image and retrieve the applicable images from a large remote sensing image database. The primary idea of our method is generating micro patterns of LVP by the vectors of each pixel that are constructed by calculating the values between the centre pixels and its neighbourhood pixels with various distances of different directions. Then the proposed method was designed for concatenating these vector patterns to produce more unique features of geographical images and comparing the results with Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Local Derivative Pattern (LDP) and Local Tetra Pattern (LTrP). Ultimately, the extensive analysis carried out on different geographical image collections proved that the proposed method achieves the improved classification accuracy and better retrieving results.
  • Cytotoxicity Assessment of a Poly(methyl methacrylate) Synthesized for the Direct Fabrication of Bone Tissues Engineering, Technology and Techniques

    Linan, Lamia Zuniga; Lima, Nadson Murilo Nascimento; Benatti, Carol; Xavier, Mariana; Rodrigues, Ana A.; Manenti, Flavio; Jardini, Andre; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Gilioli, Rovilson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A cytotoxicity study is performed on a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer (PMMA) to be used for the fabrication of bone tissue by Rapid Prototyping (RP). The solution polymerization is conducted in a pilot plant reactor using more appropriated reagents in consideration of the medical application. Moreover, the polymer is efficiently handled to avoid the side effect of the monomer, reducing the concentration of this specie to 287,731 µg MMA/kg PMMA. The cytotoxicity of the polymer is determined through growth monitoring, adherence and morphology of L-929 cells. Additionally, MTT and LIVE/DEAD tests are performed. The results showed continuous and progressive growth of the cells on the surface of the specimens. Moreover, the material did not influence on the viability of mesenchymal cells and inverted fluorescence microscopy images showed a polyanionic dye calcein well retained in the cells in contact with the PMMA as well as the negative control after 72 hours. Thus, the polymer was efficiently synthesized and handled for the expected demands.
  • Investigation on Solar PV generation and design of switched reluctance motor for Smart Agriculture actuation system Engineering, Technology and Tecniques

    Muniraj, Murali; R., Arulmozhiyal

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This paper presents standalone solar photovoltaic (PV) powered fed actuation system employing a switched reluctance motor (SRM) particularly used in remote and rural areas. The converter efficiency is achieved by changing ON and OFF state of solar PV drive. An electronic commutation drives SRM drive with achieved by position hall sensor and encoder. The modified boost converter is proposed in single stage to conversion of PV fed power and inverter with reduced switching losses. Further proposed system is designed to reduce cost of system using simple design and control. This paper also proposes the speed control strategy of SRM motor with an artificial intelligent based Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference (ANFIS) system to achieve desired motor velocity as stated in reference velocity in farm lands. The system proposed is subjected to analysis the performance of drive and controller in both load and no-load conditions. Initially, a simulation model is modeled in MATLAB-SIMULINK with corresponding environments. The experimental setup for proposed system is developed using FPGA based SPEEDGOAT real time target machine. The simulation and hardware results suggest feasibility of proposed system in real time.
  • Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Biodegradable Foam Trays for Food Packaging Obtained from Irradiated Cassava Starch Engineering, Technology and Techniques

    Brant, Antônio Jedson Caldeira; Naime, Natália; Lugão, Ademar Benévolo; Ponce, Patrícia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Biodegradable polymers, such as starch, cellulose, and derivatives thereof, are being studied to produce innovative packaging in the most diverse shapes (films, bags, trays, bottles, etc.) to attend this current market trend. The aim of this work was to produce foam trays from cassava starch for food packaging via extrusion followed by thermoforming process. Their formulations were based on unirradiated and γ-irradiated starches at diverse radiation absorbed doses (in kGy) in order to evaluate the influence of the irradiated starches on the physical properties of the trays. Water absorption results showed an irregular increase with the increase of the absorbed dose ( for example, 26.32% and 39.84% for the trays based on unirradiated starch 0 kGy and 1:1 (w/w) mixture of starches 0 kGy and 100.0 kGy, respectively). Other physicochemical properties were evaluated from the starches utilized and the trays obtained. Aerobic biodegradation of the foams by mass loss also was checked in soil burial test.
  • Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Fluorescence of Tryptophan in the Presence of Metal Ions Running title: Effect of pressure on the tryptophan Engineering, Technology and Techniques

    Bao, Chengman; Tang, Xinhui; Ye, Shuming

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effect of pressure on the fluorescence of tryptophan in the presence of metal ions was studied by fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that at 60 MPa, the fluorescence intensity of M/Trp mixtures (M represented metal ions) increased compared to that at atmosphere pressure. The relative fluorescence efficiency of M/Trp mixtures increased with pressure. When the M/Trp ratio was above 10:1, the relative fluorescence efficiency in decreasing order was Cu2+/Trp mixtures, Ni2+/Trp mixtures and Mg2+ (K+)/Trp mixtures. When the ratio was below 10:1, the decreasing order was Cu2+/Trp mixtures and Ni2+ (Mg2+, K+)/Trp mixtures. The relative fluorescence efficiency increased with the concentration of Cu2+ and Ni2+. The variation was relate to the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence in the presence of metal ions. A red shift was also observed, but the red shift was independent of metal ions.
  • Azo Dye Mineralization by Phanerochaete Chysosporium in a Sequencing Bath Reactor Engineering, Technology and Techniques

    Wanderley, Carlos Ronald Pessoa; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius; Pereira, Luciana José; Silva, Gloria Maria Marinho; Pessoa, Kelly Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The mineralization of the azo dye congo red by the fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied in two sequential batch bioreactors (R1 and R2), operated in cycles of 48 h (step I) and 24 h (step II). In step I, glucose concentration was 1 g.L-1 in both reactors and in step II, 1 g.L-1 of glucose was maintained in R1, but R2 received no addition of glucose. In step I, the average dye removal efficiencies were 76 ± 29 % (R1) and 53 ± 15% (R2), while in step II the averages recorded for dye removal for R1 and R2 were 84 ± 15 and 70 ± 28%, respectively. The rates of dye removal were 0.04 h-1 in R1 and 0.03 h-1 in R2 in step I. Higher rates were obtained in step II, 0,07 h-1 and 0,02 h-1 for R1 and R2, respectively. The highest dye removal occurred in R1 and, in R2, the residual dye was further removed. Laccase was the oxidised at higher amount, in step I was 54 μmol.min-1 for R1 and 38 μmolmin-1 for R2. The proposed treatment system was very effective in removing the azo dye, however the mineralization may not be complete and some by-products may have been formed, according to spectrofotometric analysis, were the peak corresponding to benzene, 220 nm, persisted.
  • Diversity of Plant Species in The Steel City of Odisha, India: Ethnobotany and Implications for Conservation of Urban Bio-Resources Environmental Sciences

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The vegetation of the Steel City (Rourkela) of Odisha, India has high ethnobotanical values by virtue of its rich floral diversity. People in the urban area are highly dependent on the plants available in and around the city for their primary needs. The present study highlights the use of local flora, explore, identification, ethnobotany and conservation of wild and cultivated plant species in the city of Rourkela, Odisha, India. It also pays heed to the proper utilization of urban flora as a way of highlighting its ethnopharmacological importance. A field survey was conducted to collect information about floral diversity in and around the city. Data on the use of plants was collected with a semi-structured questionnaire and from the peer-reviewed literature. A total of 154 plant species, belonging to 128 genera and 55 families, were identified, along with their botanical name, vernacular name, family and habitat. Of these plant species, 53 are medicinal, 43 are ornamental, and 33 are edible, while 23 are weeds. Paderia foetida and Saraca asoka fall into the RET (rare, endangered and threatened) group and are very effective against various diseases. Traditional uses of local plants in an urban area like Rourkela are very interesting. This shows that, not only rural and tribal areas are rich in useful bio-resources but so are urban or semi-urban areas. The documentation of all useful flora with ethnomedicinal potential is helpful in conserving plant biodiversity as well as in environmental studies along with potential applications in drug discovery and oriental medicine.
  • Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Enteromorpha intestinalis, (L.) Nees, a Macrophytic Algae: The Example of Kadin Creek (Western Anatolia) Environmental Sciences

    Yozukmaz, Aykut; Yabanli, Murat; Sel, Fatma

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims to specify the amount of ten heavy metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb) in water, sediment and Enteromorpha intestinalis samples gathered from Kadin Creek in seasonal periods in 2011 and 2012 and to reveal bioaccumulation capability of this macrophytic algae. In this regard, heavy metal concentrations in the gathered samples were determined first with mineralization and then via inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method. Findings suggested that algae could be used as an indicator in freshwater ecosystems in terms of studied heavy metals. With regard to bioconcentration factor values, in terms of water, algae accumulated aluminum the most and cadmium the least (Al > Cu > As > Zn > Cr > Mn > Ni > Pb > Hg > Cd), in terms of sediment, it accumulated mercury the most and aluminum the least (Hg > Cd > As > Zn > Pb > Mn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Al). The highest rate of heavy metal concentration in algae was observed in summer when contaminants in water and dynamics of plant development increased. It was also observed that the mean mercury and cadmium concentrations exceeded the maximum residue limit values.
  • Harnessing Natural Colorants for Sustainable Textile Dyeing an Eco-Friendly Approach Using Sweet Cane (Saccharum Bengalense Retz.) Inflorescence Environmental Sciences

    Raza, Ali; Iqbal, Naeem; Mahmood, Saqib; Parveen, Shagufta; Azeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad; Javed, M Tariq; Noman, Ali

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The excessive industrial use of dye producing plants has threatened the existence of these species and biodiversity. Exploration of abundantly available natural dye sources not only provide industrial benefits but also share the load of dye yielding plants. In the present study we used the inflorescence of munj sweet cane (Saccharum bengalense Retz.) to extract natural colorant for textile industry. This easily available plant is cheap source of natural colorants and good alternative of synthetic dyes. The munj sweet cane inflorescence extract and fabric was treated with microwave radiations. The dyeing aspects like temperature, time, fabrics to extract ratio, salt type and salt concentrations were optimized. Pre-and post mordanting was carried out and optimized using copper, iron, moringa and turmeric. All the samples were analyzed by spectra flash D65 10 Deg to determine the color strength (%) value. Results proved inflorescence extract of munj sweet cane (RS, two minutes) using aqueous media as a good source of natural dye. Three grams of sodium chloride as exhaustion agent was observed to be the best while 70 0C temperatures gave best colour strength. Among chemical mordants, iron proved to be good one for producing varying shades and better colour strength. Bio mordanting with turmeric was proved to be more beneficial for getting best color strength and new shades.
  • Evaluation of CO2 Biofixation and Biodiesel Production by Spirulina (Arthospira) Cultivated In Air-Lift Photobioreactor Environmental Sciences

    Morais, Etiele Greque de; Cassuriaga, Ana Paula Aguiar; Callejas, Nicolás; Martinez, Natalia; Vieitez, Ignacio; Jachmanián, Iván; Santos, Lucielen Oliveira; Morais, Michele Greque de; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Spirulina is a microalgal genre that has the capacity to produce various bioproducts with applications in several areas including the energy sector. The study aimed to assess the ability of CO2 biofixation, biodiesel and other biocompounds production by Spirulina sp LEB 18 cultured in air-lift photobioreactor. The microalgae presented a rich macronutrient composition: protein (47.3%), carbohydrates (13.4%) and a high lipid content (32.7%) in a media with nitrogen reduction, CO2 using air-lift photobiorector. Furthermore, 160 mg.L.d-1 of CO2 was biofixed, generating a maximum biomass yield of 0.02 g.L.d-1. The lipids evaluated for biodiesel production presented a theoretical yield of 19.8% for in situ transesterification and 47.9% for conventional transesterification. The microalgal biomass has potential for producing biodiesel that can be applied instead or in mixture with traditional diesel fuel. The study of obtaining energy associated with the production of other high value-added biocompounds from the microalgal biomass is of high importance because in this way, the viability of biofuel production by this microorganism can be increased.
  • Erratum: Apoptosis and Histopathology of the Heart after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion in Male Rat Running title: Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Erratum

  • Erratum: Evaluation of the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 Bycatch in Artisanal Fisheries in Southern Brazil Erratum

  • Erratum: Anticandidal effect of endophytic bacteria isolated from Equisetum arvense L. against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Erratum

  • Erratum: Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) Erratum

  • Erratum: Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Erratum

  • Erratum: Phenolic Content and Biomolecule Oxidation Protective Activity of Globularia alypum Extracts Erratum

  • Erratum: Administration of venlafaxine after chronic methadone detoxification blocks post-depression relapse in rats Erratum

  • Erratum: Developmental Toxicity of (4S)-2- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) thiazolidine- 4-carboxylic acid in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Erratum

  • Erratum: Changes of the Total Lipid and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Contents in two Microalgae Dunaliella Salina and Chlorella Vulgaris Under Salt Stress Erratum

  • Erratum: Diversity of the Potential 2-Methylisoborneol-Producing Genotypes in Thai Strains of Planktothricoides (Cyanobacteria) Erratum

  • Erratum: Expression, Purification and Functional Assessment of Smallest Isoform of Human Interleukin-24 in Escherichia coli Erratum

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  • Erratum: Brain Region Specificity of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Response to Nrf2 Knockdown: A Comparison Among Hippocampus, Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala of Male Rat Brain Erratum

  • Erratum: The Nano-Magnetic Dancing of Bacteria Hand-in-Hand with Oxygen Erratum

  • Erratum: Determination of the Effect of the Elimination Diet Applied for Overweight and Obese People with Food Intolerance on Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters Erratum

  • Erratum: The Evolving Role of Erythropoietin in Lung of Irradiated Rats Erratum

  • Erratum: Assessment of Sugarcane Germplasm (Saccharum spp. complex) Against Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum Falcatum Erratum

  • Erratum: Economic Viability of Tomato Cultivation in Organic Farming System Erratum

  • Erratum: Anticandidal Biotic Contamination and Possible Ways of Sterilization: A Review with Reference to Bamboo Micropropagation Erratum

  • Erratum: Characteristics and Mechanisms of Biosolubilization of Rock Phosphate by Aspergillus japonicus Erratum

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