Abstract in English:Abstract Advances in energy demand in rural areas cannot be dissociated from agricultural modernization, large estates, mechanization of labor and reduced investment in small production. The use of biogas together with biomass are the most cost-effective ways for the small producer, as it has a high calorific value. In the case of biogas the procedure is performed by combining a compressor and a chiller, allowing the gas enter the reactor and burn together with the air stream. The use of these techniques is an auxiliary way to reduce the cost of the producer to produce a certain crop, besides allowing a participation in the final energy supply, so that the utilities have an alternative to distribute the surplus energy to another region, serving thus a wider range in the rural area.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this paper is to evaluate, through the 100-year Life Cycle Analysis, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature Increasing Potential (GTP) impact categories. It is proposed scenario of replacement of the energy matrix for the supply of electricity by Solar Photovoltaic, adopting as consumption base the facilities of Supermarkets, as they contribute to environmental impacts for greenhouse gas emissions such as: intensive use of electricity, occupation large areas such as the main building or parking lot sealing the ground, the movement of customers' vehicles with air and noise pollution and the use of plastic bags. Modifying the energy matrix using electricity from renewable sources enables the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. According to proposed scenarios for the composition of the energy matrix, based on the emission values of the Concessionaire's matrix, the result of the analysis confirms the premise that the use of renewable sources contributes to the reduction of environmental impacts, and that the substitution of Concessionaire's energy matrix for Photovoltaic Solar Energy represents a reduction in terms of kgCO2-eq, over the 100-year horizon, of 85% for GTP and 86% for GWP.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical representation by Regression Analysis that enables the projection of electricity consumption according to the built area and population in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) and to define an Indicator that contemplates the most significant variable in consumption. of electric power. The Null Hypothesis -H0 is that in a HEI the most appropriate indicator is the Kilo Watt Hour per square meter (kWh / m2) as proposed by the Ministry of Planning and Management - MP. The research universe is 2,368 HEI, identified in a report from the Ministry of Education (2015). As Sample and case study, data from the thirteen Campi of the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR) are used. As a computational tool we use the IBM SPSS Statistics Base Software for Windows version 23 from SPSS Inc .. For the considered Sample and research design, the conclusion is that the null hypothesis is rejected accepting that the most significant indicator is the kilo. Watt Time per user (kWh / user). This conclusion does not exclude the relationship between constructed area and Energy Consumption, but reveals that it is not as significant as the number of individuals in HEI for this sample.
Abstract in English:Abstract The demand for electricity is growing worldwide. At the same time, the non-renewable natural resources that account for a large proportion of the global energy matrix are rapidly depleting, which will pose a major challenge in the near future. Therefore, micro-grid models that use renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, are rapidly developing and are becoming economically viable alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of installing solar and wind power generation systems in the NOVVALIGHT electrical components factory located in Campo Largo, Paraná, Brazil. The most viable model was the combination of solar and wind energy, which would generate approximately 260 MWh of energy per year. Using financing provided by the Brazilian Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES), this proposal has an eight-year payback period, net present value of BRL 149,097.42, and internal rate of return of 18%, demonstrating its economic viability.
Abstract in English:Abstract Electricity is undoubtedly one of the most important resources in the modern world. As the demand for electric energy increases, conventional resources that are transformed into electric energy are being exhausted, generating a need to search for alternative sources, resulting in a significant increase in energy costs. This study presents an integrated project of an intelligent microgrid and energy management aimed at reducing energy costs. At the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), electricity represents an annual cost of over BRL 13 million, which is the third largest operating expense of the university. In addition, the public education budget in Brazil has been decreased in recent years. Therefore, this study was conducted within the scope of UFPR and aimed to analyze three alternatives to reduce electric energy costs: i) demand management through an analysis of energy bills, ii) migration to the free energy market, and iii) the development of an in-house photovoltaic generation facility. A computational tool to optimize the contracted demand and simulate the annual savings with the free market and distributed generation projects was developed using Microsoft Excel. Payback, the net present value, and the internal rate of return were calculated. Finally, the economic viability of all alternatives was proven, with demand management demonstrating an economic potential of greater than BRL 500,000 per year, use of the free market saving more than BRL 300,000, and the developed in-house photovoltaic generation system achieving an economic impact of more than BRL 600,000 per year.
Abstract in English:Abstract The electric vehicle (EV) is not a recent invention. Between the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century, most motor vehicles were electric, due to their superior reliability and cleanliness, compared to that of vehicles driven by internal combustion engines (ICE). However, with the development of ICEs and the reduction of their price, electric cars were forgotten. Only almost a century later, they returned in the market due to a significant increase in fossil fuels prices, as well as to a growing environmental concern. EVs present a number of advantages over ICE vehicles: they are simpler and require less use and replacement of parts, resulting in lower maintenance costs; moreover, they do not release pollutants into the environment. However, their production cost is still much higher than that of ICE vehicles. In order to verify the possibility of converting a conventional vehicle into an electric one at a reasonable cost, achieving a good performance and a good kWh/km ratio, an ICE-powered Mercedes-Benz Class A 190 was converted into an EV. The results of several tests indicate that the conversion is feasible, as the car reached an average travelling cost of 0.16 R$/km, assuming a price for the energy of 0.63 R$/kWh. Moreover, this cost could be as low as zero if solar radiation is utilized to generate electricity through photovoltaic panels, which is an even more environmentally sustainable solution..
Abstract in English:Abstract In Brazil, the demand for the acquisition and installation of photovoltaic systems has grown exponentially and, with that, the importance of studies considering their effects on the distribution grids power flow also grows. Due to the intermittent nature of photovoltaic generation, it is important to approach the analysis in a discrete way, taking into account the changes in the power injections during the studied period. Thus, this article presents the daily analysis of the effects of photovoltaic generation on the distribution system through the computational implementation of a discretized power flow routine. The implemented routine can also analyze the effects of other distributed generations on distribution grids, whether those grids are radial or not. The study results show positive impacts on the voltage quality obtained by the photovoltaic systems insertion, for a well-known distribution test system.
Abstract in English:Abstract Animal biomass is a source of energy commonly discarded without or with low utilization, but its availability draws attention to its reuse . The utilization can be carried out in different ways, varying in terms of generation time and efficiency. The use of biodigestion requires a relatively small area compared to landfills or natural composting, and it provides other materials besides biogas, that can be recycled as fertilizer and has a short residence time of residues . The energy supplied as biogas can be harnessed as heat or electricity in case of conversion. Considering the energy needs of animal husbandry and the ease of reinsertion of energy in the production cycle, the possibility of distributed generation of biogas was studied as a way to complement the rural energy consumption matrix. Poultry farms require heat for chicks , dairy production centers require sterilization of used equipment  and pig farms require good heating systems to ensure animal weight gain . In this way, the production can take advantage of the heat of the gas without the conversion into electricity, minimizing losses. Creation centers themselves can also generate electricity, eliminating the need for large transmission lines.
Abstract in English:Abstract With the insertion of distributed generation in distribution networks, security analysis becomes crucial, in islanded operation or when the system is connected to the grid. Dynamic stability analyses are necessary in order to achieve minimum levels of security and reliability. Such analyses are obtained through the solution of the algebraic-differential set of equations that model the distribution grid and their generators, which requires numerical solution methods. Therefore, this paper presents a computational tool for transient stability and large disturbance frequency stability analysis, considering distribution systems with the insertion of biomass-fed distributed generation, which may, or may not, have speed regulation systems. The presented tool may be employed to assess assorted system indexes, such as the severity of disturbances, the quality of a given operating condition, in terms of voltage and frequency operating limits, and the response of both the system and the generators in face of the action of speed regulators.
Abstract in English:Abstract The photovoltaic solar energy in Brazil was boosted by Normative Resolution No. 482/2012 of ANEEL, which regulated the micro and mini generation in the compensation system, and by the specific auctions for photovoltaic plants carried out by the federal government. However, the country still has little representation of the solar energy in its electrical matrix, about 0.13%, with approximately 1% of the installed capacity of electric power generators considering all the sources, both values refer to the year 2017. In the initial moments of a technology, its growth occurs irregularly and because there is little installed capacity, any added value can cause abrupt variations in the percentage from one year to another, that is, its growth still does not follow a sustainable standard, which should be regularized around the year 2025, following the worldwide trend of growth of approximately 30% each year. As a scenario for 2025, the total power of the PVSGC in Brazil will be approximately 75.6 GWp which will represent 98.3 TWh of electric energy produced by this source, considering the estimated electric energy demand for 2025 of 800 TWh, will result in the contribution of 12.3% of the energy by solar photovoltaic source.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sustainability, a concept used to exploit natural resources without harming future generations, is being applied to power generation. In Brazil, the main source of electric energy comes from hydroelectric plants, due to abundant water resources. However, the implementation of these plants causes irreversible impacts on the environment and society. On the other hand, the impacts caused by photovoltaic panels are considerably smaller in the construction phase and zero in the operation phase. This article describes the impacts generated by hydroelectric power plants and gives an overview of the power generated by floating photovoltaic panels using 10% of the area of the reservoirs of the largest hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. The results demonstrate a better efficiency of the photovoltaic panels in the water, which cools them, increasing their efficiency. Furthermore, photovoltaic panel power generation amount is higher than compared the annual power generation of three out of four hydroelectric plants analyzed. In addition, adding solar energy to the reservoirs would save infrastructure costs, considering that energy can be made available through substation infrastructure and existing power transmission systems.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Brazilian Standard for Thermal Performance and Bioclimatic Zoning (NBR 15.220-3) establishes twelve strategies to achieve thermal comfort inside buildings considering the dry bulb temperature and the predominant humidity in each climate. These strategies are visualized in the Bioclimatic Charts of Brazil main cities. This study seeks, through computational simulation by the EnergyPlus software, to test the bioclimatic strategy proposed by the Standard for the city of Curitiba through the addition of thermal mass. The goal is to check the validity of the temperature limits related to the constructive guidelines described. The article is restricted to the analysis of Bioclimatic Zone 01 in which Curitiba is inserted. To this end, the unit of analysis was a standard apartment located in the city. It was used as a model for simulations with constructive materials of different thicknesses and thermal properties. The indexes of the materials correspond to those described in the Standard. From the comparison of results of the buildings internal temperature regarding the external temperature data, the applicability of the Thermal Mass Addition strategy was verified in the gap between 14 to 21 degrees Celsius of Dry Bulb Temperature. In conclusion, the limits stipulated in Standard for this Area were only partially confirmed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Understanding the solar radiation values in the surface is important for the development of solar energy projects, obtaining through radiometers installed in certain places or publications as in solar energy atlases. Typically, solar or weather stations do not have sensors to measure diffuse irradiation due to high investment and the need for constant maintenance. This paper presents methods for the determination of diffuse irradiation from surface measured data of global horizontal irradiation in the city of Curitiba, obtained through pyranometers installed at the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR) headquarters and from Curitiba-A807 National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) station. Two models are presented for the estimation of the monthly mean daily diffuse irradiation, based on the studies of Liu and Jordan (1960) and Page (1961). Finally, these data were compared with those presented by the Solar Energy Atlas - Paraná, verifying the percentage differences presented. It was observed that the model elaborated by Page presented better results in the diffuse radiation estimates when compared to the values presented by the Paraná Atlas, with an average variation of -1.39% and -1.55%, for data from INMET and UTFPR respectively.
Abstract in English:Abstract With the increasing of energy demand in Brazil and the unprecedent popular support for the use of energy sources with low environmental impact, the market for photovoltaic energy has become progressively relevant. Thus, it is of strategic importance to gather information of the solar resources either for a particular location or a specific region. This paper presents all the steps taken in order to design a solarimetric station intended to be used as part of the National Institute for Space Research's(INPE)Environmental Database System (SONDA)network, from the specification of the devices and sensors that will take part in it to the structural dimensioning necessary in order to accommodate them. This high-quality network mainly collects and stores surface solar radiation data, indispensable for the solar energy study and prospecting, therefore of great importance for the generation of energy of the State of Paraná– Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract The photovoltaic solar energy has been growing in installed capacity worldwide year by year, and Brazil has also been investing in this renewable source of energy generation. The conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in the photovoltaic cells, which are sensitive to the increase of the temperature. A considerable amount of the energy incident on the module is transformed into heat, rising its temperature and decreasing its efficiency. This study aims to estimate the temperature in photovoltaic cells (Tc) for polycrystalline silicon modules from a grid-connected photovoltaic systems through several equations proposed over the last decades by researchers. This estimation will occur in the municipality of Curitiba, using data from INMET’s automatic station, located in the same city. The estimation was calculated hourly, throughout the day for one year. The validation of the estimated results was performed by measuring the cell temperature of a photovoltaic system installed in Curitiba, where it was observed that the equation proposed by Duffie and Beckman (2013) was the one that most approached to the measured value.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper presents the development of a conceptual map regarding energy management applied to industry. The energy issue is currently of great relevance, especially for the so-called energy-intensive industries related to high energy consumption and their associated environmental impacts. The present research is characterized as a basic, exploratory approach justified by the need to build knowledge on the subject of energy management in industry. The methodology provides for the use of a computational tool called CMap Tools, which assists in the graphic representation of the proposed conceptual map. The conceptual map based on the ISO 50001 standard and on successful energy management practices described in the scientific literature is directed toward a process design covered by the managerial discipline called Business Process Management. The conceptual map is intended to clarify the relationships that are established between the intra-organizational and main external stakeholders involved in an energy management system. Owing to the way internal areas and external organizations relate, the representation structure using a “Spider” is the most appropriate. The work developed presents an energy management system for an energy-intensive industry in a clear (conceptually and visually), orderly, unified, harmonious, and balanced manner indicating the distribution of its elements, and serves as an initial step in the creation of an ontology for this area of knowledge.
Abstract in English:Abstract The acceptance and deployment of electric power from sustainable sources, which are less polluting than fossils, have been a consensus throughout society. Specially, the growth of the installed capacity in photovoltaic energy has been considerable in distributed generation. In order to properly take advantage of this growing demand, it is necessary to adopt appropriate measures and procedures to improve the operation and performance of photovoltaic systems. The purpose of this work is to present such measures and procedures, under quantitative and qualitative analysis, using scientific methodologies and tools. In the end, a set of procedures was obtained that analyzes functional and structural aspects of small grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Its validation was carried out in a case study of photovoltaic system of the Department of Electrical Engineering (DELT) of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR, Brazil).
Abstract in English:Abstract In a world where technology is even more essential, quality and reliability of electrical system are fundamental. In Brazil, country where most of the energy is produced thought power plants, the existing distribution network is overwhelmed and the needs for the consolidation of distributed generation is growing. Wind and Solar power generation from biomass and another renewable sources are one alternative to power plants, which requires large areas and massive investment. The renewable energy sources mentioned may be assembled in a way to generate reliable energy to properties far from the cities, such as rural zones, where often energy from power plants doesn’t gets to. Distributed generation allows quick development of Brazilian farming and guarantees to the farmer independence from the energy dealerships. Microgrids assembled with renewable sources are one sustainable option and benefits Brazilian economy and society.
Abstract in English:Abstract Around the world there’s a rising interest in the installation of renewable energy sources due to their ecological, economical, political and social advantages. In this article is studied specifically the case of the incentive towards the installation of these sources in the state of Parana’s rural area, where they wouldn’t just be ecologically interesting, but also would help the improvement on the living conditions of the rural producers, promote income distribution and would cause an increase on the power supply, this way reducing the tariff. However, the problem arises in the acquisition of the energy generator, since even though they are interesting for the rural producers, these sources are majorly too expensive and end up being beyond their purchasing power. Based on that, this article brings a selection of public policies that could make the use of these sources viable in the rural area of the state, based on the experiences of other countries who face or have faced in the past similar difficulties, like China or India, and countries who have become reference in the matter, like Germany.
Abstract in English:Abstract Data Centers are growing steadily worldwide, and they are expected to continue growing up to 53% in 2020. Energy efficiency, in high power consumption, is a key venue. There are methodologies to measure this efficiency, one example is using the PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness) index. In this paper is proposed a new index for measuring efficiency at the design stage, the EUED (Energy Usage Effectiveness Design). This index allows to evaluate systems using “free cooling” and adiabatic system. A comparison is performed considering the equipment in the worst situation. The thermodynamics parameter enthalpy is used to calculate the results. This new methodology allows to determine differences between the cities of São Paulo and Curitiba (1.21%) and between Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba (10.61%). The values for the EUED index were 1.245 kW/kW for Curitiba, 1.260 kW/kW for São Paulo and 1.377 kW/kW for Rio de Janeiro, respectively, reaching a difference of 16.86% for Curitiba, 16.19% for São Paulo and 10.31% for Rio de Janeiro in relation to PUE COA (Power Usage Effectiveness Constant Outdoor Air). The advantage of the EUED is that it works with the 8,760 hours in the design phase, using psychometric elements to determine when to use free cooling and evaporative system, and more importantly varying the COP according to environmental characteristics.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Humanity is increasingly dependent on energy, which demand grows every year. Renewable energy sources are consolidated alternatives in the market, previously installed on a small scale but now thought as large plants. The correct operation, taking full advantage of the generation potential, depends on studies of the place of implantation, such as radiation levels, temperature, latitude, etc. Two photovoltaic systems installed in the city of Curitiba were studied in order to monitor their respective performances through figures of merit.
Abstract in English:Abstract Governments and private companies have increased efforts to identify effective actions for improving energy efficiency in manufacturing processes. The objective of this work is to improve the decision-making process by increasing the quality of information related to energy indicators in the food industry. This research involves developing a systematic literature review (SLR) to identify energy efficiency indicators in the food industry, which serve as inputs for a sectoral evaluation based on multicriteria techniques. The SLR identified six criteria evaluated by food industry experts, which form the proposed basis for evaluating the performance of related sectors. These criteria are: benchmarks, key performance indicators, framework, monitoring, ISO 50001, and information communication technologies (ICTs) in sectoral evaluations. The criteria were evaluated by experts using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which prioritizes the most important food industry issues using an evaluation scale. Weights were attributed to each issue and positioned according to the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) to evaluate each sector by the identified criteria. The evaluated criteria are applicable to the three sectors surveyed, with emphasis on the beverage sector. Among the evaluated criteria, ICTs were highlighted by Industry 4.0 as a concern for the food sector.
Abstract in English:Abstract Photovoltaic (PV) buildings are increasingly present in urban centers and can generate their own energy becoming independent of the grid, depending on their consumption profile. However, most residential and commercial consumers show their peak demand at night, when there is no photovoltaic generation, needing the electricity grid to meet the demand of these facilities. Peak demand lead to increased costs for these consumers and end up disrupting the power quality of the grid. One possible solution for these listed problems is by applying storage systems to these buildings, which is already being done in some countries and can increase the PV generation. Aiming to seek the state of the art of these systems, this article brings a review of the literature, highlighting the possible modes of operation and a real case of application in PV buildings in the world. Also are described the storage technologies most appropriate for applications in these buildings, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. It is expected to gain greater knowledge of these systems, in order to overcome the challenges of intermittence generated by renewable sources, enabling the reduction of energy demand costs in these customers so that it can also be applied in the Brazilian scenario.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current reality of the energy market requires generation, control, distribution and consumption to become more efficient. Recent arrangements with electric energy stored in accumulators appear as strategic tools in the environment where the cost of energy supplied by the concessionaires and permission holders has accumulated successive increases, indirectly enabling the control and management of applications of micro or local minigeneration, from renewable sources in general. Systems with energy storage (e.g. batteries) and local demand management (many consumer units) achieve great efficiency by allowing the optimized consumption of the available energy, both by the local power grid and by the accumulated grid. Other advantages are presented for the distributors, allowing the relief of the electricity network, remunerating the investment in reduced intervals of time. Consideration should be given to the possibility of local autonomy, even if partially, by providing energy from the storage to the local loads in eventual failures in the supply of energy by the distribution network or at times where supply has a higher cost.