Abstract in English:Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important crops in the world, and it is considered the primary source of nutritional layout in developing countries in Asia. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) superfamily confers to rice protection against biotic and abiotic stress, and herbicide resistance. However, the three-dimensional structure of a GST Tau class, is unsolved. The objectives of this work were to develop a reliable comparative model for the s-transferase glutathione class Tau 4 from rice, and simulate docking interactions, against herbicides bentazon and metsulfuron. Results showed that the predicted model is reliable and has structural quality. Ramachandran plot set 91.9% of the residues in the most favored regions. All complexes showed negative binding energies values; and metsulfuron docked to the glutathione tripeptide, and it represents a possible insilico evidence of glutathione conjugation with this herbicide.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies evaluating the influence of nutrients on plant anatomy are very important because nutritional deficiencies can alter the thickness and shape of certain tissues, compromising their functionality what can explain the reduction of productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical changes in cherry tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies. The experiment was conducted in nutrient solution and the plants subjected to three treatments: complete solution (Control), Ca restriction (1 mmol L-1 of Ca) and Mg omission (without Mg). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three repetitions. Sixty days after seedling transplanting leaves and stem were collected and submitted to anatomical evaluations. Ca or Mg deficiency promotes most evident anatomical changes in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems. Leaves of ‘Sindy’ tomato plants with a concentration of 1.7 g kg-1 of Mg and visual symptoms of Mg deficiency present hyperplasia of both tissues, phloem and xylem. This deficiency also promotes increases in the thickness of mesophyll, spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma, and consequently of leaf thickness. The midrib of the leaves with a concentration of 10 g kg-1 of Ca, without visual symptoms of deficiency presented phloem hypertrophy and hyperplasia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bioprocess studies have been highlighted due to the importance of physiological processes and industrial applications of enzymes. The potential of peptidase production from Aspergillus section Flavi using different amino acids as a supplemental nitrogen source was investigated. A production profile revealed that amino acids had positive effects on peptidase production when compared to the control without amino acids. Optimal production (100 U/mL) was obtained with Arginine amino acid in 96 h of fermentation. Extracellular peptidase from Aspergillus section Flavi was identified in submerged bioprocesses by in situ activity. Biochemical studies revealed that the maximum activities of the enzyme extract were obtained at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 55°C. The inhibition by EDTA and PMSF suggests the presence of more than one peptidase while the Ni2+ and Cu2+ had a negative influence on the enzyme activity. When the crude extract was reversibly immobilized on ionic supports, DEAE-Agarose and MANAE-Agarose the derivative showed different profiles of thermal and pH stabilities. Hence, this study revealed the basic properties and biochemical characteristics that allowed the production improvement of this class of enzyme. Moreover, with known properties stabilization and immobilization process is required to further explore its biotechnological capacities.
Abstract in English:Abstract A comprehensive comparison of the main fermentation parameters, productivity, yield and final L-lactic acid concentration, obtained through batch, fed-batch and continuous cultivations using Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198 and a model cultivation medium was carried out. Using this data, a pulse-feed fed-batch process was established for testing chicken feather hydrolysate as a replacement for all complex nitrogen sources (yeast and beef extracts and peptone) in the medium. As comparably high values of productivity (about 4.0 g/L/h) and yield (about 98 %) were reached under all cultivation conditions, the maximum final L-lactic acid concentration (116.5 g/L), as achieved through pulse-feed fed-batch fermentation, was chosen as the most important criterion for process selection. Fed-batch cultivation with chicken feather hydrolysate as both a complex nitrogen source and a neutralizing agent for maintaining constant culture pH yielded half the concentration of L-lactic acid compared to the model medium. We demonstrate here that chicken feather hydrolysate has potential for use in the production of L-lactic acid but its utilization requires further optimization
Abstract in English:Abstract The second-generation bioethanol employs lignocellulosic materials degraded by microbial cellulases in their production. The fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the main microorganisms producing cellulases, and its genetic modification can lead to the optimization in obtaining hydrolytic enzymes. This work carried out the deletion of the sequence that encodes the zinc finger motif of the transcription factor ACE1 (cellulase expression repressor I) of the fungus T. reesei RUT-C30. The transformation of the RUT-C30 lineage was confirmed by amplification of the 989 bp fragment relative to the selection marker, and by the absence of the zinc finger region amplification in mutants, named T. reesei RUT-C30Δzface1. The production of cellulases by mutants was compared to RUT-C30 and measured with substrates carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel®) and Whatman filter paper (PF). The results demonstrated that RUT-C30Δzface1 has cellulolytic activity increased 3.2-fold in Avicel and 2.1-fold in CMC and PF. The mutants presented 1.4-fold higher sugar released in the hydrolysis of the biomass assays. These results suggest that the partial deletion of ace1 gene is an important strategy in achieving bioethanol production on an industrial scale at a competitive price in the fuel market.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diatoms are the major group of microalgae which have been utilized by the potential applications as food industries, aquatic feeds, cosmetics, biofuels, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, current approaches were made in order to determine growth rate, biomass productivity, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and fatty acid composition for Nanofrustulum shiloi cultures using both aeration and mixing conditions in flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR). Physical (the intensity of aeration, mixing, light intensity etc.) and chemical (nutritional materials) factors are affecting the growth and bioproduct contents of a diatom. Biomass and lipid productivities of N. shiloi were measured as 31.29 and 36.9622±0.0598 mg L-1 day-1 in flat-plate PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system, respectively. A slightly higher amount of saturated fatty acids was detected in PBR having only bubbling system while the increase of mono- and poly- unsaturated fatty acids were found in PBR having the combination of aeration and stirring system. Flat-plate PBR design was also investigated for improving not only biomass but also the lipid productivity of N. shiloi.
Abstract in English:Abstract Amylases are enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, generating the most diverse products, such as maltose, glucose and dextrins. This work aimed the study of the production of amylolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation (SSF) using “crueira”, an essentially starchy cassava residue, as substrate-support and Bacillus sp. as microorganism. For the implementation of the experimental part, a Central Composite Design (CCD) with three variables (initial moisture, pH and temperature) was made. Each test was examined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the method of starch dextrinizing activity. The optimum production conditions were 60% initial moisture, pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum yield was 437.76 U/g in 72 hours of fermentation. The optimum temperature of enzyme performance was 65 °C. The pH optimum range was 4 to 6. The Co2 +, Ca2 + and K+ ions positively influenced the activity of enzymes and the Fe2+ ion had no effect on enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ adversely influenced enzymatic activity. Therefore, producing amylases from Bacillus sp. and using crueira as a substrate is possible.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fungi have always attracted a lot of attention as they are able to produce a vast repertoire of enzymes that find a broad spectrum of uses in biotechnological and industrial fields. Undoubtedly, one of the most promising biocatalysts is the lipase, which has been widely used for the biotransformation of a number of commercial products due to its high stability, high catalytic efficiency, versatility and selectivity, making it one of the most attractive and best-studied enzymes. In this study we report the isolation and molecular identification of new lipase-producing fungi from different environmental samples from Morocco. The production and activity of extracellular lipases, at different parameters, was evaluated using the Rhodamine B agar, submerged fermentation and biochemical methods. Two fungal strains Arthrographis curvata and Rhodosporidium babjevae, were isolated and found to produce large amounts of lipases. The optimal activity of the extracellular lipase was detected at 40°C and pH 9.0 for A. curvata and at 40 °C and pH 8.0 for R. babjevae. This study add new information at the growing list of fungal species producing lipases with improved physicochemical proprieties which could constitute a new line of research for further studies and to be exploited for industrial or bioremediation purposes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Microalgae are potential sources of a wide range of bioproducts. It is essential to choose the proper microalgae strain and culture condition to achieve an efficient production. The production yield of carotenoids by Dunaliella salina under the stress-induced culture conditions of nitrogen deprivation and excessive light intensity was evaluated. Also, a survey at laboratorial scale of the growth kinetics under different culture conditions of photoperiod, aeration, and agitation was performed for the seven species of green microalgae Ankistrodesmus fusiformis, Chlamydocapsa bacillus, Desmodesmus brasiliensis, Kirchneriella lunaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and Scenedesmus obliquus. As a result, aeration of atmospheric air is enough to improve the growth kinetics of the seven species studied. Production of carotenoids was enhanced under stress by excessive light intensity. Although D. salina does not grow effectively under nitrogen deprivation, this stress condition may be used to quickly stimulate carotenoid production once the culture reaches a high cellular population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Muscodor now transferred to Induratia are known producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many industrial applications. However, the members of this genus have rarely been reported to produce non-volatile metabolites including enzyme. Enzymes of the endophytes are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the knowledge of enzyme production by Induratia spp. may provide insights into their possible biotechnological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase, phytase, protease, endo β-1,4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes produced by fungi of the species Induratia coffeana, Induratia yucatanensis and Induratia sp. isolated from organic coffee plants. All Induratia spp. were able to produce the extracellular enzymes cellulase, pectinase, protease, and phytase. Eight fungi were able to produce lipase and four produced amylase. The specific activity of endo β-1, 4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes were detected for 9 and 8 endophytic fungi, respectively. This work demonstrated for the first time, the array of enzymes produced by Induratia spp. isolated from Coffea arabica in organic systems in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important protein source in arid regions as both human and animal food. Despite its significance, the use of grass pea is limited by the presence of β-N-oxalyl-L-a,b-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) which can cause neurological disorders. Breeding studies in grass pea have therefore focused on developing high-yielding varieties with low β-ODAP content. However, the narrow range of genetic diversity and the restricted genomic tools in grass pea have slowed progress in such breeding. The present investigation was conducted to explore the genetic diversity of low β-ODAP germplasm consisting of 22 accessions with 31 EST-SSR markers. The molecular analyses revealed a total of 133 alleles ranging from 142 to 330 bp with a mean number of alleles per locus of 4.29. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) value was calculated as 0.49, and the EST-SSRs in loci S5, S6 and S116 were of the most informative PICs. A dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic distance matrix revealed that breeding lines were grouped in two main clusters. Genetic distances were higher between GP6/GP11, GP4/GP11 and GP5/GP8 accessions which could be further used in crop improvement studies for developing wider genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract (1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and partial characterization of xylanase and avicelase by a newly isolated Penicillium sp. in solid-state fermentation, using soybean hulls as substrate. (2) Methods: Temperature, time, number of spores, and substrate moisture on xylanase and avicelase bioproduction were evaluated, maximizing activity with 30°C, 1x106 spores/g substrate, 14 and 7 days of fermentation with 70 and 76% substrate moisture contents, for xylanase and avicelase, respectively. (3) Results: Different solvents, temperatures, and agitation in the enzymatic extraction were evaluated, obtaining higher activities, 430.77 and 26.77 U/g for xylanase and avicelase using 30 min extraction and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5 ), respectively at 60°C and 175 rpm and 50°C and 125 rpm. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activity determination were 5.3 and 50°C. Enzyme extract stability was evaluated, obtaining higher stability with pH between 4.5 and 5.5, higher temperature of up to 40°C. The kinetic thermal denaturation (Kd), half-life time, D-value, and Z-value were similar for both enzymes. The xylanase Ed value (89.1 kJ/mol) was slightly lower than the avicelase one (96.7 kJ/mol), indicating higher thermostability for avicelase. (4) Conclusion: In this way, the production of cellulases using alternative substrates is a way to reduce production costs, since they represent about 10% of the world demand of enzymes, with application in animal feed processing, food production and breweries, textile processing, detergent and laundry production, pulp manufacturing and the production of biofuels.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate fermented milk by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92 with addition of juçara pulp (FMJ) and reuterin production in situ. The fermentation process was analyzed for 24 hours and the storage of FMJ for 30 days at 4 °C. During the fermentation, there was consumption of 25% (w / v) of lactose and increase of 0.01 to 0.85% (w / v) of lactic acid. The FMJ presented 0.43 ± 0.01 mM of reuterin, inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus strains under in vitro test. For the carbohydrates, the percentages (g.100g-1) found were 7.31 ± 1.07; 9.19 ± 0.82; 1.60 ± 0.50 and 0.08 ± 0.00 for sucrose, lactose, galactose and fructose respectively. The survival of L. reuteri, present in FMJ, was 2.47 log CFU / mL after 6 hours of gastrointestinal simulation. In sensory analysis FMJ received a grade 7 for global acceptance indicating good acceptance of the product.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Apple Germplasm Bank (AGB) of Santa Catarina Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company - Epagri, AGB-Epagri, is the largest of the genus Malus in Brazil. Twenty-eight main accessions of this bank were virus screened through DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR and IC-RT-PCR during two consecutive reproductive cycles, and each accession showed latent mixed infection by at least two species, among ASGV, ASPV and ACLSV. The combined use of diagnostic methods helped overcome inconsistencies commonly found in apple virus detection and was shown essential for the AGB-Epagri can be safely used as a source of genetic variability and for the exchange of virus-free propagative material.
Abstract in English:Abstract The orchids that produced tuber are known as salep orchids and have been collected from nature for centuries as a medicinal and aromatic plant. These orchids are endangered species because of their limited vegetative and generative production possibilities. Salep orchids, seed germination has been achieved with in-vitro studies, but no source has been found regarding the development of germinated seeds over the years. In this study, Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was used as research material. Seeds that were determined to germinate in nature were observed to develop in their own environment for five years and some morphological characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, total weight, tuber width, and tuber weight) were determined at the end of each vegetation year. Plants that start to develop with seed germination produce one leaf and a tuber of 0.115 g in the first year. When the tubers obtained from the first year were planted again, the plants was obtained 2-3 leaves and they were formed 0.465 grams of tubers. In the third year plants bloom for the first time. The period until flowering in the plant was called maturity period and Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was found to have a 3-year maturity period. Plants produced tuber 0.850 g in the third year, 1.585 g in the fourth year and 2.522 g in the fifth year. According to the mathematical modeling, the relationship between year (Y) and fresh tuber weight (FTW) was found Y = 1.22 + (1.61 × FTW) and there was a significant relationship among year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass (TBM). This equation Y = 1.05 + (0.76 × FTW) + (0.14 × TBM) shows us the mathematical relations of year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass. The mathematical relations among to fresh tuber weight, total biomass, and plant height (PH) was produced Y = 1.74 - (0.11 × FTW) + (0.57 × TBM) - (0.09 × PH). R2 values were found 0.95-0.99. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.01 level.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in potato crop planting synergistically increase tuber yield, but there are no studies on this interaction in sidedressing. In two experiments with ‘Atlantic’ potato combinations of four N rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1) with four K2O rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1) were applied in sidedressing in a 4×4 factorial scheme with three replications in a completely randomized design. Adjacent commercial fields were sampled to economic comparisons with experimental results. Significant interaction between N and K sidedressing rates with tuber yields increase also was confirmed and classified as Liebig-synergism. Compared to the isolated N and K applications in sidedressing, joint N and K fertilizations, respectively, increases by 11% and 48% marketable tuber yields in the summer-fall experiment, and 12% and 7% in the spring experiment. Joint N and K applications as sidedressing was more profitable than planting fertilization, mainly at higher N and K rates. The response of specific gravity of ‘Atlantic’ potato tubers to the N and K sidedressing rates was mediated by interactions between edaphoclimatic conditions and inputs of N and K. The combined application of N and K sidedressing rates increased specific gravity in the summer-fall experiment, but had a negative effect in the spring experiment. Therefore, our results provide strong evidence that the fertilization management for potato crop in Brazil can be modified by applying higher amounts of N and K in sidedressing to match nutritional needs of the crop.
Abstract in English:Abstract One of the main challenges in pepper production is to enhance seed germination energy and germination, and to grow healthy nursery plants with strong root system. Trichoderma species colonize roots as they grow and provide season-long benefits to plants, which is why Trichoderma species are widely used as plant growth promoter agents and promoters of plant defence mechanisms. This study evaluated the effectiveness of seed biopriming with Trichoderma isolates for growth promotion of pepper plants in early stage and their effects on seedling physiology. Nine out of ten Trichoderma isolates positively affected root weight of pepper seedlings, while three out of ten positively affected shoot weight. Root and shoot lengths were mainly unaffected. Germination energy was positively affected by five isolates with up to 40% increase compared to the control, while germination was significantly enhanced by two isolates with up to 22% increase. Considering seedling physiology, two different strain-dependent modes of actions were expressed. Promising Trichoderma isolates induced formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which acted as signal molecules that increased germination energy and germination. Positive correlation was found between pyrogallol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and germination in plants treated with these isolates.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this research was to identify the best microorganisms, alone or in mixture for total biomass gain (root + shoot), positive change in gas exchange, nutrient uptake (root, shoot and grain) and yield and yield components in the soybean crop. Trial under greenhouse conditions had the experimental design in a completely randomized scheme with 26 treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of the rhizobacteria BRM 32109, BRM 32110 and 1301 (Bacillus sp.), BRM 32111 and BRM 32112 (Pseudomonas sp.), BRM 32113 (Burkholderia sp.), BRM 32114 (Serratia sp.), Ab-V5 (Azospirillum brasilense) and 1381 (Azospirillum sp.), and the fungus Trichoderma asperellum (a mix of the isolates UFRA.T06, UFRA.T09, UFRA.T12 and UFRA.T52). Besides, the same isolates were combined in pairs, completing 16 combinations. Control treatments received no microorganism. Microorganisms applied isolated or in combination, provided biomass gain, positive gas exchange, increases in nutrients uptake at the shoot and grain, and improved grain yield and its components than control plants. Stood out the combination Ab-V5 + T. asperellum pool, which provided a 25% improvement in grain yield.
Abstract in English:Abstract (1) Background: Oxygen supply is an important parameter to be considered in submerged cultures. This study evaluated the influence of different conditions for dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on laccases activities and growth of Pleurotus sajor-caju PS-2001 in submerged process in stirred-tank bioreactor. (2) Methods: Initially, three different conditions were tested: uncontrolled DO and minimum levels of 30% and 80% of saturation, with the pH controlled between 4.5 and 7.0. (3) Results: Best results were observed at 30% DO (26 U mL-1 of laccases at 96 h), whereas higher mycelial biomass was observed at 30% and 80% DO (above 4.5 g L-1). Four different conditions of DO (uncontrolled, 10%, 30% and 50% of saturation) were tested at pH 6.5, with higher laccases activity (80 U mL-1 at 66 h) and lower mycelial growth (1.36 g L-1 at 90 h) being achieved with DO of 30%. In this test, the highest values for volumetric productivity and specific yield factor were determined. Under the different pH conditions tested, the production of laccases is favoured at DO concentration of 30% of saturation, while superior DO levels favours fungal growth. (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that dissolved oxygen concentration is a critical factor for the culture of P. sajor-caju PS-2001 and has important effects not only on laccases production but also on fungal growth.
Abstract in English:Abstract Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms whose composition and biomass production can be influenced by manipulating the cultivation conditions employed. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of various cultivation conditions in autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of cultivation conditions on the cell growth and biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) by microalgae of the genus Chlorella in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation. Evaluation of the effects of the conditions was performed using an experimental design methodology. The highest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xmax) and maximum biomass productivity (Pmax) were obtained in autotrophic cultures. Palmitic acid was the FA obtained at the highest concentration in both cultivation modes. The concentrations of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) ranged from 12.2 to 41.2% in autotrophic cultures and from 11 to 34.3% in the mixotrophic cultures. The variables photoperiod and sodium bicarbonate concentration showed the greatest influence on the Xmax, Pmax, and PUFA concentration in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations, respectively. This study verified that the selection of conditions and mode of cultivation contribute to the production of microalgal biomass and FA biosynthesis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Silicon accumulation is known to improve tolerance of plants under both biotic and abiotic stress. Salinity stress is an inevitable crisis causing wide spread damage to rice leading to food insecurity. The influence of Si (1mM) on two rice cultivars cv. Ghanteswari (high accumulator) and cv.Badami (low accumulator) which differs in Si uptake potential under saline (10ds/m EC) and non- saline conditions were studied in nutrient culture. The Si transporter genes were isolated and characterized to determine their function in salinity tolerance. Under stress, there was an increase in Si accumulation, Na+/K+ ratio, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities. On addition of silicon, the K+ uptake increased, membrane damage reduced and osmolytes balance improve under salinity. But, the level of resurgence was varied in both cultivars, due to their differential Si-accumulation. Molecular characterizations of Lsi1 protein revealed its involvement in the movement of ion and water and therefore prevent osmotic stress. The Lsi2 is responsible for removal of Na+, reducing salt toxicity. Silicon accumulation is responsible for maintenance of cell water status, osmotic balance and Na+ ion exclusion during high salinity. The variable relative expression of Lsi2 provides a possible explanation for differential genotypic uptake of silicon.
Abstract in English:Abstract The response of two local maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes designated as Sahwal-2002 (salt-tolerant) and Sadaf (salt-sensitive) to salt stress was investigated under controlled growth conditions. The role of phenylalanine and seed priming under salt stress in maize with different morphological parameters were studied. The genotype Sadaf, being salt-tolerant, experienced more oxidative damage than the Sahiwall-2002 genotype under salt stress. The salinity affected both growth and physiological attributes of the maize species whereas the phenylalanine successfully increased the salinity tolerance in maize species at the seedling stage.
Abstract in English:Abstract DNA vaccines have been evaluated as an option to prevent several diseases. In this study, the capacity of the xanthan biopolymer to improve the DNA vaccines immune response, administered intramuscularly, was evaluated. The experimental vaccines consisted of genes encoding fragments of the proteins LigA and LigB of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. The humoral immune response was evaluated by indirect ELISA. Cytokine expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR. Compared to the control group, the IgG antibody levels of animals immunized with pTARGET/ligAni and pTARGET/ligBrep plasmids associated with xanthan biopolymer were significantly higher than the control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in IL-17 expression in animals vaccinated with pTARGET/ligBrep and xanthan.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the practices of hospital care during pré parturition and normal delivery in a maternity hospital in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional and quantitative study performed with 82 postpartum women. Results were evaluated for the total number of postpartum women and in two groups according to hospital delivery time (≤ 8 and > 8 hours). Chi-square and Fisher Exact tests were used. with a significance level of 5%. Percentages of useful practices were: oral diet (23.2%), freedom of position and movement (90.2%), non-pharmacological methods to alleviate pain (64.6%), companion in prepartum (62.1%) and parturition (42.5%) and partogram (62.2%). Harmful practices: enema (3.7%), trichotomy (3.7%), lithotomy position (92.7%) and Kristeller maneuver (20.7%). Practices used inappropriately: amniotomy (4.9%), oxytocin (41.5%), analgesia (1.2%) and episiotomy (36.6%). The hospital labor time above 8 hours was associated with offering oral diet (p < 0.001), use of non-pharmacological methods for pain relief (p < 0.01), oxytocin infusion (p = 0.01) and episiotomy (p < 0.01). The delivery care with minimum intervention compatible with the recommendations is still a challenge.
Abstract in English:Abstract Norepinephrine in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a pivotal role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions in the hippocampus, however, the functional contribution of β1-adrenergic receptors on the BLA inputs to the CA1 region of hippocampus and memory function are not well understood. In the present study the role of β1-adrenoreceptor in the BLA on memory, neuronal arborization and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampus was examined by infusion the β1-adrenoreceptor agonist (Dobutamine; 0.5µl/side) or antagonist (Atenolol; 0.25µL/side) bilaterally into the BLA before foot-shock stress. Passive avoidance test results showed that Step-through latency time was significantly decreased in the stress group rats one, four and seven days after the stress, which intra-BLA injection of Atenolol or Dobutamine before stress couldn’t attenuate this reduction. Barnes-maze results revealed that infusion of Dobutamine and Atenolol signiﬁcantly reduced spatial memory indicators such as increased latency time, the number of errors and the distance traveling to achieve the target hole in the stress group. These learning impairments in stress rats correlated with a reduction of LTP in hippocampal CA1 synapses in-vivo, which infusion of Dobutamine and Atenolol couldn’t attenuate the population spike amplitude and mean-field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) slope reduction induced by stress. Also, the Golgi-Cox staining demonstrated that infusion of Atenolol attenuated stress decreased CA1 region dendritic and axonal arborization. These results suggest that β1-adrenergic receptors activation or block seem to exacerbate stress-induced hippocampal memory deficits and this effect is independent of CA1 LTP modulation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Research on biomaterials of natural origin has gained prominence in the literature. Above all, marine sponges, due to their architecture and structural components, present a promising potential for the engineering of bone tissue. In vitro studies demonstrate that a biosilica of marine sponges has osteogenic potential. However, in vivo works are needed to elucidate the interaction of biosilica (BS) and bone tissue. The objective of the study was to evaluate the morphological and chemical characteristics of BS compared to Bioglass (BG) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray dispersive energy (EDX) spectroscopy. In addition, to evaluate the biological effects of BS, through an experimental model of tibial bone defect using histopathological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical (IHC) and mechanical tests. SEM and EDX demonstrated the successful extraction of BS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated that Control Group (GC) had greater formation of newly formed bone tissue compared to BG and BS, yet BG bone neoformation was greater than BS. However, BS showed material degradation and granulation tissue formation, with absence of inflammatory process and formation of fibrotic capsule. The results of histomorphometry corroborate with those of histopathology, where it is worth emphasizing the positive influence of BS in osteoblastic activity. IHQ demonstrated positive VEGF and TGF-β immunoexpression for GC, BS and BG. In the mechanical test no significant differences were found. The present results demonstrate the potential of BS in bone repair, further studies are needed other forms of presentation of BS are needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract (1) Background: The Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase® PlastLabor, is a drug susceptibility test kit used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first-line TB treatment drugs. The present study aimed at evaluating its performance in a multicenter study. (2) Methods: To determine its accuracy, the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or the BACTECTMMGITTM960 system was used as a gold standard. (3) Results: The study revealed that the respective accuracies of the kit with 190 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, using the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or BACTECTMMGITTM960 system as a gold standard, were 93.9% and 94.6%, 96.9% and 94.6%, 98.0% and 97.8%, and 98.0% and 98.9%, for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Thus, the kit can rapidly screen resistance to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. Additionally, it does not require sophisticated equipment; hence, it can be easily used in the laboratories of low and middle income countries.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in intermediate period of spinal cord repair using an experimental model in rats. Thirty two rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Control Group (CG); Laser treated group 500 J/cm² (L-500); Laser treated group 750 J/cm² (L-750) and Laser treated group 1000 J/cm² (L-1000). Spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed by an impactor equipment (between 9th and 10th thoracic vertebrae), with a pressure of 150 kdyn. Afterwards, the injured region was irradiated daily for 14 consecutive sessions, using an 808 nm laser, at the respective fluence of each experimental groups. Locomotor function and tactile sensitivity were performed on days 1 and 15 post-surgery. Animals were euthanized 15 days post-surgery and samples were retrieved for histological and immunohistochemistry analysis. Functional behavior and tactile sensitivity were improved after laser irradiation. Moreover, higher fluencies of LLLT reduced the volume of injury. Additionally, LLLT produced a decreased CD-68 expression. These results demonstrated that, for an intermediate period of SCI repair, LLLT at higher fluences, was effective in promoting functional recovery and modulating the inflammatory process in the spinal cord of rats after traumatic SCI.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important health problem across the world affecting the adult population with an enormous social and economic burden. Calcium regulation is also affected in patients with CKD, and related to several disorders including vascular calcifications, mineral bone disorders, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix (UCMA) is vitamin K-dependent protein (VKDP) and acts as a calcification inhibitor in the cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanism of UCMA action remains unclear in CKD. In the current study, we aimed to investigate serum total UCMA levels and its association with calcium metabolism parameters in CKD patients including hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-seven patients with CKD stage 3-5, 41 HD patients, and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum UCMA and calcification related protein levels (Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), Osteocalcin (OC), and Fetuin-A) were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Calcium mineral disorder parameters (Serum Ca, P, iPTH) were quantified with routine techniques. We, for the first time, report the potential biomarker role of UCMA in CKD including HD. Serum total UCMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CKD including HD patients than the healthy controls. Also, serum UCMA levels showed negative correlations with serum calcium, and eGFR, while showed positive relationships with P, iPTH, MGP, OC. Increased total UCMA levels may have a role in the Ca metabolism disorder and related to the pathogenesis of Vascular Calcification in patients with CKD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hippocampus is a part of the brain that has a major role in spatial learning and memory which can be affected by herbal extracts. Incense resin (Styrax benzoin) has been used by local communities to improve intelligence. However, there is no scientific evidence of the functions of Styrax benzoin for regulating hippocampal function. The aim of this study was intended to analyze and investigate the effect of incense resin on learning, memory, and dendrite complexity of mice. Three months old male Deutch Democratic Yokohama (DDY) mice were injected orally with graded doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg of incense resin aqueous extract daily for 30 days. Spatial learning and memory performance levels were tested with Y-maze alternation, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze. The branches and maximum dendritic span in the dentate gyrus were observed by the Golgi-Cox staining. Overall, our results showed that incense resin extract increased learning and memory ability, and the number of dendrite branching in the dentate gyrus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Autologous fibrin matrices derived from the Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) and Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) techniques present great potential to act as a bioactive scaffold in regenerative medicine, contributing to the maintenance of cell viability, proliferation stimulus and differentiation. In contrast, there are few studies that characterize the bioactive potential of these fibrin scaffolds by considering the process of production. The objective of this work was to characterize the intrinsic potential of maintaining cell viability of different fibrin scaffolds containing platelets and leukocytes. In order to achieve that, blood samples from a volunteer were collected and processed to obtain fibrin clots using the suggested techniques. To characterize the potential for in vitro viability, mesenchymal stem cells from human infrapatellar fat were used. The scaffolds were cellularized (1x105 cells/scaffolds) and maintained for 5 and 10 days under culture conditions with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, without addition of fetal bovine serum, and subsequently subjected to analyses by Fourrier transform infra-red spectroscopy, circular dichroism and fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated distinct intrinsic potential viability between the scaffolds, and L-PRP was responsible for promoting higher levels of viability in both periods of analysis. No viable cells were identified in the fibrin matrix used as controls. These results allow us to conclude that both fibrin substrates have presented intrinsic potential for maintaining cell viability, with superior potential exhibited by L-PRP scaffold, and represent promising alternatives for use as bioactive supports in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of a Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) fruit extract in Wistar rats submitted to a palatable diet presenting systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Forty-two Wistar female rats (Rattus Novergicus) were used with 60 days old. The animals were feed for 60 days and divided in six groups (n=7): standard diet+water; standard diet+L. barbarum; palatable diet+water; palatable diet+L. barbarum; standard diet+water+LPS; standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS. A significant difference was shown between the analyzed groups concerning C-reactive protein, with the standard diet+water+LPS group presenting the highest inflammatory response in comparison to the other groups. Decreased inflammatory response was observed in the group administered a palatable diet along with the fruit extract when compared to the group that received only a palatable diet. Significant decrease in glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity was observed in the standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS group compared to the standard diet+water group, as well as in the palatable diet+L. barbarum group compared to the palatable diet+water group. A significant increase in creatinine in the standard diet+water+LPS group was observed in according to the L. barbarum administration groups. The gene expression of the inflammatory markers genes in the liver showed a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-6 genes in the group treated with standard diet+L. barbarum+LPS when compared to the standard diet+LPS group. Thus, the administered L. barbarum extract displays the potential to reduce inflammatory responses induced by LPS and a palatable diet.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are among the aggressive factors causing gastric ulcer. They cause oxidative damage in the gastric tissue and lead to intracellular calcium deposition. Lercanidipine is a calcium channel blocker derived from the third generation dihydropyridine. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of lercanidipine on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. A total of 24 albino Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; those who received indomethacin 25 mg/kg (IND), 5 mg mg/kg lercanidipine +25 mg/kg indomethacin (LC-5), 10 mg/kg lercanidipine+25mg/kg indomethacin (LC-10) and healthy rats who received 0.5 mL distilled water. Six hours after the application of indomethacin, the animals were sacrificed by high dose thiopental sodium. The stomachs of the animals were excised to perform a macroscopic analysis and the ulcerous region was measured on millimeter paper. All the stomachs were subjected to a biochemical analysis. Macroscopic analysis revealed hyperaemia on the gastric surface of the indomethacin group. Ulcerous tissues formed by oval, circular or irregular mucosal defects in varying diameters and depths were observed on the whole surface of the stomach. Hyperaemia was lower and ulcerous region was smaller in groups LC-5 and LC-10 compared to IND group. Malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels were significantly lower and total glutathione and cyclooxygenase-1 activity were higher in groups LC-5 and LC-10. Lercanidipine did not change the cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Lercanidipine in doses 10 mg/kg is more effective compared to 5 mg/kg. Lercanidipinine can be useful in the treatment of NSAID-induced gastric damage.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acne Vulgaris is a common skin disease caused by Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic microbiota of human skin that plays a vital role in the pathology of acne. The aim of this study was to prepare nanoparticles containing an acne recombinant protein and determine its ability as an oral acne vaccine in mice. The recombinant Sialidase-CAMP gene was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic host. The chitosan nanoparticles containing the recombinant protein were prepared, encapsulated, and administered by both oral and subcutaneous routes to Balb/c mice. Sera IgA and IgG and stool IgA titers were measured by ELISA, and the immunized mice were challenged against P. acnes. A 65 kDa recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. The size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 80 nm and +18 mV, respectively. After oral immunization, the serum IgG and IgA titers were 1:3200 and 1:16, respectively, and the stool IgA titer was 1:8. In the subcutaneous route, the serum IgG titer was 1:51200. Immunized mice showed no inflammation in the ear of challenged mice. It is the first study that examines a chitosan-nanoparticulated acne fusion protein as an applicable acne vaccine candidate with appropriate immunogenicity potential. Further studies are required to validate the clinical usefulness of this vaccine candidate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Obesity is the most common chronic disease, due to its ignorance in society. It gives birth to other diseases such as endocrine. The objective of this research is to analyze the different trends of each BMI category and predict its related serious consequences. Data mining based Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique has been applied for this and the accuracy of each BMI category has been calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), which is an effective method and potentially applied to medical data sets. The Area Under Curve (AUC) of ROC and predictive accuracy have been calculated for each classified BMI category. Our analysis shows interesting results and it is found that BMI ≥ 25 has the highest AUC and Predictive accuracy compares to other BMI, which claims a good rank of performance. From our trends, it has been explored that at each BMI precaution is mandatory even if the BMI < 18.5 and at ideal BMI too. Development of effective awareness, early monitoring and interventions can prevent its harmful effects on health.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chronic inflammation is a common indication of several diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, etc. Benzimidazole derivatives are preferable compounds to design new analgesic and anti-inflammatory substances due to their unique biological features. We aimed to investigate the effect of a newly synthesized benzimidazole derivative, ORT-83, on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. ORT-83 was synthesized, and a non-cytotoxic concentration of ORT-83 on A549 cells was detected with MTT assay. To analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of ORT-83, an inflammatory cell culture model was established by stimulating A549 cell line with IL1-β (10 ng/ml). After 2 hours of treatment with IL1-β to induce inflammation, A549 cells were exposed to ORT-83 (0.78 µg/ml) for 24 hours. Thereafter gene expression analyses were performed with qRT-PCR. We found that ORT-83 significantly suppressed the gene expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines; IL-6, NFkB, and TNF-α. However, the increased levels of IL-10 (2.8 folds) by IL-1β induction did not change after ORT-83 and/or dexamethasone (Dex: positive control) treatments. While Dex; a COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the COX-2 expression level in inflammatory cells from 10.03 folds to 0.71 folds, ORT-83 reduced its level to 4.37 folds. iNOS expression levels did not change in any experimental groups. In conclusion, we showed that ORT-83 exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by repressing the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the inflammation-induced A549 cell line. Although ORT-83 had a weaker COX-2 inhibitory effect compared to Dex, it was shown to be still a strong anti-inflammatory compound.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fibromyalgia (FM) is a nonarticular rheumatic syndrome that leads to diffuse myalgia, sleep disturbances and morning stiffness. Balneotherapy has been shown an effective strategy to improve the health conditions of patients; however, the treatment follow-up is based on patient report due to the lack of biomarkers. Thus, this study evaluated the application of cytokines and phosphoglycerate mutase I (PGAM-I) to monitoring FM patient underwent to balneotherapy treatment. Eleven healthy and eleven women with FM were submitted to daily sessions of balneotherapy during 10 days. Clinical and quality of life parameters were assessed through a FIQ questionnaire. Blood levels of TNF-(, interleukins (IL-1, IL-2 and IL-10) and PGAM-I expression in patients’ saliva were also evaluated. Patients with FM showed significant improvements in their clinical status after treatment. Also, FM patients has IL-10 levels lower than healthy women and the balneotherapy increased the expression of this cytokine in both groups, concomitantly to pain relief. Although inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-2 and TNF-() were more expressed in FM patients than healthy patients their levels did not reduce after treatment. A slight increase of PGAM-I expression was observed. In conclusion, IL-10 levels could be a useful biomarker to balneotherapy follow-up of FM patients. However, these findings must be analyzed in a larger number of patients in order to validate IL-10 as an effective biomarker.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gene subcloning, a process in which the nucleotide sequence of interest is excised from on plasmid and inserted into another, seems to be an easy task to done. However, not all subcloning attempts are successful, even when the insert sequence and the double digested target plasmid are successfully purified form agarose gel and thought to be ready for subsequent ligation. In the current study we introduce a reliable, easy, and time consuming method for gene subcloning and also truncation. The stages are all carried out in a single microtube without any running on a gel, making it possible to accomplish a successful gene subcloning or truncation even with low concentrations of DNA molecules. Summarily, subcloning is achieved by mixing the plasmids of interest in a microtube and subjecting to restriction enzymes whose restriction sites flank the segment that is going to be subcloned. Digestion mixture is precipitated in the same microtube using isopropanol and the resultant DNA molecules are allowed to take part in a ligation reaction. The recombinant plasmids of interest are screened by colony PCR. Truncation is achieved by double- digestion of the plasmid of interest using a restriction enzyme whose restriction site flanks the segment that is going to be cut out.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).
Abstract in English:Abstract Vaccination is a good strategy for the prevention of avian influenza virus. In this research Gamma Irradiated Avian Influenza (Sub type H9N2) Vaccine (GAIV) was prepared by 30 kGy irradiation and used for vaccination of broiler chickens. The purpose was a comparison of immune responses in the two routes of administration for the GAIV vaccine; intranasal and subcutaneously, use of Montanide ISA70 and Trehalose accompanied with irradiated vaccine and compare with formalin vaccine. The Influenza Virus A/Chicken/IRN/Ghazvin/2001/H9N2 was irradiated and used for vaccine formulation, and formalin inactivated AIV was used as conventional vaccine. Chickens were vaccinated by GAIV with and without Trehalose, GAIV and formalin vaccines with ISA70, two routes of administration were intranasal and subcutaneously. All the vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in antibody titration. The most significant increase of antibody titration was in irradiated vaccine plus Trehalose groups intranasal and subcutaneously. After the first and second intranasal vaccination, the amount of IFN-gamma increased in the irradiated vaccine plus Trehalose group compared to other groups. However, most of the vaccinated groups did not show any significant increase of IFN-α concentration. Histopathological examination revealed lymphocyte infiltration (++), foci dispersed of hemorrhage and edema in intranasal vaccination groups and in addition to these, thickening of alveolar septa was observed in the injection groups. GAIV vaccine can be a good candidate for vaccine preparation, and Trehalose as a stabilizer protects viral antigenic proteins, also makes more absorbance of antigen by the inhalation route. In vaccinated chickens the ulcers in injected vaccines were lower than intranasal vaccines.
Abstract in English:Abstract Curcumin (CUR) shows potential use for treating cancer. However, CUR has low solubility and reduced bioavailability, which limit its clinical effect. Therefore, the development of nanocarriers can overcome these problems and can ensure the desired pharmacological effect. In addition, it is mandatory to prove the quality, the efficacy, and the safety for a novel nanomedicine to be approved. In that sense, this paper aimed (a) to prepare CUR-loaded polyethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules; (b) to validate an analytical method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantifying CUR in these nanoformulations; (c) to evaluate the physicochemical stability of these formulations; and to investigate their cytotoxicity on NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The HPLC method was specific to CUR in the loaded nanocapsules, linear (r = 0.9994) in a range of 10.0 to 90.0 µg.mL-1 with limits of detection and quantification of 0.160 and 0.480 µg.mL-1, respectively. Precision was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 5%. Suitable accuracy (102.37 ± 0.92%) was obtained. Values of pH, particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential presented no statistical difference (p > 0.05) for CUR-loaded nanoparticles. No cytotoxicity was observed against NIH-3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast cell line using both the tetrazolium salt and sulforhodamine B assays. In conclusion, a simple and inexpensive HPLC method was validated for the CUR quantification in the suspensions of nanocapsules. The obtained polymeric nanocapsules containing CUR showed suitable results for all the performed assays and can be further investigated as a feasible novel approach for cancer treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the current study, nanocapsules (NC) formulations containing a co-load of clotrimazole (C), a highly prescribed antifungal drug, and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], an organoselenium compound with a promising scope of pharmacological actions, were prepared. Formulations were characterized as well as the potential toxicity, antioxidant action, and antifungal effect were assessed using in vitro techniques. The NCs were prepared employing Eudragit® RS 100 as polymeric wall and medium chain triglycerides or virgin coconut oil (CO) as core. All NC suspensions had pH around acid range, compound content close to theoretical value (1 mg/mL/drug), average diameter in nanometric range, positive values of zeta potential as well as high encapsulation efficacy and mucoadhesive property. Physicochemical stability was performed over a 30-day period and showed no modification in the aforementioned parameters to all samples. Preliminary screening of toxicological potential performed by the hen’s egg test chorioallantoic membrane technique classified the formulations as non-irritant. The DPPH radical assay revealed that nanoencapsulated compounds had superior antioxidant action in comparison to their free forms (concentration range tested 1.0-25.0 µg/mL). Importantly, the formulation composed of CO and containing C and (PhSe)2 showed the highest antioxidant potential and was selected for further investigation regarding antifungal effect against some Candida spp strains. Results of in vitro antifungal assay demonstrated that the C and (PhSe)2 co-encapsulation had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values around 60. Thus, our study supplies additional data about advantages achieved by encapsulating active compounds.
Abstract in English:Abstract Long-chain non-encoded RNAs (lncRNAs) are important in many life activities and can participate in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, lncRNAs can be used as basis for developing new strategies to hinder liver cancer. To investigate the utility of lncRNAs in HCC as potential biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis, we mined genomic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and analyzed the gene expressions from 374 tumor patients and 50 normal patients. The abnormal expressions of 387 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) were identified from a total of 3099 lncRNAs. Moreover, 18 modules were divided based on WGCNA, and 2 of the 18 modules were positively correlated with stage and grade, and negatively correlated with survival time. Finally, 10 lncRNAs were found and their main functions are the enhancement of cellular metabolic capacity and cell proliferation. These 10 lncRNAs may serve as novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets, and may help guide subsequent studies on HCC.
Abstract in English:Abstract Recombinant proteins are a suggested alternative for the diagnosis of toxocariasis. The current Escherichia coli recombinant protein overexpression system usually produces insoluble products. As an alternative, yeast such as Pichia pastoris have secretory mechanisms, which could diminish the cost and time for production. This study aimed to produce recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris and verify their sensibility and specificity in an indirect ELISA assay. Two sequences (rTES-30 and rTES-120) of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens were cloned in a pPICZαB vector and expressed in P. pastoris KM71H. Sera samples collected from human adults infected by Toxocara spp. were tested by indirect ELISA using rTES-30 and rTES-120 as antigens. Recombinant proteins were detected at 72 hours after induction, in the supernatant, as pure bands between 60~70 kDa with hyperglycosylation. Regarding diagnosis potential, recombinant antigens had high specificity (95.6%); however, sensitivity was 55.6% for rTES-30 and 68.9% for rTES-120. Further deglycosylation of the P. pastoris antigens did not seem to affect ELISA performance (p>0.05). The low sensitivity in the serodiagnosis diminished any advantage that P. pastoris expression could have. Therefore, we do not recommend P. pastoris recombinant TES production as an alternative for the diagnosis of toxocariasis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Methotrexate (MTX) was shown to cause oxidative stress and liver damage. The objective was to investigate the possible protective effects of Matricaria Chamomilla L. (chamomile) extract with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on the methotrexate-induced liver toxicity. Twenty four Wistar rats were divided into four groups. MTX group was injected intraperitoneally on days 7 and 14 with 20 mg/kg methotrexate. Groups CE200 (chamomile extract 200 mg/kg/day) and CE300 (chamomile extract 300 mg/kg/day) received the same dose of methotrexate added with chamomile extract orally for 15 days at 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively and the last group was healthy control group. Results of biochemical analyses indicated serum liver biomarkers (aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and liver content of anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) significantly increased (P <0.05-0.001) to normal in the CE treated groups compared to those of the MTX group. Serum bilirubin and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased (P ˂0.001) in MTX group compared to those of the control group and decreased in CE200 and CE300 groups compared to those of the MTX group. Histopathological study showed inflammatory damage, necrotic cells and lipid infiltration in MTX group. In the groups treated with the chamomile extract, a significant improvement was observed in liver tissue in response to increased dose of the extract. In conclusion, chamomile extract administration could have a protective role in methotrexate-induced liver toxicity in rats through improving anti-oxidant defense system.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo response of red light-emitting diode (LED) on acute lung injury (ALI) in a sepsis model in rats. Twenty rats were randomly allocated into two experimental groups (n=10): Control Sepsis Group (CS); sepsis and red LED group (SRL). The anterior region of the trachea and ventral regions of the chest (below the ribs), bilaterally were irradiated daily for two consecutive days, starting immediately after the surgery using red (630 nm) LED. The histological results showed that in red LED treated group presented a modulation of the lung inflammatory process, less intense alveolar septum thickening and decrease of the inflammatory cells. Moreover, LED significantly reduced the lung injury score and increased interleukin type 10 (IL-10) protein expression compared SG. These results suggest that LED was efficient in attenuating ALI in a sepsis model in rats by reducing inflammatory cells into lung tissue and enhancing the anti-inflammatory cytokine production.
Abstract in English:Abstract The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a role in appetitive and negative motivation with sex differences in responses. NAcSh and its laterality in metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic stress in female rats is evaluated via transient inactivation of this nucleus during stress induction. Animals in the stress groups received consecutive stress for four days and transient inactivation of NAcSh was performed by administrating lidocaine (0.2%) unilaterally or bilaterally in the nucleus for five minutes before electric foot shock induction. After stress termination, food and water intake, latency to eat, plasma glucose, corticosterone, estradiol and progesterone were measured in all groups. Results showed that stress increased food intake and blood glucose level, but there were no change in the latency to eat and the amount of water intake. The right side, the left side, and both sides of NAcSh may be dominant in latency to eat, food intake, and both water intake and plasma glucose level, respectively. Although chronic stress included no changes for corticosterone and progesterone, it increased estradiol level in plasma. Also, bilateral and right sides of NAcSh may have modulatory effects on stress in corticosterone and progesterone, respectively, without affecting estradiol. It can be concluded that the NAc shell plays a pivotal role in metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic stress in a laterality manner in female rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract Conventional orthodontic treatment with the use of stainless steel may be detrimental to oral health by promoting demineralizing lesions appearance and increasing adhesion and formation of bacterial biofilm, inducing the development of cavities. An alternative that has been researched to reduce the side effects of orthodontic treatment is the coating of materials with antimicrobial nanoparticles. Nanometric- sized particles increase their surface area and contact with the microbial membrane, consequently intensifying their bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. In this work, hydrothermal synthesis, a “green” process was used to attach silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the surface of two different brands of orthodontic wires. The coated materials were analyzed for their physicochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed the distribution of AgNPs along the wires without modifying their properties. In the microbiological test, one of the brands showed a statistically significant difference in microbial adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Results lead to the conclusion that antimicrobial orthodontic wires coated with silver nanoparticles through hydrothermal synthesis is a promising material for the improvement of orthodontic treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract The α-tomatine is a steroidal glycoalkaloid found in immature tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that has important biological functions including the inhibition of cancer cell growth and preventing metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of α-tomatine on cytotoxicity, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of APC, CCNA2, β-catenin, CASP9, BAK, BAX and BCL-XL in colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. HT29 cells were treated with three concentrations of α-tomatine (0.1, 1 and 10 µg/mL), although only the 1 µg/mL concentration of α-tomatine was used to evaluate genetic expression patterns by real time-PCR. Results showed that α-tomatine was cytotoxic only at the 10 µg/mL concentration. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited after the first 24 hours of treatment only with concentrations of 10 µg/mL. In contrast, there were no significant differences in apoptosis for any treatment. In the gene expression studies, only APC expression was significantly altered by α-tomatine treatment. In conclusion, α-tomatine has antiproliferative activity in the first 24h of treatment, does not induce apoptosis in this cell line and causes disruption of cell membranes, thereby increasing the expression of APC gene related to cell cycle.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gallic acid (GA), as a strong antioxidant, was selected in this study to investigate its possible nephroprotective effects against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four rats were separated into three groups (n=8): group 1 (control group) received saline (0.5 mL/day), group 2 (GM group) received GM (100 mg/kg/day), and group 3 (treated group) received GM (100 mg/kg/day) and GA (100mg/kg/day). All treatments were performed intraperitoneally for 12 days. After 12 days, the rats were euthanized, and kidneys were removed immediately. For serum preparation, blood samples were collected before killing. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared from one of the kidneys and stained by the periodic acid-Schiff process. GA significantly decreased GM-induced renal histopathological injuries, including tubular necrosis, tubular cast, and leucocyte infiltration compared with the GM group. Additionally, GA significantly improved proteinuria, serum levels of urea and creatinine, and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with nephrotoxic animals. Furthermore, GA caused a significant improvement in the levels of cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and cardiac risk ratios 1 and 2 in comparison with nephrotoxic animals. GA administration was observed to significantly improve the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) compared with the GM group. Finally, the activities and gene expression levels of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) significantly increased following GA administration compared with the GM group. Our results indicated that GA has potential protective effects against GM nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress in rats.
Abstract in English:Abstract We aimed to analyze the expression profile of ACE2 and similar genes with ACE2, predict the number of variations in ACE2, detect the suspected SNPs on ACE2 gene, and perform the pathway analysis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and protein absorption-digestion. Moreover, we have predicted the gene-related diseases with ACE2. STRING was used to analyze functionally similar genes with ACE2. Exome Variant Server, SIFT, Polyphen2 were used to predict the number of variations in ACE2 and detect the suspected SNPs on ACE2. KEGG database and STRING were used to draw pathway of ACE2. Then, DISEASES resource, FitSNPs, UniProt, BioXpress, IGV Browser, Ensembl Genome Browser, and UCSC Genome Browser were used to predict the ACE2 gene-related diseases and expression profile in human normal and cancer tissues. We have shown that expression of ACE2 was correlated with AGT, REN, AGTR1, AGRT2, MME2, DPP4, PRCP, MEP1A, XPNPEP2, MEP1BandACE2 is expressed in testis, kidney, heart, thyroid, colon, esophagus, breast, minor salivary gland, pancreas, lung, liver, bladder, cervix, and muscle tissues. We found 99 variations in ACE2 gene, in which no previous study has been performed. In the future, this in silico analysis should be combined with other pieces of evidence including experimental data to assign function.
Abstract in English:Abstract The spread of Coronavirus is causing in the society all around the world a considerable degree of fear, worry and concern and particularly among healthcare workers that are at increased risk for infection. This paper gathers the strategy/guidelines to reduce the contamination in Intensive care unit (ICU) and in all the hospital environment. The ASHRAE and REHVA guidelines applied the UV-C Lamps, Pressure control filtration, Restroom actions and Humidity control to reduce the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in ICU. The role of infection control in the design of hospitals is increasing every day. This paper highlights the role of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning minimizing the risk of infection from airborne transmission within the built environment through the application of best practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts play important roles in bone formation. Achatina fulica mucus presented the property of osteoinduction. This study aimed to examine the effects of A. fulica mucus on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) and human fetal osteoblastic cell line (HFOB) differentiation. The integrated effects of A. fulica mucus and polycaprolactone (PCL) on the differentiation of hMSCs were tested. The cell viability of hMSCs treated with A. fulica mucus was investigated by the MTT assay. The cell mineralization was observed by Alizarin Red S staining, the gene expression was investigated using RT-PCR, and the PI3K activation was studied using flow cytometry. The results indicated that A. fulica mucus induced osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs and HFOBs by upregulation of the osteogenic markers; osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN). The results of the Alizarin Red S staining indicated that A. fulica mucus supported mineralization in both hMSCs and HFOBs. The hMSCs cultured on PCL supplemented with A. fulica mucus showed significantly increased RUNX2 and OPN expressions. A. fulica mucus was observed to increase PI3K activation in hMSCs. The findings of this study suggested that A. fulica mucus and biomaterials could be applied together for use in bone regeneration in the future.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study is aimed for anatomical characterization of nine taxa of Acmella to supplement data specifically for its current sectional classification and species circumscriptions. Anatomical characterization of this genus is little explored. This study focuses on internal structure of leaves, petioles, peduncles, stems, roots and cell inclusions to determine its taxonomic importance. In stem anatomy the number of hypodermal collenchymatous layers and the arrangement of parenchymatous cortex together place an important role in the identification of Acmella. Root anatomy was similar in all the examined taxa except in the arrangement of xylem vessels. In A. tetralobata xylem vessels arranged in pentarch fashion while rest of the species possess tetrarch arrangement. Several cellular inclusions such as calcium oxalate crystals and oil bodies were observed. The petioles were crescent shaped having bifacial surfaces with both surfaces pubescent. Peduncles possess ridges and furrows in its outline. The leaves are dorsi ventral and possess single layered epidermal cells covered with cuticle having anomocytic, anisocytic and diacytic types of stomata in both adaxial and abaxial surfaces. The present study provides a tool for the microscopic identification of the genus.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article is about a case study based on the participation and contact with dynamized activities through action plans for the circular economy in Europe, specifically in Portugal. It aims to identify the main in-progress actions and the challenges for the diffusion of the circular economy in the Portuguese nation and draw a panorama for Brazil, transiting through different data sources, economic sectors and stakeholders. Through data triangulation, the investigative plan contemplated participatory observations in workshops, interviews with experts, documental analyses and means of communication. After going through data cross checking for validation, the content was aggregated to a strategic analysis matrix. As a result, it was possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges associated with the growth of the circular economy in Portugal, as well as to indicate directions and possibilities in the Brazilian context. It is possible to realize, for both countries, the importance of the international benchmarking for the recognition and promotion of circular economy actions, besides the necessity to revise laws aligned with the internal e external market rules, by increasing the offer of circular products and services.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper proposes an automatic fuzzy classification system for glycemic index, which indicates the level of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Diabetes is a chronic disease occurred when there is deficiency in insulin production or in its action, or both, causing complications. Neuro-fuzzy systems and Decision Trees are used to obtain, respectively, the numerical parameters of the membership functions and the linguistic based rules of the fuzzy classification system. The results goal to categorize the glycemic index into 4 classes: decrease a lot, decrease, stable and increase. Real database from  is used and the input attributes of the system are defined. In addition, the proposed automatic fuzzy classification system is compared with an “expert” fuzzy classification system, which is totally modeled using expert knowledge. From linguistic based rules obtained from fuzzy inference process, new scenarios are simulated in order to obtain a larger data set which provides a better evaluation of the classification systems. Results are promising, since they indicate the best treatment - intervention or comparative - for each patient, assisting in the decision-making process of the health care professional.
Abstract in English:Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to find the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield. For the HD technique is evaluated the best ratio between plant mass and water volume and for SFE and SD the pressure condition was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the similarity between the composition of the essential oil in different pressures and extraction methods. The experimental extraction curve was plotted and three different mathematical models were used to fit the data for SD and SFE methods, obtaining the relevant mass transfer parameters. The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being α-zingiberene the main component with different contents (from 11.9 to 28.9%). The best condition for the SFE was 100 bar, 40 °C (0.0508 goil/gplant) with 19.34% of α-zingiberene; for the SD, 3 bar (133 °C) (0.00616 goil/gplant) with 28.9% of α-zingiberene; and HD, the volume of 750 mL (0.006988 goil/gplant) with 15.70% of α-zingiberene, all measured on a dry basis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Leaves of mate is one of the main non-timber forest products marketed in South America, which makes establishment of new plantations of great interest. However, vegetative propagation of mate plantlets presents difficulties, which may be associated with the complexity of adventitious root formation. The aims of this study were to anatomically characterize the adventitious roots of mate-clone mini-cuttings and investigate the relationship of phenols and starch with adventitious rooting competence in mini-cuttings treated or not with indole-butyric acid (IBA). The mini-cuttings of four clones were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days of cultivation, fixed in a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde and 4% formaldehyde, pre-infiltrated and infiltrated in (2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate, and sectioned in a microtome. Ferric chloride and toluidine blue were used to detect phenolic compounds and lugol to identify starch. Adventitious roots formed in mini-cuttings treated with IBA presented disorganized xylem and phloem and poles irregularly but exhibited sclerenchyma vessel elements and tracheid cells indicating functionality. Differences in the rhizogenic ability of mate clones mini-cuttings were not due to the presence of anatomical barriers or the accumulation of phenolic compounds but be associated with the presence and distribution of starch grains in vegetative propagules.
Abstract in English:Abstract The morphological variability of Eodinium posterovesiculatum (Ciliophora, Trichostomatia) has been interpreted in different ways: four distinct species or four morphotypes of the same species. The present study aims to perform morphological and morphometric comparative analysis of the four morphotypes found in cattle from the southeastern region of Brazil. Ruminal content samples were obtained from four Holstein x Gir cattle and fixed at 18.5% formalin for morphological analysis. Morphometry was performed based on individuals stained with Lugol's solution . The infraciliary bands were stained using silver carbonate impregnation technique . Morphological and morphometric characterizations, supported by literature, suggest that the four morphotypes of E. posterovesiculatum are actually a single polymorphic species due to small morphometric differences and mostly identical morphological characters, with the format of the caudal processes being the only morphological characteristic that sets them apart.
Abstract in English:Abstract Endodontic infections result from oral pathogenic bacteria which reach and infect dental pulp, as well as surrounding tissues, through cracks, unrepaired caries and failed caries restorations. This study aims to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves (PC-EO) and to assess its antibacterial activity against endodontic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of PC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method on 96-well microplates. Bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC = 20 µg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL), Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC = 50 µg/mL), Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) were evaluated and compared to chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CDH), the positive control. PC-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation with the use of a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Viridiflorol (17.9%), β-caryophyllene (11.8%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%) and β-selinene (8.6%) were the major constituents found in PC-EO, which exhibited high antibacterial activity against all endodontic pathogens under investigation. Therefore, PC-EO, a promising source of bioactive compounds, may provide therapeutic solutions for the field of endodontics.
Abstract in English:Abstract Creating experimental models for obtaining stem cells from adipose tissue is necessary to elucidate their peculiar features. Objective: This study proposed a reliable reproducible and consistent experimental model for obtaining mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. Material and Method: Lines of New Zealand rabbits, Wistar rats and CaviaPorcellus guinea pigs (4 animals per species) were used. Fatty tissue mesenchymal stem cells were removed from dorsal, epididymal and inguinal regions. Percentage viable cells and percentage cells expanded and submitted to chondrogenic differentiation were compared by animal species and collection site. Results: Chondrogenic differentiation occurred in a similar manner across all samples, independently of animal species or collection site. Among samples assessed, the inguinal region of rats yielded the highest percentage of viable and expanded cells. Conclusion: A reliable, reproducible and consistent model for obtaining mesenchymal stem cells was produced. Of the several variables analysed, the best results were obtained from the inguinal region of the rat.
Abstract in English:Abstract Each year, the consumption of vegetable oils increases gradually. Some oils, such as chia, sesame, and quinoa, are consumed due to the nutritional properties and health promoters that have been recognized in their components. Based on this premise, the present study aimed to characterize chia (Salvia hispanica), sesame (Sesamum inducum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) oils, in order to enable their applications in the development of new food products. Chia oil presented higher degradation, as it stood out with higher amounts of free fatty acids (4.46%) and peroxide value (18.35 meq/kg). It is an oil that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (75.47%), and, consequently, with high refractive index (1,475) and iodine value (192.86 g/100 g). Quinoa oil stood out for its higher oxidative stability (17.55 h) and higher amount of phenolic compounds (190.84 mg/100 g). Sesame and quinoa oils showed no significant difference for carotenoids, but sesame oil had higher content of total tocopherols (656.50 mg/kg). Thus, the oils can be used in technological processes and/ or in the formulation of new food products, in order to their increase the nutritional value.
Abstract in English:Abstract Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract In live organisms, there is a balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their neutralization. The increased level of these species leads to a condition called redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of isobenzofuranones in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons subjected to redox imbalance. To accomplish this, MTT and LIVE/DEAD assays were initially performed. In the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2, there was a higher number of live cells when compared to that in the untreated ones. Regarding redox imbalance, there was a significant increase in the intracellular levels of ROS. The cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones showed a reduction in ROS levels. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative damage was significantly reduced in the cultures pretreated with isobenzofuranones 1 and 2. Taken together, these data show the ability of isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 to significantly minimize cytotoxicity, cell death, intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation induced by redox imbalance. These results suggest that isobenzofuranones 1 and 2 represent a possible alternative therapy for the neurodegenerative disturbances that are triggered by ROS production increases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pigments produced by submerged fermentation of three filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian caves, namely Aspergillus keveii, Penicillium flavigenum, and Epicoccum nigrum, were submitted to spray drying in presence of the adjuvants maltodextrin, modified starch or gum arabic. Yellow fine powders with low moisture content and water activity, and high color retention (> 70%) were successfully generated with a high product recovery ratio (> 50%), independently of the adjuvant used. The dried products have enhanced stability and potential to might be used as a natural colorant in food and pharmaceutical applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Thevetia peruviana is an ornamental shrub grown-up in many tropical region of the world. This plant produces secondary metabolites with biological properties of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. The objective was to determine the secondary metabolites profile of callus and cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana and compare them with those from explant (fruit pulp). Extracts in 50% aqueous ethanol and ethyl acetate were prepared. The phytochemical analysis was performed using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoids compounds (TPC and TFC), total cardiac glycosides (TCG) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was determined during the cell suspension growth. Phenolic chemical profile was also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Common metabolites (alkaloids, amino acids, antioxidants, cardiac glycosides, leucoanthocyanidins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and triterpenes) were detected in all samples. The maximum production of extracellular TCG, TPC, TFC and TAA in cells suspensions were at 6-12 days; in contrast, intracellular content was relatively constant during the exponential grown phase (0 to 12-days). HPLC analysis detected one compound with retention time at 11.6 min; this compound was tentatively identified as dihydroquercetin, a flavonoid with anti-cancer properties. These results provide evidence on the utility of the in vitro cell cultures of T. peruviana for valuable pharmaceutical compounds production.
Abstract in English:Abstract we report A. rhizogenes-induced hairy root formation in S. bryopteris, a medicinally and commercially important plant. A. rhizogenes strain LBA1334 co-cultivated with explants (root, rhizophore, stem portion near the root, and stem with intact fronds) for 24 and 48 h after transformation for induction of hairy roots. The induction of hairy root was observed after 6 days of infection in case of 48 h co-cultivation only. PCR with rolA and virC gene specific primers confirmed the induced hairy roots were due to Ri T-DNA integration and not due to contaminating A. rhizogenes. The root network as explants showed the maximum transformation efficiency. We tested different media like MS, SHFR (Stage Hog Fern Root) and KNOP’s during transformation for hairy root induction. The SHFR based media showed good response in transformation as well as propagation. Further, transformation efficiency was enhanced by addition of TDZ (2 mg/L) and Bevistin (0.1%) in SHFR media. The present work would be helpful in hairy roots-based in vitro production of secondary metabolites and on aspect of functional genomics of S. bryopteris.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to investigate the anatomy and histochemistry of Mollinedia clavigera leaves and stems through photonic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Noteworthy features of leaves were: presence of paracytic stomata on both surfaces; simple as well as bifurcate non-glandular trichomes; prismatic calcium oxalate crystals; flat-convex midrib with a central and two dorsal bundles; concave-convex petiole with a single vascular bundle in open archh. Stems were cylindrical and showed prismatic and styloid crystals in the pith. Histochemical analysis detected lipophilic and phenolic compounds, starch grains and lignified elements such as brachysclereids and fibers. These features may assist in future identifications and quality control of M. clavigera, avoid misidentification between other genus members, once species and genus studies are scarce.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as “imbuia”, “canela-imbuia” or “imbuia-amarela” in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible ‘Ft. Dix’ bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phenolic compounds are one of the main groups of secondary metabolites in plants and are known for their antioxidant activity. Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) contains different phenolic compounds including carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid. In Cuba, rosemary cultivation is limited because it is difficult to propagate and has a low yield. As a result, it was removed from the Herbal Medicine National Formulary. However, the National Public Health System has a strong interest in rosemary because of its value as a natural antioxidant medicine. Irrigation with water treated with a static magnetic field (SMF) is a possible strategy to increase rosemary yield. This technology has been applied to accelerate plant growth and increase crop quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in aqueous leaf extracts from plants irrigated with SMF-treated water in comparison to control plants. Significant differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity were observed between aqueous extracts of control plants and plants irrigated with SMF-treated water. Therefore, irrigation with SMF-treated water is a promising technology to improve the cultivation of rosemary as a raw material to obtain pharmaceutical products with high antioxidant activities.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article aims to monitor the development of Orchis purpurea Huds., salep orchids, of different sizes over a period of two years, and to investigate the relationship between the parameters studied. In the first step, the measurements taken at the time of planting and harvesting of tubers divided into eight different groups according to their size were subjected to variance and Duncan's test. In the second step, the relationship between the parameters was investigated by ignoring seedling groups. The relationship between the two variables was determined by correlation analysis. The significance of the relationships between planting and harvest data sets, and variable contributions were determined by canonical correlation analysis. Finally, leaf area prediction modeling was performed by applying multiple regression analysis. In variance analysis all parameters were significant. The canonical correlation between the first pair of canonical variables was 0.988 (p<0.01). The data obtained from the tubers made the greatest contribution to the explanatory power of the canonical variables. The leaf area model was formulized as LA (mm2) = -1237.0204 + 57.7912 × LW + 16.6211 × LL where LA is leaf area, LW is leaf width, LL is leaf length and a, b, and c are coefficients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hypoxia occurs in the splanchnic region during exercise associated with sympathetic activity. In the elderly, vascular insufficiency and low vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression are observed. Compared to young people, sympathetic signals of older individuals are blunted and more resistant to splanchnic blood flow alterations during exercise. VEGF induces vasodilation responses and hence may retain blood in the splanchnic vascular bed. We hypothesized that regular mild-intensity exercise triggers weak VEGF expression in the digestive tract of the elderly. The effects of exercise on the levels of VEGF, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon tissues were evaluated. With exercise, the VEGF levels in the stomach and colon increased. Although the SOD, GPx, and MDA levels decreased in the stomach, they increased in the colon. T-AOC increased in the stomach and there was no change in the jejunum, ileum and colon. The hypoperfusion during exercise was not equal in all regions of the gastrointestinal tract in the aged subjects. Hypoxia and other exercise-related mechanisms could have led to this VEGF induction. The stomach, jejunum, and ileum might have developed resistance to ischemia. The induction of VEGF may be beneficial in aging-associated impaired gastrointestinal homeostasis and neovascularization.
Abstract in English:Abstract In a climate change context, the buildup of CO2 will affect plant communities worldwide. This study evaluated the effects of CO2 enrichment on the development and defense of two Cerrado native species Baccharis dracunculifolia and B. platypoda and their associated endophytic fungi richness. The study took place in Open-Top Chambers, two with ambient CO2 concentration (~400 ppm) and two in an enriched environment (~800 ppm). Baccharis platypoda developed 20% more leaves under enriched CO2 conditions, whereas B. dracunculifolia was 30% taller and showed 27% more leaves than those under ambient conditions. In both species, leaf polyphenol concentration did not differ between treatments. Nevertheless, polyphenol content had a positive correlation with plant height on both species’ individuals grown under CO2 enriched conditions. Endophytic fungi richness and colonization rate on both plant species did not differ between ambient and enriched conditions. Our results show the positive effect of CO2 fertilizer in at least one of the measured growth parameters. An important new finding was a synergistic increase in growth and chemical defense in both studied species under enriched CO2 conditions, suggesting higher carbon assimilation and accumulation. This study suggests that the effects on primary productivity and secondary metabolites of Baccharis species will potentially reflect on the diversity and distribution of Cerrado plants and their associated animal communities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) has been used for long-term cell labeling and in vivo cell tracking because they have good at photostability and biocompatibility. In this study, we evaluate the effect of fluorescent nanodiamond labeling on in vitro culture and differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). For hepatic differentiation of hUCMSCs, cells were induced with human hepatocyte growth factor, nicotinamide and Dexamethasone. FND was supplied in two experimental groups with 20 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in 2 hours. The cell was assessed for FND uptake by laser scan microscopy and flow cytometry methods. The effect of FND on hUCMSCs was evaluated by the cell viability and growth assays as well as the differentiation throughout of morphology alterations or gene expression of anfa-fetoprotein, albumin, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. The results showed that the labeling of hUCMSCs is efficient and easy and there was significant cellular uptake of FND. We did not observe any negative impacts of FND to the cell viability and growth. FND can be utilized for the long-term labeling and tracking of hUCSCs and HLCs in vivo studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aquaponics is a system that integrates aquaculture with plant production in which two species are benefited, and there is water saving. In this study was carried out with an aquaponic system to verify the interaction between the growth of the halophytes Batis maritime, Sarcocornia neei, and Sporobolus virginicus associated with white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei rearing. We also investigated if there were different responses of physicochemical variables of the water in the experimental shrimp culture ponds integrated into the growth of plants and control ponds, without plants, throughout a 56-day period. The treatment experiment and control presented a statistically significant difference in total dissolved solids, salinity, total suspended solids, ammonia, orthophosphate, and nitrite. In the experimental treatment, with the presence of plants and recirculating water, a reduction of total suspended solids, ammonia and orthophosphate was observed. The rate of shrimp production was not significantly different between treatments, and the performance was similar to that of other studies. The biomass gain of the halophyte B. maritima was 876.6 grams in 0.5 m² and of S. neei was 48.8 grams in 0.16 m². All plants of the species S. virginicus died during the experiment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Herein we evaluated the histopathological alterations and expression patterns of multixenobiotic resistence (MXR) and autophagic proteins in liver samples of fish chronically exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in a highly polluted river, and then again after they had been transferred to good quality water. Two groups were established: euthanized on the day of capture (0 h), and maintained for 30 days in a tank (30 d). The fish of 0 h presented liver with vacuolated and hypertrophic hepatocytes. Also, it was observed strong immunostaining of cathepsin-D, LC3-II and P-gp. Necrosis and apoptosis were also observed throughout the liver. Conversely, the second group (30 d) showed recovery of the liver normal histology and weak immunoreaction of the studied proteins. So, our results indicated that there was a hepatic recovery in the fish kept in good quality water, as showed by the decreased expression of cathepsin-D, LC3-II, and the MXR (P-gp). Therefore, the alterations here observed could be proposed as potential biomarkers to be tested for following the impacts of remediation or mitigation measures to environmental impacts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Monofloral honeys are high-added-value food, a reason for constant cases of fraud. This study investigated Brazilian monofloral honeys from Hovenia dulcis flowering produced by Apis mellifera and Tetragonisca angustula bees. Chemical, physicochemical, rheological, and melissopalynological analysis were assessed. Properties such as moisture, pH, ashes, total acidity, total available carbohydrate, and soluble sugars of all analyzed honey samples agreed with the established by the legislation. All the honey samples were satisfactorily fitted by both Ostwald-de Waele and Casson rheological models revealing homogenous products, mostly presenting pseudoplastic character. The melissopalynology confirmed the presence of H. dulcis pollen in the MH samples; however, some honeys did not show >45% pollen of H. dulcis, thus revealing mislabeling cases. Continuous evaluation of honey is necessary, once this is a valuable food frequently involved in frauds, hence causing problems to consumers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Clusia grandiflora belongs to an important botanical family which is known for its medicinal value, however there are few reports in literature about the species, highlighting the relevance of this study. Anatomical studies with leaves and stems were performed using traditional techniques. In this investigation it was identified particularities of the species such as the presence of vascular system arranged in an opened arc-shaped with the flexed ends towards the inside of the arch with accessory bundles in the petiole. In histochemical studies, performed with different reagents, alkaloids, phenols substances, carbohydrates and lipids were located. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was performed by tetrazole salt and showed promising results for ethanolic extracts of stems (IC50 human colon cells of 24.30 μg/ mL) and leaves (IC50 ascites gastric cells of 44.15 μg/ mL), without cell membrane disruption of erythrocytes. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by tryptic soy agar and minimal inhibitory concentration assays and showed positive results for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, with better result for adventitious roots (32 μg/ mL and 16 μg/ mL, respectively), stems (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) and leaves (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) ethanolic extracts. Thus, these studies were able to characterize the species and show its potential as promising source of active substances.
Abstract in English:Abstract Chitinase enzymes possess various usages in agriculture, biotechnology and medicine due to their chitin degrading property. Thus, efficient production of chitinase enzymes with desired properties has importance for its use. In this study, chitinase A (chiA) gene from Serratia marcescens Bn10 was cloned and heterologously overexpressed using pHT43 vector in Bacillus subtilis 168. The recombinant chitinase was characterized in terms of temperature, pH, and various effectors. The extracellular chitinase activity in recombinant B. subtilis was found 2.15-fold higher than the parental strain after 2 h of IPTG induction. Optimum temperature and pH for the extracellular chitinase activity in the recombinant B. subtilis were determined as 60 oC and pH 9.0, respectively. NaCl, Ca2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween-20, and ethanol increased the chitinase activity whereas Mg2+ caused an inhibition. The most notable increment on the chitinase activity was provided by Zn2+ (3.2 folds) and then by SDS (2.9 folds). The chitinase, overproduced by the recombinant B. subtilis 168 heterologously expressing chiA, was determined to have optimum activity at high temperature and alkaline conditions as well as various effectors increase its activity. The extracellular chitinase of recombinant B. subtilis might be a promising source for agricultural, biotechnological and medical applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and essential oil production of nine populations of poejo (Cunila galioides) cultivated in five agroecological regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, under different edaphoclimatic conditions. The experiments were performed in field conditions in Erechim, Caxias do Sul, Pelotas, São Francisco de Paula, and Santa Vitoria do Palmar. The experimental design was completely randomized, with nine populations, eight plants per plot and four repetitions. The following were evaluated: biomass production and essential oil chemical composition and yield. The data underwent ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple range test. The adaptability and stability of the populations in the different environments were also evaluated by regression analysis. The results showed great differences between the populations and cultivation sites, with genotype vs. environment interaction. Most populations presented the best biomass production results at Erechim. Pelotas and Santa Vitória do Palmar were the worst locations for poejo production, mainly due to a water deficit occurred during the experiment. The Santa Lucia population presented broad stability and the greatest adaptability to the environments for biomass and essential oil production, but its average production was not satisfactory. The André da Rocha population presented the highest average production of essential oil, and was favored in favorable environments. Regarding essential oil chemical composition, the populations kept stable contents of the major compounds at all locations, with a few variations. In some populations, a higher concentration of sesquiterpenes was observed, which can be attributed to environmental stress.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study was performed to assess the proximate and nutrient content of rainbow trout flesh, cultured in the Doi Inthanon Fisheries Research Unit, Chiang Mai Inland Fisheries Research and Development Center, Thailand. 240 fish were randomly distributed across 12 cages with 20 fish cage-1. Sixteen individual fish from each cage were randomly collected at different ages of 10, 12 and 24 months. Body composition, pH, water-holding capacity, shear force, collagen content analysis, sensory, lipid oxidation, and fatty acids profile were evaluated. The results indicated that body composition and carcass length were significantly higher in fish aged 24 months, except for carcass and viscero-somatic index percentages (P ≤ 0.05). Fish at 24 months showed significantly higher pH, moisture, fat, shear force, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total collagen content values than fish at 10 and 12 months (P ≤ 0.05). However, protein percentage, sensory measurement and water-holding capacity were significantly higher in younger fish at 10 and 12 months. The average lipid content and n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly greater in fish at 12 months and in ventral fillets (P ≤ 0.05). However, polyunsaturated fatty acids: saturated fatty acid ratio was higher in fish at 24 months and in dorsal fillets. In conclusion, rainbow trout cultured in sub-tropical, montane conditions can be valuable sources of protein, unsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acids, and docosahexaenoic acids.
Abstract in English:Abstract The effect of the anatomical structure of tomato skin may be significant for quality determination at the harvest point, but the definitions of cells that constitute the skin of fleshy fruits, such as tomato, are still unclear, providing contradictory descriptions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidermal tissue of different genetic materials of tomato processing (IT761, U2006, TC2736, CVR2909 and F3060) and maturation stage, in order to compare and choose genetic materials with morphological characteristics of the epidermis region more appropriate for the bulk transport. Micrographs were used for cell measurements using the Image J software. Cuticle undergoes thickening during fruit growth, and reduction in full maturation. Genetic materials presenting fruits with thicker cuticle at the harvest stage (CVR2909, F3060 and IT761) were more advantageous due to their mechanical resistance. Cuticle deposition ends before full fruit maturation, resulting in a decrease in the amount of cutin per surface unit, consequently decreasing cuticle thickness in the ripe fruit. The characteristics observed in the tomato fruit mesocarp clearly showed the disruption of the cell wall during the fourth maturation stage related to loss of fruit firmness. Among the new genetic materials, F3060 has a greater potential to become cultivated for industrialization due to its morphological characteristics, such as elevated cuticle thickness and high values for width, height, perimeter and area of epidermal cells in full maturation stage, which make it suitable for bulk transport.
Abstract in English:Abstract Glucosamine is known as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and as neuroprotective as well as using to treat many of diseases. This work aimed to investigate the remedial effect of glucosamine (20mg/kg b.wt) against the damage induced by a single dose of γ-radiation (8Gy) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (100mg/kg b.wt) in the heart and brain tissues of female rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), LDH and creatine kinase (CPK) were measured. Moreover, gene expression of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and seladin-1 were estimated in the brain tissue. Also, acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and p-tau protein expression were estimated in brain homogenate. Metallothioneine (MT) was estimated in the heart and brain tissues. Heart and brain histopathological examination was performed. Irradiation significantly decreased serum AST, CPK and LDH, as well as MT levels in heart and brain tissues. Also, gene expression of seladin-1 decreased. On the other hand, irradiation significantly increased serum TGs level and brain AchE activity, tau protein, and β-amyloid percursor (APP). AlCl3 administration (21 days) induced disturbance in most of the estimated parameters, especially AST, TGs, and MT. Glucosamine treatment with irradiation or AlCl3 improved most of the measured parameters. In addition, histopathological examination confirmed the biochemical results. In conclusion: Glucosamine could be used to improve the heart and brain damages induced by γ-radiation exposure or AlCl3.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acetylated cassava starch with low and medium degrees of substitution (DS) were synthesized. Also, the effect of DS on swelling power, solubility, morphological properties, gelatinization temperature, paste clarity and moisture sorption were studied. Swelling power and solubility in water between 50ºC and 90°C were determined. Acetylated cassava starches with low DS showed an increased in both parameters, while at higher DS values a reduction of them was observed. Maximum swelling power values were measured in acetylated starch with DS of 0.2 and maximum solubility was registered at DS of 0.72. Equilibrium moisture content values from sorption isotherms presented a good fit using the GAB model (R2>0.96). SEM micrographs showed that as acetyl groups are incorporated the granules suffer surface changes and eventually lose their structure at DS of 1.5. Clarity of acetylated starch pastes with low DS was lighter than native starch paste. In addition, the increase in DS produced a reduction in gelatinization temperature.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Freshly prepared apple tea wine (a combination of tea extract and apple juice) is having yeasty and dull flavour, which needs to be improved to increase the acceptability of this product. Therefore, an attempt has been made for artificial ageing of apple tea wine using different wood chips to improve its physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes. Different types of wood chips (Quercus spp., Bombax spp. and Acacia spp.) were added respectively (2.5 g/L to the freshly prepared apple tea wine) and allowed for ageing in carboys for the six months at the room temperature. The influence of each wood species on physico-chemical, sensory and antimicrobial attributes was tested upto 6 months of storage. Storage intervals significantly affected all the physico-chemical attributes (except total sugars, volatile acidity, and antioxidant activity), whereas, the addition of wood chips affected titratable acidity, ethanol, higher alcohols, total phenols, and amino acid. Cluster analysis of the physico-chemical attributes data revealed the same and showed that storage intervals exerted more effect on the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of the apple tea wine rather than the wood chips. The antimicrobial activity of 6 months aged wine was low as compared to the fresh wine. Among all the wood chips, apple tea wine aged with Quercus spp. possesses a significantly higher score (according to desirability) than the wine aged with other wood chips and control. In nutshell, apple tea wine matured with Quercus spp. wood chips for 6 months were the best with improved physico-chemical and sensory attributes.
Abstract in English:Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid (GA) concentration on some physical properties and biodegradability of films produced with proteins extracted from the castor bean cake. The films, prepared by the casting technique, showed homogeneous and brownish appearance. As the GA concentration increased (from 0 to 10 g/100 g protein), the films gradually became darker and more opaque; while the gloss had few significant differences. Solubility, tensile strength and elasticity modulus values of films varied due to changing concentrations of gallic acid. Elongation at break and water vapor permeability values did not have significant changes. A 60% mineralization value of the film containing GA was obtained at 21 days, evidencing its biodegradability. These dark and opaque films could be used in agriculture, specifically in seedling bags as the dark color decrease the incidence of light, preventing root weakening, and the seedlings can be transplanted directly without removal of the film.
Abstract in English:Abstract Commercial roasted and ground coffees are usually blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Considering the differences in price and sensory characteristics between these two species, the identification of the presence of each species in commercial blends is of great interest. The aim of this study was to describe typical profiles of caffeine and diterpenes (kahweol and cafestol) contents and the ratios among these compounds to support the characterization of Coffea species in roasted coffees. 32 good cup quality Brazilian C. arabica coffees (from coffee quality contests) produced using different postharvest treatments were studied. All analysis were performed by HPLC. Higher ranges were observed in diterpene contents - kahweol varied from 1.75 to 10.68 g/kg (coefficient of variation of 510%) and cafestol from 1.76 to 9.66 g/kg (449%) - than caffeine, that varied from 5.1 to 16.2 g/kg (coefficient of variation of 218%). Wide ranges of the kahweol/cafestol ratio (0.63 to 2.77) and the caffeine/kahweol ratio (0.84 to 5.15) were also observed. Hence it was proposed the additional use of a new parameter, the ratio of caffeine/sum of diterpenes (kahweol + cafestol) that presents values from 0.54 to 2.39. The results indicated that the combined use of these parameters could be a potential tool for discriminating Coffea species in blends of roasted and ground coffee. It was proposed as potentially indicative of C. arabica: values of kahweol/cafestol ratio above 0.50, associated with caffeine/kahweol ratio lower than 5.50 and caffeine/sum of diterpenes ratio lower than 2.50.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the last years phytosterols, natural components of plants, have received more attention due to association of their consumption with reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There are several scientific studies about phytosterols in vegetable oils, but they are scarce in unconventional oils. The objective of this research was evaluating the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in São Paulo city, in Brazil. The analysis included cold alkaline saponification, derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane reagents, and quantification by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and internal standardization. The quality control parameters indicated that the method was suitable for analysis. Total sterols were between 272.3 mg kg-1 (coconut oil) to 6169.7 mg kg-1 (evening primrose oil). β-sitosterol was the component found in higher concentrations and evening primrose oil was the most representative in quantity of phytosterols.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of new prebiotics in the diet on performance and metabolism (liver protein, glucose and glycogen) of Nile tilapia. For 60 days, 720 Nile tilapia (3.4 ± 0.60 g) were maintained in 24 polypropylene tanks (280 liters). Fish were fed with experimental diets with addition of 2.5 and 5 g kg-1 of dietary fiber of citrus pulp (DFCP), dietary fiber of linseed (DFL) and Actigen®. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3x2 factorial arrangement. At the end of the period, there was higher final weight of tilapias fed on diets containing DFCP and DFL, and regardless of prebiotic, the best results in the final weight and length were observed for inclusion of 2.5 g kg-1. There was higher body protein deposition in tilapia fed on diets containing DFCP, without differences from those with inclusion of DFL. Total fat deposition was higher for the lowest level of inclusion (2.5 g kg-1). The digestive somatic index was higher for the diet with inclusion of DFCP, which did not differ from the diet with inclusion of Actigen®. There were higher concentrations of liver glycogen in the diets containing DFCP and Actigen®. Faced with the search for alternative growth promoters, this study confirms the possibility of using the new prebiotics (DFCP and DFL) in nutrition of Nile tilapia, because they showed efficiency equivalent to the prebiotic Actigen®.
Abstract in English:Abstract Texture is an important parameter which influences on the quality and acceptability of yoghurts. The utilize of stabilizers in yoghurt manufacturing has become a prevalent application to improve the textural properties of yoghurts. In this context, guar gum obtained from Cyamopsis tetragonolobus is generally used as a natural stabilizer for its thickening and gelling properties. Accordingly, this study evaluated the use of chia seed mucilage as an alternative to guar gum to improve the textural properties of yoghurt. This study focused on the effect of using chia seed mucilage (CSM) and guar gum (GG) at 1, 2, and 3% concentrations on the textural and microstructural characteristics of yoghurts. The results of fortifications with CSM and GG on the physicochemical, sensory, and antioxidative properties of yoghurts were also evaluated. Compared to GG, CSM provided higher antioxidant activity which improved with increasing concentrations of CSM. An enhancement was observed in textural properties of yoghurts containing CSM and GG, but CSM concentrations up to 2% gave better effect on firmness. Besides, the microstructure of yoghurt was enhanced depending on the increase in CSM and GG amounts. No negative effect was determined on the sensory properties of the samples by CSM and GG additions. The results showed that CSM can be used in set-type yoghurt production as an alternative stabilizer by improving firmness and consistency and reducing syneresis. Furthermore, its use is suitable for industrial yoghurt production with regards to sensorial properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.
Abstract in English:Abstract This research aims to determine the efficiency of chitosan and xanthan gum films in conservation of croaker fillets kept in refrigeration for 9 days. Proximal composition, loss of mass, color, pH, TVB-N (Total Volatile Bases) and microbiological profile were assessed. The films were prepared with chitosan and xanthan gum in varying mass proportions 100:0, m:m (C100XG0); 60:40, m:m (C60XG40); 50:50, m:m (C50XG50). They presented the respective values for moisture content, water solubility, thickness and water vapor permeability: 24.59%, 19.50%, 0.086 mm and 11.45gm-1.s-1.Pa-1for C100XG0; 24.58%; 20.27%, 0.091 mm and 10.41 gm-1.s-1.Pa-1for C60XG40; 22.11%, 22.06%, 0.089 mm and 10.68 gm-1.s-1.Pa-1 forC50XG50.The films were made in small bags format capable to hold about 20 g of fish fillets. A control sample was prepared in parallel, using polyethylene bags under the same storage conditions. The results showed that the chitosan films combined with xanthan gum had excellent antimicrobial properties, capable of preserving the quality of chilled fish fillets during the studied period, since it inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus coagulase-positive, Salmonella spp and coliforms at 45 ° C. Mass loss of the croaker fillets was not significantly affected by xanthan gum addition to the films. On the other hand, xanthan gum addition affected pH and color parameters of the corvina fillets. It was also verified that the combination of these two polymers promoted the reduction of N-BVT, being the C50XG50 film that presented the best response.
Abstract in English:Abstract Shochu is the most widely consumed spirit in Japan. In its manufacture is used koji, a solid fungus culture traditional of the Asian countries, but that makes the production process slow. Shochu can be produced from a variety of starchy sources, including sweet potato. About 7% of the world’s sweet potato production is wasted due to imperfections that make it unsuitable for consumption. However, this material can be used in ethanol production. Considering the high productivity of sweet potato in Brazil, an opportunity to add value to this raw material is perceived. An alternative process for the production of sweet potato distillate similar to shochu was proposed. Koji was replaced by a mixture of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. Process time was reduced from 14 to only 1 day. Composition analyses were performed by HPLC and GC. The experimental yield of alcoholic fermentation using pectinase enzyme reached 67.31-73.65%, but methanol was above the limits of the legislation. Without the addition of pectinase, no methanol was formed. However, there was a decrease in yield (51.65-54.75%), due to the incomplete disintegration of sweet potatoes. The distillate produced and the commercial shochu presented the same absorption bands in FTIR analysis, identifying the similarity between them.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sweet orange juice is an important part of diet since it is nutritious beverage offering good taste and play significant part in a healthy diet. High hygroscopicity, thermo-plasticity and presence of low molecular weight components in sweet orange juice offer low glass transition temperature (Tg), likely to form soft particle with sticky surface leading to sticky powder during drying. Maltodextrins are amorphous drying aids that tend to inhibit sugar crystallization and form a high Tg product after drying. In this study, the effect of the different spray drying parameters on the quality of powder derived from control and concentrated juice at three inlet air temperatures 120, 130 and 140 °C and at three levels of juice total soluble solids (TSS): maltodextrin levels at 1:0.5; 1:1 and 1:1.5 were studied. The impact of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration has significantly affected various properties of sweet orange powder. For control juice, process yields increased with increase in inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. However, for reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, process yield increased with increase in maltodextrin concentration and decreased with increase in inlet air temperature. For control juice, process yields obtained were in the range of 12.59-41.16% and in case of concentrated juice, the process yield obtained was in the range of 21.35-56.95% at different combinations of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentrations. Spray-dried powder was considered as “possible” and “fair” in terms of flowability and cohesiveness. Vitamin C retention was high at lower inlet air temperature with lower concentration of maltodextrin.
Abstract in English:Abstract The organic compound caffeine when detected in environmental matrices such as surface waters and groundwater is considered as an emerging contaminant, in which its effects are still unknown. Therefore, in the present research, zinc oxide-based catalysts impregnated with iron and silver were prepared for the reaction of caffeine degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis. The wet impregnation method with excess solvent was applied to the preparation of the materials, later they were characterized by adsorption of N2, X-ray diffraction and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Then, the photodegradation, photolysis and adsorption tests were carried out, in which it was observed that only the presence of the radiation or photocatalysts could not sufficiently degrade the caffeine, however when combined radiation with all the catalysts studied here presented degradation above 70% at the end of 300 minutes of the reaction, and the best catalyst studied was that containing 8% Ag in non-calcined ZnO. Thus, these results point out that the methodology employed in this research, both for the preparation of the catalysts and in the process of the photocatalysis reaction, was efficient in the degradation of the emerging contaminant, caffeine, which could later be used for a mixture of other contaminants.
Abstract in English:Abstract Despite its potential in the production of polymers from renewable sources, D-limonene faces difficulties in its polymerization, resulting in low monomer conversion and molar mass. In order to investigate the non-ideality inherent kinetics, this work explores different modeling strategies for D-limonene radical polymerization, using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The starting model considered the classical approach for conventional radical polymerization. This model was then corrected by including reaction orders different from the unit. After an analysis and choice of the best model, computer simulations were compared with experimental results from literature, validating the chosen approach. It was found that the process is drastically influenced by chain transfer reactions, presenting a non-ideal behavior. Finally, an analysis of distinct reaction conditions provided information on monomer conversion, molar mass and polymer dispersity, which could guide future research in the synthesis optimization. Higher molar mass poly(limonene) were obtained by simultaneously reducing the monomer and initiator concentrations.
Abstract in English:Abstract Evolution of digital Health-care Information System established Medical Image Security as the new contemporary research area. Most of the researchers used either image watermarking or image encryption to address medical image security. However, very few proposals focused on both issues. This paper has implemented a Fast Medial Image Security algorithm for color images that uses both watermarking and encryption of each color channel. The proposed method starts with embedding of a smoothened key image (K) and patient information over the original image (I) to generate a watermarked image (W). Then, each color channel of the watermarked image (W) is encrypted separately to produce an encrypted image (E) using the same smoothened key image (K). This image can be transmitted over the public network and the original image (I) can be achieved using decryption algorithm followed by de-watermarking using the same key image (K) at the receiver. Qualitative and quantitative results of the proposed method show good performance when compared with the existing method with high Mean, PSNR and Entropy.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study describes the use of bentonite in suspension for the caffeine adsorption (pollutant of emerging concern) by taking different conditions of the pH, adsorbent mass, adsorbent calcination temperature and interferents into account. The results were compared with those obtained using bentonite immobilized in alginate beads. The acid medium has a greater efficiency for the caffeine adsorption and the adsorbent calcination temperature exerts, due to structural changes. Caffeine removal higher than 90% was obtained at optimized conditions. The Langmuir model indicated a better fit of the data and the adsorption capacity of caffeine onto bentonite. The bentonite immobilized led to a slower adsorption process in relation to the suspended.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aims of this work were to produce hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 in a low cost sugarcane molasses fermentation medium and to employ the produced HA to obtain films blends based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The films were produced using solution casting method and they were characterized according to their microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties. HA was added in different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15% (w/w)), and glycerol was used as a plasticizer (25 g/100 g solids). All formulations resulted in easily manipulated films with good appearance. The addition of HA on PVA films increased their thermal stability, solubility, swelling index, water vapor permeability and elongation. Microbial HA sample combined with PVA showed to be a promising material to biomedical application, and an addition between 5 and 10% (w/w) was sufficient to improve PVA films properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the performance and surface alteration of two single-file systems according to the number of uses. Ten WaveOne Primary files (25/.08) and ten One Shape NG files (25/.06) were used for instrumentation of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. Each instrument was cleaned and sterilized after the preparation of two root canals and then reused. The time spent for instrumentation of each root canal was recorded and analyzed by using t-test. Microphotographs of the surface of the instruments were taken with a scanning electron microscope at different magnifications (i.e. 18x, 160x, 500x and 1000x) and at a distance of 4 mm from the instrument’s tip before being analyzed by four observers. Presence of disruption of cutting edge, crack, craters and unwinding was assessed and submitted to Fisher’s exact test. Both systems showed manufacturing defects and cracks. The presence of disruption of cutting edges was major in WaveOne files from the sixth use, whereas One Shape NG files showed more unwinding. Only preparation time using WaveOne files was influenced by the number of uses. One can conclude that WaveOne files had more disruption of cutting edges and took longer time for root canal preparation from the sixth use onwards, whereas the One Shape NG files showed more unwinding at the tenth use.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article aimed to simulate the new method proposed by the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, CAPES) for the classification of Qualis 2017-2020 by tracing the path that led to the B3 stratification attributed to the journal Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology (BABT). Data collection was based on the evaluation of articles published between 2017 and 2018 to obtain the Lattes curricula of the author(s). Other goals were to verify their participation in stricto sensu postgraduate programs recognized by CAPES; to identify the program’s evaluation area according to CAPES; and to establish the association of authors/co-authors with their respective countries. Overall 199 articles were identified, with 897 authors/co-authors, 359 of which are associated with Brazilian institutions. A participation of at least one Brazilian author/co-author could be verified in 69 articles, out of which 60 had at least one professor affiliated to a stricto sensu postgraduate program recognized by CAPES. There was professors linked to 26 of the 49 CAPES evaluation areas, whereby the highest number of publications were Food Science and Agrarian Sciences I, both with 16 occurrences each. It was verified that the criteria established by the CAPES’ guiding document were not adequately followed. It could be concluded that the journal BABT should have been classified in the stratum A2, with a possible oscillation between A1 and A4, so that its classification as a B3 publication is out of the range foreseen in CAPES’ established criteria.
Abstract in English:Abstract The pulp oil of Caryocar brasiliense Camb., better known as pequi, is used in the typical cuisine of the Brazilian Cerrado region. It is also used in folk medicine to combat several types of disease of the respiratory system and skin. However, since its exploration is purely extractive, the exhaustion of this plant is already foreseen. Thus, in order to establish the sustainable use of pequi and contribute to its maintenance, this study aimed to develop a phytocosmetic with antioxidant and photoprotective properties using the oil of this fruit. Initially, the cytotoxicity of the oil was evaluated in order to establish the safety of its use and its fatty acid composition. Then, from the cream enriched with the oil, it was evaluated the antioxidant and photoprotector potentials, quantified the total phenolic content and examined the quality of the formulation. Pequi oil showed high percentages of palmitic (52.11%) and oleic (44.57%) fatty acids and absence of cytotoxicity. The analysis of the cream revealed 168.8 mg of total phenols in gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of oil. The evaluation of antioxidant activity showed an EC50 of 2.921 mg/mL and a capacity of inhibiting the lipoperoxidation process higher than 100%. The obtained sun protection factor was 11.40 at the concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The quality tests revealed small disturbances in the cream stability that can be solved by further research and improvement of the formulation. The pequi oil can be converted into a phytocosmetic of great commercial value.
Abstract in English:Abstract Nanoparticles demonstrate an important role in the protection of bioactive compounds from external factors such as temperature, oxygen and light. In this study, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles entrapped β-carotene was produced using the nanoprecipitation method. Firstly, was evaluated the lipophilic surfactant effect and carrier agent of the active compound in the nanocapsules formulation. After choosing the most stable formulation, the nanocapsules production was optimized using β-carotene, caprylic/capric triglycerides (CCT) and soybean lecithin. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to evaluate the influence of soy lecithin concentration, volume of CCT and β-carotene concentration in the particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), encapsulation efficiency and recovery. Formulations containing soy lecithin and CCT demonstrated better stability comparing to the other formulations tested. The nanoparticle formulations presented an optimized particle size below 200 nm, PDI lower than 0.1 and encapsulation efficiency above 95%. Based on the results obtained, the optimum conditions to prepare PCL nanocapsules were 0.2160 mg/mL of β-carotene, 232.42 μL of CCT and 2.59 mg/mL of soy lecithin, suggesting an applicability to promote controlled released of β-carotene in food system.
Abstract in English:Abstract Adequate availability of data directly influences the quality of hydrological studies. In this sense, procedures for filling gaps of observations are often applied in order to improve the length of hydrological series. One technique that can be used is the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which process information from input data creating an output. This study aims to evaluate the application of ANN to fill missing data from monthly average streamflow series at Rio do Carmo Basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A 26-years series (from 1989 to 2012) was used for ANN modelling while the two proceeding years, 2013 and 2014, were used to simulate failures pursuant to evaluating the performance of the ANN. The ANN construction was performed by the software WEKA that uses the multilayer perceptron model with sigmoidal activation functions. Four types of ANN were generated: five attributes and two (MLP1) or five (MLP2) neurons; and with three attributes and one (MLP3) or three (MLP4) neurons. The best-fit model to ANN was the MLP1, verified by Pearson correlation coefficients (0.9824), and coefficient of determination r² (0.9646). The model used five attributes, four input data (year, month, streamflow data from Acaiaca and Fazenda Paraíso stations) and one output data (streamflow from Fazenda Oriente station), that considered the temporal variation of streamflow. Hence, the utilization of the ANN generated by the WEKA was adequate and can be considered a simple approach, not requiring great computational programming knowledge.
Abstract in English:Abstract Waste produced by the construction sector is a problem that has grown over the last few years. Construction and demolition waste makes up about 50% by mass of the total solid waste produced in Brazil. One alternative by which to reduce this volume is recycling this material in the form of aggregates. However, it is necessary to analyze the environmental risk that the use of recycled aggregates can entail for adjacent soil and the water table. The purpose of this work was to evaluate pervious concrete samples that contained recycled aggregates and to subject them to leaching tests. The results were compared with the limits established by the Italian methodology. Aggregates with 10, 25, 50, and 100% ceramic were used, as well as a recycled concrete aggregate and a natural aggregate. With the exception of the 25% ceramic trial, all the treatments introduced chromium to the water in which they were immersed, with accumulated concentrations varying from 0.009 to 0.099 mg L-1. Cadmium was found in higher quantities, with cumulated concentrations between 0.104 and 0.417 mg L-1. Sulfate concentrations were higher after 24 h of immersion, with a maximum release of 71.7 mg L-1. The concrete made with 100% ceramic aggregate leached more chromium and sulfate than the other aggregates.
Abstract in English:Abstract The kinetics and equilibrium of experimental data of mercury (II) sorption using three different macrophytes E. crassipes, E. azurea and S. ariculata were analyzed. From the kinetic models used, the model 1, which considers the surface area of constant sorption, presents the coefficient of determination, R2, closer to the unit (0.97). Already, in the liquid phase, the best fit of the experimental data was obtained for model 2 (R2=0.96), which considers the variable surface area. The calculated values for the determination coefficients indicate that the Redlich-Peterson isotherm best describes the equilibrium (R2=0.79). The results show that the macrophyte S. ariculata surface area, which presented the highest adsorption potential (15.77x10-4m2.g-1), was far below those found in the best adsorbents. However, considering the large volume of adsorbent material required in an industrial plant and the low cost of the analyzed adsorbents, it is considered that the macrophytes investigated have a considerable potential for the removal of mercury from wastewater.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new low-cost material is presented for the first time, aiming to study the sorption process for the stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique. The bars were made using a composition of a commercial epoxy resin and montmorillonite, under different compositions and a final ratio of 70% (epoxy) and 30% (montmorillonite) was employed, providing the best mechanical and chemical resistance. A PTFE support was developed to hold the bars permitting the magnetic stirring, without turbulent behavior even under long times of stirring at 1000 rpm. The bars were employed to study the sorption of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ), and the best extraction conditions were: sample volume 20.0 mL, pH 6.0, extraction time of 15 min, room temperature, stirring speed of 100 rpm, and 10.0% (w v-1) NaCl. This preliminary evaluation suggests that the modified bars could be employed for ATZ sorption, affording close to 71% of ATZ removal, and presented robust characteristics to be used at least 80 times.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study assessed the performance of two pilot units, a conventional activated sludge (CAS) and an Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge (IAS), in the treatment of leachate from sanitary landfill combined with domestic sewage, with the aim of removing organic substances. In order to assess the possible impacts on treatment, three experimental phases were designed using influent leachate contributions of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the total BOD load. Overall, the results showed that no significant changes in the behavior of biological processes. The IAS unit presented average BOD removal efficiencies of above 88%, 87% and 80% for the three leachate load contributions of 5%, 10% and 20% studied. The CAS unit presented lower average efficiency with a 5% leachate contribution (64%), but displayed a similar performance to the IAS unit in the other phases (82% and 80%); similar quantitative aspects were observed for both treatment processes with regards to biomass composition analysis. The kinetic coefficients related to heterotrophic metabolism did not indicate negative effects on treatment efficiency as a result of the increase in leachate addition, with values of 2.8; 2.8 and 2.7 d-1 obtained respectively for each phase with the CAS unit, and 2.0; 1.5 and 1.6 d-1 with the IAS unit, representing similar values to those found in the literature (1.5 a 5.0 d-1). The results reinforced the conclusion that the leachate load introduced did not cause inhibition or significant alterations to heterotrophic metabolism, and, therefore, to the removal of organic matter.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work reports the study of the potential application of Zn/TiO2 catalysts, obtained by the sol-gel method, in processes of environmental decontamination through the reactions of photodegradation of textile dye, followed by electrospray mass spectrometry. The catalysts synthesis was performed according to a 2² factorial design with repetition at the central point. The characterization techniques used were: N2 adsorption measurements (BET method), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (MEV/EDS), X-ray diffraction and point of zero charge (PZC). The photocatalytic tests were performed in batch in the presence of sunlight, and to evaluate the degradation kinetics study, a rapid direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) method has been developed. By the photocatalytic tests, the calcination temperature of 400 °C has shown the best results of discoloration for the reactive Orange-122 dye (99.76%) in a reaction time of 2h. The discoloration kinetics were a pseudo-first order, and a statistical analysis was performed to investigate the effects of the variables and to optimize the conditions of discoloration to the dye. After the reactional time of 2 h, an ion of m/z 441.5 was detected by ESI-MS, indicating that the photocatalytic process was effective for the degradation of the dye to secondary compounds.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the production of endoxylanases by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3 in submerged fermentation using by-products of the food industry at 28ºC. In shake-flasks experiments, the highest endoxylanase activity of 45.8 U.mL-1 was observed within 6 days in a medium containing (w/v) 2.5% wheat bran and 1.2% corn steep liquor. The same culture conditions were used to evaluate the enzyme production in a 2 L stirred tank reactor under different agitation (300, 450 and 600 rev.min-1) and aeration (30 and 60 L.h-1) conditions. The use of 450 rev.min-1 coupled to an aeration of 90 L.h-1 resulted on 81.3 U.mL-1 endoxylanase activity within 5 days. The effect of temperature and pH on endoxylanase activity and stability showed the highest activity at 60 ºC and pH 6.0. Zymography showed the presence of three xylanolytic bands with molecular masses of 690, 180 and 142 kDa. The results showed that the thermotolerant actinobacterial endoxylanase can be produced in high titers using by-product of the food industry.
Abstract in English:Abstract Whey, a by-product of dairy industry, is a feedstock widely employed in the production of biodegradable films. However, these films present some limitations when considering the performance of synthetic polymers, especially biological transformation by decomposition. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of chitosan addition to whey-based films to improve films physical-chemical properties and resistance to microbial degradation. The results showed that there was an interaction effect between the chitosan concentration and the storage time for the physical-chemical properties of elongation at break and opacity. There was statistical difference among the formulations; however, for the moisture content and film thickness, there was no interaction effect between the formulation and the storage time. The films with 1.5 and 3.0 wt.% chitosan presented a yellowish hue, characteristic of the polysaccharide; this could also be detected by SEM analysis. The films presented an excellent biodegradability, being decomposed in about 8 days. Considering all chitosan contents tested had similar performances, the chitosan content of 0.15 wt.% was the one with the better cost-benefit relation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Color removal from textile effluents was evaluated using a laboratory-combined process based on an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a shallow polishing pond (SPP). The anaerobic reactor was fed with a real textile effluent, diluted 10-times in a 350 mg/L solution of pre-treated residual yeast extract from a brewery industry as nutrient source. The parameters color, COD, N-NH3 and toxicity were monitored throughout 45 days of operation. According to the results, decolorization and COD removal were highest in the anaerobic step, whereas the effluent was polished in the SPP unit. The overall efficiency of the complete UASB-SPP system for COD and color were 88 and 62%, respectively. Moreover, the N-NH3 generated by the residual yeast extract ammonification was below 5 mg/L for the final effluent. Finally, no toxicity was detected after the treatment steps, as shown by the Vibrio fischeri microscale assay.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of the present study was to develop a cost-effective medium, using agro-industrial wastes for the production of a polygalacturonase by Wickerhanomyces anomalus of interest in cassava starch industries. The effect of several raw agro-industrial wastes and others nutrients on polygalacturonase production by W. anomalus, were evaluated, in a reference fermentation medium, using statistical designs, by batch culture. The ability of the cell-free supernatant to extract cassava starch was evaluated. Lemon peel was the best inducer for the production of PGase. Statistical analysis of the data showed that lemon peel, Mg+2 and PO4HK2 had significant effect on PGase production, and the others variables (yeast extract, Ca+2, Fe+2, amino acid and trace element solution) were no significant. PGase synthesis reached ~31 EUmL-1, in the OFM (glucose, lemon peel, urea, vitamins, KH2PO4 and MgSO4), after 12 h of culture, at a lab scale bioreactor. PGase of W. anomalus, was able to disintegrate cassava tuber tissue, and the starch granules contained within the cells were released into the reaction medium. Lemon peel can be used as inducer for PGase production by W. anomalus, in a low cost culture medium, appropriate for the production of the enzyme at large scale.
Abstract in English:Abstract To develop a biorefinery concept applied in the brewery industry, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and a consortium of associated bacteria were cultivated mixotrophically in a continuous photobioreactor using brewery low-value subproducts as an integrative process. Beer production residues were biochemically characterized to assess the most promising options to be used as a nutrient source for microalgal cultivation. Due to its physical and chemical properties, pre-treated weak wort was used to prepare an organic complex culture medium for microalgal biotransformation. Filtration and nitrogen supplementation were necessary to improve nutrient removal and biomass productivity. Maximal removal of nitrate and phosphate obtained were 90% and 100% respectively. Depending on operation conditions, total carbohydrates depuration ranged from 50 - 80%. The initial concentration of total carbohydrates of the weak wort must be adjusted to 2 - 4g/L to maintain a stable equilibrium between microalgal and bacterial growth. The biochemical composition of produced biomass varied depending on the cultivation conditions as well as on its final use. Upon continuous mixotrophic conditions evaluated in this study, C. pyrenoidosa was composed mainly of carbohydrates and protein.
Abstract in English:Abstract Evidence suggests that polymorphisms in the gene encoding a vitamin D receptor might affect blood pressure. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the association between hypertension and vitamin D receptor (Fok I) gene polymorphism. A literature search was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines using the MEDLINE®/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library CENTRAL, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The quality of case-control or cohort studies and studies based on cross-sectional methodology was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the protocol of Loney and coauthors , respectively. In this systematic literature search, 215 publications were identified, of which 10 were analyzed, including seven case-control studies, two cross-sectional studies, and one cohort study. The association between Fok I polymorphism and hypertension was reported in 60% of the publications and the risk for hypertension was shown to be related to FF and ff genotypes. In addition, Fok I polymorphism was shown to increase plasma renin activity, which plays an important role in regulating blood pressure. However, no association was observed between Fok I polymorphism and serum vitamin D levels. In conclusion, Fok I polymorphism plays an important role in hypertension.
Abstract in English:Abstract Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is an important annual medicinal plant that belongs to the Cannabaceae family. It contains 421 substances of 18 chemical types-the most significant compound is δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which causes several effects, both in the Central Nervous System and in several peripheral locations in the organism. The objectives of this scientific review are to mention the anatomical distribution, chemical characteristics and biosynthesis of cannabinoids, as well as its actions mechanisms. The endogenous cannabinoid system, the therapeutic properties of C. sativa and its action on the nociceptive control are described. Finally, the modulators of the cannabinoid system in clinical use are indicated, together with marijuana legalization benefits.
Abstract in English:Abstract The bacterial species employ various types of molecular communication systems recognized as quorum sensing for the synchronization of differential gene expression to regulate virulence traits and biofilm formation. A variety of quorum sensing inhibitors; molecules that interfere with quorum sensing among bacteria have been examined which can block the action of autoinducers. Moreover, the studies have scrutinized various enzymes for their quorum quenching activity resulting in the degradation of signaling molecules or blocking of gene expression. So far, the studies have found that these approaches are not only capable to reduce the pathogenicity and biofilm formation but also resulted in increased bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of these strategies has been validated in different animal models and it seems that these practices will be transformed in near future to develop the medical devices including catheters, implants, and dressings for the prevention of bacterial infections. Although many of these approaches are still in the research stage, the increasing library of quorum quenching molecules and enzymes will open innovative perspectives for the development of antibacterial approaches which will extend the therapeutic arsenal against the pathogenic bacterial species.
Abstract in English:Abstract To the moment, there is no ideal substance for home-based denture disinfection. This study assessed in vitro the antimicrobial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora and the effect on the physical properties of denture polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from samples of saliva collected from denture wearers. The extracts were produced in three concentrations, according to the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. One hundred eighty-eight disc-shaped specimens of thermopolymerizable PMMA were prepared and randomly allocated to five treatment groups: sterile saline solution (0.85%; control); chlorhexidine digluconate (0.2%); and hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora (0.2%, 0.8%, and 1.16%). The specimens were disinfected for 8 hours/day for 30 days. Adherence of microorganisms to the surface, PMMA surface roughness, and color stability were assessed. Inferential statistics were performed with one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey test, and Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-tests, at α=0.05. The extract of E. uniflora at 0.2% and 1.16% reduced the microbial load of K. oxytoca, while chlorhexidine digluconate significantly reduced microbial load of all microrganisms. Microbial adherence at day 10 was reduced by all experimental substances (p<0.001). Surface roughness was not affected by the disinfecting substances (p>0.05). Nevertheless, all experimental groups produced unacceptable color change at the end of the disinfection protocol (p<0.001). The non-adherent potential against microorganisms isolated from the oral cavity confirm the potential of use of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. uniflora as a denture disinfectant. Yet, unacceptable color changes may occur, regardless of extract concentration.