BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário [Theory of the Novel III: The Novel as a Literary Genre]. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. 144p.

Orison Marden Bandeira de Melo JúniorAbout the author
BAKHTIN, M.. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. 144p.


As it is well known to readers who follow the publication of the Circle’s works by Editora 34 [34 Publishing House], Teoria do romance I [Theory of the Novel I], Teoria do romance II [Theory of the Novel II] and now Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] comprise the third volume of Mikhail Bakhtin’s Collected Works in Seven Volumes [Sobránie sotchiniênii v siémi tomakh], edited by Vadim Valerianovich Kozhinov (1930-2001) and Sergei Georgievich Bocharov (1929), who, according to Grillo (2009GRILLO, S. Obras reunidas de M. M. Bakhtin. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, v. 1, n. 1, p.170-174, 2009. Disponível em: https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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), are Bakhtin’s literary executors. After Kozhinov’s death, Grillo (2009)GRILLO, S. Obras reunidas de M. M. Bakhtin. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, v. 1, n. 1, p.170-174, 2009. Disponível em: https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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explains, Bocharov became responsible for coordinating the project of the collected works. According to the Nota à edição brasileira [Note to the Brazilian Edition] of Teoria do romance I [Theory of the Novel I] (BAKHTIN, 2015BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. ), it was Bocharov who allowed Paulo Bezerra and the publishing house to split the third volume of the Collected Works into three books.

As Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] completed the publication of Bakhtin’s theory of the novel, it is now possible to have a privileged view of the texts that comprise the third volume of the Collected Works. Thus, it is easier to note that the number of essays in the three volumes does not totally correspond to the number of essays that make up Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance [Questions of Literature and Aesthetics: The Theory of the Novel] (henceforth QLE) (BAKHTIN, 2002BAKHTIN, M. Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance. Tradução Aurora F. Bernardini et al. São Paulo: Hucitec; Annablume, 2002. ). The first essay in QLA, The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Art,1 1 TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the essay collection titled Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. [BAKHTIN, M. The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Art. Translated by Kenneth Brostrom. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990. pp. 257-325.] is not in any of the three volumes of Teoria do romance [Theory of the Novel]. According to Bezerra (2015BEZERRA, P. Prefácio. In: BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. p.7-13. ), it was removed from the third volume of the Collected Works because the Russian editors deemed it a more general text on the theory of literature that aimed to oppose Russian formalism. Grillo (2009GRILLO, S. Obras reunidas de M. M. Bakhtin. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, v. 1, n. 1, p.170-174, 2009. Disponível em: https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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) informs that it was published in the first volume of the Collected Works along with the texts Art and Answerability,2 2 TN. The English translation of this text was also published in the collection Art and Answerability. [BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990. pp. 1-3.] Toward a Philosophy of the Act,3 3 BAKHTIN, M. Toward a Philosophy of the Act. Translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1993. and Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity.4 4 TN. The English translation of this essay was also published in the collection Art and Answerability. [BAKHTIN, M. Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990b. pp. 4-256.]

The second essay Discourse in the Novel was published by Editora 34 [34 Publishing House] in the first volume of the trilogy: Teoria do romance I: A estilística [Theory of the Novel I: Stylistics] (BAKHTIN, 2015BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. ).5 5 TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. [BAKHTIN, M. Discourse in the Novel. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.259-422.] Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: Notes toward a Historical Poetics, the third essay of QLE, was published in Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo [Theory of the Novel II: The Forms of Time and of the Chronotope] (BAKHTIN, 2018BAKHTIN, M. As formas do tempo e do cronotopo no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance II: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. ).6 6 TN. The English translation of this essay was also published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination [BAKHTIN, M. Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: Notes toward a Historical Poetics. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.84-258.] It is noteworthy that Paulo Bezerra makes a small change in the translation of the essay’s title: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo no romance: um ensaio de poética histórica [Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: An Essay on Historical Poetics]. Moreover, it is important to highlight that the reviews of Teoria do romance I [Theory of the Novel I] and Teoria do romance II [Theory of the Novel II] were published in Bakhtiniana right after the books were released. Silva’s review of the first volume was published in the first issue of 2006 (SILVA, 2016SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: A estilística. Tradução, prefácio, notas e glossário de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p.264-269, 2016. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424.
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)7 7 SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: a estilística [Theory of the Novel I: Stylistics]. Translation, afterword, notes and glossary by Paulo Bezerra; Russian edition organizers Serguei Botcharov and Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Translated by Carlos Renato Lopes. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p. 234-239, 2016. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso &tlng=en. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020. and Queijo’s review of the second volume, in the second issue of 2019 (QUEIJO, 2019QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo. Tradução, posfácio e notas de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 14, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2019. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457340996.
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).8 8 QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo [Theory of the Novel II: The Forms of Time and of the Chronotope]. Translation, afterword and notes by Paulo Bezerra; Russian edition organizers Serguei Botcharov and Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Translation revised by Robin Driver. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 158-167, 2019. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso.&tlng=en. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020.

The QLE collection ends with three shorter essays: Da pré-história do discurso romanesco [From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse],9 9 TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination [BAKHTIN, M. From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.41-83.] Epos e o romance (sobre a metodologia do estudo do romance) [Epic and Novel: Toward a Methodology for the Study of the Novel]10 10 TN. The reference to the English translation of this essay is in References, at the end of this review. and Rabelais e Gógol (arte do discurso e cultura cômica popular) [Rabelais and Gogol (The Art of Discourse and the Popular Culture of Laughter)].11 11 TN. This essay was translated into English by Patricia Sollner and published at Mississippi Review, ISSN 0047-7559. [BAKHTIN, M. Rabelais and Gogol: The Art of Discourse and the Popular Culture of Laughter. Translated by Patricia Sollner. Mississippi Review, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 34-50, 1983.] The first two essays are in Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário [Theory of the Novel III: The Novel as a Literary Genre] (BAKHTIN, 2019BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019.), but their titles are somewhat different. The latter essay, however, is published in the fourth volume of the Collected Works, which, according to Grillo (2009GRILLO, S. Obras reunidas de M. M. Bakhtin. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, v. 1, n. 1, p.170-174, 2009. Disponível em: https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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), compiles Bakhtin’s texts on Rabelais, including, obviously, his work on François Rabelais and popular culture in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, published in Brazil by Hucitec, titled, in Portuguese, A cultura popular na Idade Média e no Renascimento: o contexto de François Rabelais [Popular Culture in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: The Context of François Rabelais] (BAKHTIN, 2010BAKHTIN, M. A cultura popular na Idade Média e no Renascimento: o contexto de François Rabelais. Tradução Yara F. Vieira. 7. ed. São Paulo: Hucitec, 2010. ).12 12 TN. The English version of this book is titled Rabelais and His World. [BAKHTIN, M. Rabelais and His World. Translated by Helene Iswolsky. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.]

As to the essays that comprise Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III], the reader at first recognizes only one, namely, Sobre a pré-história do discurso romanesco [On the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse] as the title resembles the former one, Da pré-história do discurso romanesco [From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse]. However, the title of the second essay, which is also the subtitle of the book, may seem unfamiliar to the reader: The Novel as a Literary Genre. In the Afterword titled O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico [The Completion of a Broad Theoretical Cycle], Bezerra (2019BEZERRA, P. O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p.113-133.) explains that this was the original title of the essay, which was published, in a fragmented way, with the title Epic and Novel. The same title is found in its translation into English, Spanish, French, and Italian: Epic and Novel: Toward a Methodology for the Study of the Novel (BAKHTIN, 1981BAKHTIN, M. Epic and novel: toward a methodology for the study of the novel. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.3-40.); Épica y novela: (acerca de la metodología del análisis novelístico) (BAJTÍN, 1989BAJTÍN, M. Épica y novela (Acerca de la metodología del análisis novelístico). In: BAJTÍN, M. Teoría y estética de la novela: trabajos de investigación. Tradução Helena S. Kriúkova, Vicente Cazcarra. Madrid: Taurus, 1989. p.449-485. ); Récit épique et roman: (méthodologie de l’analyse du roman) (BAKHTINE, 1978BAKHTINE, M. Récit épique et roman: (méthodologie de l’analyse du roman). In: BAKHTINE, M. Esthétique et théorie du roman. Tradução: Daria Olivier. Paris: Édition Gallimard, 1978. p.439-473.); Epos e romanzo: sulla metodologia dello studio del romanzo (BACHTIN, 2001BACHTIN, M. Epos e romanzo: sulla metodologia dello studio del romanzo. In: BACHTIN, M. Estetica e romanzo. Tradução Clara Strada Janovič. Torino: Einaudi, 2001. p.445-482.). According to Bezerra (2019)BEZERRA, P. O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p.113-133., the original title was restored by the editors of the Collected Works so it could totally correspond to Bakhtin’s project that aimed to discuss “the novel as a particular literary genre,” thus showing “the approximation and distancing of the two genres” (p. 120),13 13 In the original: “o romance como gênero literário específico” [...] “os encontros e os desencontros dos dois gêneros.” that is, the epic and the novel. This unfamiliarity, nonetheless, is easily dissipated by the understanding of its meaning, leaving readers and scholars who study the novel from a Bakhtinian perspective to adapt to new terms and titles as they know these new terms and titles are a result of studies and research done by scholars who are specialists in the works of the Circle. Moreover, the reader of Paulo Bezerra’s translation should feel privileged for having received this information that was brought to readers in Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III], and not disclosed in any translation of the essay into English, Spanish, French, or Italian.

Before making some specific remarks about Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III], we need to investigate the macrostructure of the three volumes, which is only possible now that we have this privileged view of all the texts that comprise Bakhtin’s theory of the novel. As Silva (2016)SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: A estilística. Tradução, prefácio, notas e glossário de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p.264-269, 2016. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424.
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and Queijo (2019)QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo. Tradução, posfácio e notas de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 14, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2019. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457340996.
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emphasized, the volumes enrich the studies of the novel not only because their translation “brings us closer to its author’s voice” (SILVA, 2016SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: A estilística. Tradução, prefácio, notas e glossário de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p.264-269, 2016. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424.
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, p. 269),14 14 For reference, see footnote 7. but because they also provide different paratexts, which includes Bezerra’s afterword. For Queijo (2019QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo. Tradução, posfácio e notas de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 14, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2019. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457340996.
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, p. 164), it “provides a framework for the preceding text.”15 15 For reference, see footnote 8. Brait (2019BRAIT, B. Discursos de resistência: do paratexto ao texto. Ou vice-versa? Alfa, v.63, n.2, p.243-263, 2019. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8477. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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)16 16 BRAIT, B. Discourses of Resistance: From Paratext To Text, Or Vice Versa? Translated by Orison M. B. Melo Jr. Alfa, vol. 63, no.2, pp.251-272, 2019. Available at: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8478. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020. explains that for us to understand a given work as a concrete utterance, as proposed by the Circle, we need to understand that every text in the book is part of its architectonics, which includes paratexts, that is, texts that are “adjacent to the main text, such as the title, subtitles, a dedication, epigraphs, a preface, an afterword, among others” (p. 259).17 17 For reference, see footnote 16. Paratexts, thus, “carve out the path for the reader to enter into the intricacies of the main text” (BRAIT, 2019BRAIT, B. Discursos de resistência: do paratexto ao texto. Ou vice-versa? Alfa, v.63, n.2, p.243-263, 2019. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8477. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
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, p. 259). In Teoria do romance I [Theory of the Novel I], Bezerra writes the foreword and provides readers with a glossary of some key concepts. Besides these paratexts, readers find a note to the Brazilian edition, a note about the author, and a note about the translator. The second volume is comprised of the main text, some of Bakhtin’s annotations made for the last chapter, added later on, that were called Folhas esparsas [Scattered Pages], Bezerra’s afterword, titled, Uma teoria antropológica da literatura [An Anthropological Theory of Literature], and the three notes we find in the three volumes, viz., a note from the editors, a note about the author, and a note about the translator. The third volume follows the structure of the second, with Bezerra’s afterword and the three notes. The afterword is titled O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico [The Completion of a Broad Theoretical Cycle] and sets an apparent tone of completion to this great utterance called Theory of the Novel. Notably, only the first volume provides a glossary, with the translator’s explanatory notes. This is possibly due to the fact that the translator adopted new terms for consolidated terms in the academy. One example is “heterodiscourse,” which substitutes the “widely used term ‘heteroglossia’ in the work of Brazilian researchers who focus on Bakhtin’s thought” (SILVA, 2016SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: A estilística. Tradução, prefácio, notas e glossário de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p.264-269, 2016. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt. Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424.
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, p.239).18 18 For reference, see footnote 7.

As to the content of Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] (BAKHTIN, 2019BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019.), a summary of each essay will not be provided as they have been presented by different scholars of Bakhtin’s works about the novel and literature in general. One example is Maria Inês B. Campos’s (2009CAMPOS, M. I. B. Questões de literatura e de estética. In: BRAIT, B. (org.). Bakhtin: dialogismo e polifonia. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. p.113-149. ) book chapter in which she presents every essay of QLE. Her presentation of Da pré-história do discurso romanesco [From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse] is titled O importante papel do riso e do plurilinguismo [The Important Role of Laughter and Heteroglossia] (CAMPOS, 2009CAMPOS, M. I. B. Questões de literatura e de estética. In: BRAIT, B. (org.). Bakhtin: dialogismo e polifonia. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. p.113-149. , p.137-139) and of Epos e o romance (sobre a metodologia do estudo do romance) [Epic and Novel: Toward a Methodology for the Study of the Novel] is titled Sobre a metodologia do estudo do romance [On the Novel Study Methodology] (CAMPOS, 2009CAMPOS, M. I. B. Questões de literatura e de estética. In: BRAIT, B. (org.). Bakhtin: dialogismo e polifonia. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. p.113-149. , p.139-142). Therefore, it is necessary to explain that the essays were substantially enriched not only because they were restored in terms of their original titles, but also because they bring Bakhtin’s corrections, restored passages that were cut, and Bakhtin’s annotations made on the margins of the typed texts. According to the Note to the Brazilian Edition (2019)NOTA à edição brasileira. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p. 7-8., readers will find the restored passages [indicated with an asterisk (*)] and the translator’s notes.

These additions to and changes in the text can be understood at first as Bezerra’s translational choices that, at times, are different from the choices made by QLE translators. For Bezerra (2015, p.10) “to translate Bakhtin is not only an extremely difficult challenge but also risky.”19 19 In the original: “traduzir Bakhtin, além de ser um desafio extremamente difícil, é também arriscado.” For him, this is explained by the fact that the translator deals with “concepts that encompass a whole system of reflections based on something that may be called aesthetic philosophy” (BEZERRA, 2015BEZERRA, P. Prefácio. In: BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. p.7-13. , p.10).20 20 In the original: “conceitos que abrangem todo um sistema de reflexões embasado em algo que talvez se possa chamar de filosofia estética.” In this vein, it is possible to point out two examples of different translational choices between Bezerra and QLE translators. The first is related to Bakhtinian categories. Bezerra brings light to many passages of the essays when he uses terms that are theoretically specific. As an example, in Da pré-história do discurso romanesco [From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse], we read, “It is possible to find five types of approaches to novelistic discourse” (BAKHTIN, 2002BAKHTIN, M. Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance. Tradução Aurora F. Bernardini et al. São Paulo: Hucitec; Annablume, 2002. , p.364)21 21 In Portuguese: “Pode-se notar cinco tipos de abordagens para o discurso romanesco.” whereas in Bezerra’s translation, Sobre a pré-história do discurso romanesco [On the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse], we read, “five types of stylistic focus on novelistic discourse have been observed” (BAKHTIN, 2019BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019., p.13).22 22 In Portuguese: “observam-se cinco tipos de enfoque estilístico do discurso romanesco.” 23 23 TN. The translation of the sentence in From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse is “Five different stylistic approaches to novelistic discourse may be observed” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p. 42). [BAKHTIN, M. From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.41-83.] We thus see that Bezerra uses terms that are more specific (“stylistic focus”) if compared to more general terms used in QLE (“approach”).

The second example related to Bezerra’s translational choices that needs to be highlighted refers to polysemic words in the Russian language. An example is the word slovo. According to Grillo and Américo (2017GRILLO, S.; AMÉRICO, E. V. Glossário. In: VOLÓCHINOV, V. Marxismo e filosofia da linguagem: problemas fundamentais do método sociológico na ciência da linguagem. Tradução Sheila Grillo e Ekaterina V. Américo. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2017. p.353-368., p.364), the word “has a wide meaning, ranging from the lexical unit to the ‘verbal language in use,’ or the utterance and discourse.”24 24 In the original: “tem um significado amplo, que compreende desde a unidade lexical até a ‘a linguagem verbal em uso’ ou o enunciado e o discurso.” In view of that, the translator needs to make choices by taking into account translational possibilities and the theoretical context of the term in the source text. In Translator’s Note 1 of the essay A palavra na vida e a palavra na poesia de Volóchinov [Word in Life and Word in Poetry] (2019),25 25 TN. The English translation of this essay is titled Discourse in Life and Discourse in Poetry. [VOLOSHINOV, V. Discourse in Life and Discourse in Poetry. Translated by John Richmond. In: SHUKMAN, A. (ed.) Bakhtin School Papers. Oxford: RPT Publications, 1983. pp. 5-30.] Grillo and Americo explain that they chose to translate slovo as “palavra” [word] because the essay establishes a direct dialogue with the manifesto of the Russian futurists titled Slóvo kak takovóie [The Word as Such]. However, they clarify that the translation as “discourse” would be favored by the fact that “language is understood in its relation with the social context, its creator and contemplator, its sphere of circulation, etc.” (2019, p.109).26 26 In the original: “a linguagem é considerada na relação com o seu meio social, com o criador e o contemplador, com a sua esfera de circulação etc.” In this regard, still in the first essay of Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III], we notice that Bezerra’s choice differs from the choice of QLE translators. In Da pré-história do discurso romanesco [From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse], we read, “However, under the category of the novel, the word has an existence that is totally of its own [...]” (BAKHTIN, 2002BAKHTIN, M. Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance. Tradução Aurora F. Bernardini et al. São Paulo: Hucitec; Annablume, 2002. , p.364),27 27 In Portuguese: “Entretanto, nas condições do romance, a palavra tem uma existência inteiramente particular.” whereas in Sobre a pré-história do discurso romanesco [On the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse], we see that Bezerra chose the word “discourse”: “However, under the category of the novel, discourse lives a life that is totally of its own [...]” (BAKHTIN, 2029BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019., p.14).28 28 In Portuguese: “Entretanto, nas condições do romance o discurso vive uma vida totalmente específica.” 29 29 TN. The translation of the sentence in From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse is “And all the while discourse is the novel has been living a life that is distinctly its own” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p.43). For reference, see footnote 23.

The reader of Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] should know that besides the differences in translation, the third volume provides new excerpts. As previously mentioned, this new version recovers passages that were cut in earlier versions. One example is the first paragraph of the essay O romance como gênero literário [The Novel as a Literary Genre] (BAKHTIN, 2019BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019., p.65), which explains why the author had to use some parts of the essay that discusses the theory of the novelistic genre to present a discussion on the philosophy of genres. This paragraph is not found in the 2002 translation. In fact, the very first paragraph of Epos e o romance [Epic and Novel] starts with the sentence: “The study of the novel as a genre is characterized by peculiar difficulties” (BAKHTIN, 2002BAKHTIN, M. Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance. Tradução Aurora F. Bernardini et al. São Paulo: Hucitec; Annablume, 2002. , p.397).30 30 In Portuguese: “O estudo do romance enquanto gênero caracteriza-se por dificuldades particulares.” This is the second paragraph in the 2019 translation, which starts with this sentence: “The theory of the novel as a genre is distinguished by peculiar difficulties” (BAKHTIN, 2019BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019., p.65).31 31 In Portuguese: “A teoria do romance enquanto gênero distingue-se por dificuldades peculiares.” 32 32 TN. The translation of the sentence in Epic and Novel is “The study of the novel as a genre is distinguished by peculiar difficulties” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p.3).

These brief observations show us the degree to which the new translation of these essays into Brazilian Portuguese is unique. As previously mentioned, besides the translational choices, which were more theoretically specific, and the text insertions, Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] even includes an essay by Paulo Bezerra. In it, the translator not only explains the origin of Bakhtin’s essays, that is, “two lectures given by Bakhtin during the meetings of the literary theory group, organized by professor Leonid Timofeyev at the Maksim Gorki Institute of World Literature in Moscow” (BEZERRA, 2019BEZERRA, P. O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p.113-133., p.113),33 33 In the original: “duas conferências proferidas por Bakhtin nas reuniões do grupo de teoria da literatura organizado pelo professor Leonid Timofêiev no Instituto de Literatura Mundial Maskim Górki de Moscou.” but he also provides readers with some detailed information about each essay. Thus, he emphasizes laughter and parody in Sobre a pré-história do discurso romanesco [On the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse] and its main objective, and shows how the essay O romance como gênero literário [The Novel as a Literary Genre] “[…] broke with traditional paradigms in the studies and foci of the novel’s history and theory” (BEZERRA, 2019BEZERRA, P. O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p.113-133., p.122).34 34 In the original: “quebrou os paradigmas tradicionais nos estudos e enfoques da história e da teoria do romance.”

Therefore, Teoria do romance III [Theory of the Novel III] is a work of excellence that should be read by everyone who studies the novel through Bakhtinian lenses. This invitation is made not only to those who have not had the chance to read the essays yet, but also to those who have already read, discussed and studied them in QLE as they will see how Paulo Bezerra’s translation is greatly enriched. The translator, by using his linguistic, literary, translational, theoretical knowledge (especially of the dialogical theory), once again provides the reader with a text that is more complete in itself - with the insertion of Bakhtin’s notes, which were previously cut, and the translator’s rich notes and observations - and that completes the Theory of the novel proposed by Bakhtin.

References

  • BACHTIN, M. Epos e romanzo: sulla metodologia dello studio del romanzo. In: BACHTIN, M. Estetica e romanzo Tradução Clara Strada Janovič. Torino: Einaudi, 2001. p.445-482.
  • BAJTÍN, M. Épica y novela (Acerca de la metodología del análisis novelístico). In: BAJTÍN, M. Teoría y estética de la novela: trabajos de investigación. Tradução Helena S. Kriúkova, Vicente Cazcarra. Madrid: Taurus, 1989. p.449-485.
  • BAKHTIN, M. Epic and novel: toward a methodology for the study of the novel. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.3-40.
  • BAKHTIN, M. Questões de literatura e de estética: a teoria do romance. Tradução Aurora F. Bernardini et al São Paulo: Hucitec; Annablume, 2002.
  • BAKHTIN, M. A cultura popular na Idade Média e no Renascimento: o contexto de François Rabelais. Tradução Yara F. Vieira. 7. ed. São Paulo: Hucitec, 2010.
  • BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015.
  • BAKHTIN, M. As formas do tempo e do cronotopo no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance II: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018.
  • BAKHTIN, M. O romance como gênero literário. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019.
  • BAKHTINE, M. Récit épique et roman: (méthodologie de l’analyse du roman). In: BAKHTINE, M. Esthétique et théorie du roman Tradução: Daria Olivier. Paris: Édition Gallimard, 1978. p.439-473.
  • BEZERRA, P. Prefácio. In: BAKHTIN, M. O discurso no romance. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. p.7-13.
  • BEZERRA, P. O fechamento de um grande ciclo teórico. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p.113-133.
  • BRAIT, B. Discursos de resistência: do paratexto ao texto. Ou vice-versa? Alfa, v.63, n.2, p.243-263, 2019. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8477 Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
    » https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8477
  • CAMPOS, M. I. B. Questões de literatura e de estética. In: BRAIT, B. (org.). Bakhtin: dialogismo e polifonia. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. p.113-149.
  • GRILLO, S. Obras reunidas de M. M. Bakhtin. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, v. 1, n. 1, p.170-174, 2009. Disponível em: https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938 Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.
    » https://revistas.pucsp.br/bakhtiniana/article/view/3007/1938
  • GRILLO, S.; AMÉRICO, E. V. Glossário. In: VOLÓCHINOV, V. Marxismo e filosofia da linguagem: problemas fundamentais do método sociológico na ciência da linguagem. Tradução Sheila Grillo e Ekaterina V. Américo. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2017. p.353-368.
  • GRILLO, S.; AMÉRICO, E. V. Nota do Tradutor 1. In: VOLÓCHONOV, V. (Círculo de Bakhtin). A palavra na vida e a palavra na poesia: ensaios, artigos, resenhas e poemas. Organização, tradução, ensaio introdutório e notas Sheila Grillo e Ekaterina V. Américo. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p. 109.
  • NOTA à edição brasileira. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance I: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. p. 15-16.
  • NOTA à edição brasileira. In: BAKHTIN, M. Teoria do romance III: o romance como gênero literário. Tradução, posfácio e notas Paulo Bezerra. Organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2019. p. 7-8.
  • QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo. Tradução, posfácio e notas de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 14, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2019. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457340996
    » http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt» http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457340996
  • SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: A estilística. Tradução, prefácio, notas e glossário de Paulo Bezerra; organização da edição russa de Serguei Botcharov e Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p.264-269, 2016. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt Acesso em: 25 jan. 2020.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424
    » http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt&ORIGINALLANG=pt» http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2176-457324424

  • Translation by the reviewer.
  • 1
    TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the essay collection titled Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. [BAKHTIN, M. The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Art. Translated by Kenneth Brostrom. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990. pp. 257-325.]
  • 2
    TN. The English translation of this text was also published in the collection Art and Answerability. [BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990. pp. 1-3.]
  • 3
    BAKHTIN, M. Toward a Philosophy of the Act. Translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1993.
  • 4
    TN. The English translation of this essay was also published in the collection Art and Answerability. [BAKHTIN, M. Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity. In: BAKHTIN, M. Art and Answerability: Early Philosophical Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov; translated by Vadim Liapunov. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1990b. pp. 4-256.]
  • 5
    TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. [BAKHTIN, M. Discourse in the Novel. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.259-422.]
  • 6
    TN. The English translation of this essay was also published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination [BAKHTIN, M. Forms of Time and of the Chronotope in the Novel: Notes toward a Historical Poetics. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.84-258.]
  • 7
    SILVA, A. P. P. F. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance I: a estilística [Theory of the Novel I: Stylistics]. Translation, afterword, notes and glossary by Paulo Bezerra; Russian edition organizers Serguei Botcharov and Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2015. 256p. Translated by Carlos Renato Lopes. Bakhtiniana, Rev. Estud. Discurso, São Paulo, v. 11, n. 1, p. 234-239, 2016. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732016000100264&lng=en&nrm=iso &tlng=en. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020.
  • 8
    QUEIJO, M. E. S. BAKHTIN, Mikhail. Teoria do romance II: As formas do tempo e do cronotopo [Theory of the Novel II: The Forms of Time and of the Chronotope]. Translation, afterword and notes by Paulo Bezerra; Russian edition organizers Serguei Botcharov and Vadim Kójinov. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2018. 272p. Translation revised by Robin Driver. Bakhtiniana. Revista de Estudos do Discurso, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 158-167, 2019. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2176-45732019000200150&lng=en&nrm=iso.&tlng=en. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020.
  • 9
    TN. The English translation of this essay was published in the collection The Dialogic Imagination [BAKHTIN, M. From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.41-83.]
  • 10
    TN. The reference to the English translation of this essay is in References, at the end of this review.
  • 11
    TN. This essay was translated into English by Patricia Sollner and published at Mississippi Review, ISSN 0047-7559. [BAKHTIN, M. Rabelais and Gogol: The Art of Discourse and the Popular Culture of Laughter. Translated by Patricia Sollner. Mississippi Review, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 34-50, 1983.]
  • 12
    TN. The English version of this book is titled Rabelais and His World. [BAKHTIN, M. Rabelais and His World. Translated by Helene Iswolsky. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.]
  • 13
    In the original: “o romance como gênero literário específico” [...] “os encontros e os desencontros dos dois gêneros.”
  • 14
    For reference, see footnote 7.
  • 15
    For reference, see footnote 8.
  • 16
    BRAIT, B. Discourses of Resistance: From Paratext To Text, Or Vice Versa? Translated by Orison M. B. Melo Jr. Alfa, vol. 63, no.2, pp.251-272, 2019. Available at: https://periodicos.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/11452/8478. Access on: Feb. 07, 2020.
  • 17
    For reference, see footnote 16.
  • 18
    For reference, see footnote 7.
  • 19
    In the original: “traduzir Bakhtin, além de ser um desafio extremamente difícil, é também arriscado.”
  • 20
    In the original: “conceitos que abrangem todo um sistema de reflexões embasado em algo que talvez se possa chamar de filosofia estética.”
  • 21
    In Portuguese: “Pode-se notar cinco tipos de abordagens para o discurso romanesco.”
  • 22
    In Portuguese: “observam-se cinco tipos de enfoque estilístico do discurso romanesco.”
  • 23
    TN. The translation of the sentence in From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse is “Five different stylistic approaches to novelistic discourse may be observed” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p. 42). [BAKHTIN, M. From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse. In: BAKHTIN, M. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin. Edited by Michael Holquist; translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1981. pp.41-83.]
  • 24
    In the original: “tem um significado amplo, que compreende desde a unidade lexical até a ‘a linguagem verbal em uso’ ou o enunciado e o discurso.”
  • 25
    TN. The English translation of this essay is titled Discourse in Life and Discourse in Poetry. [VOLOSHINOV, V. Discourse in Life and Discourse in Poetry. Translated by John Richmond. In: SHUKMAN, A. (ed.) Bakhtin School Papers. Oxford: RPT Publications, 1983. pp. 5-30.]
  • 26
    In the original: “a linguagem é considerada na relação com o seu meio social, com o criador e o contemplador, com a sua esfera de circulação etc.”
  • 27
    In Portuguese: “Entretanto, nas condições do romance, a palavra tem uma existência inteiramente particular.”
  • 28
    In Portuguese: “Entretanto, nas condições do romance o discurso vive uma vida totalmente específica.”
  • 29
    TN. The translation of the sentence in From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse is “And all the while discourse is the novel has been living a life that is distinctly its own” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p.43). For reference, see footnote 23.
  • 30
    In Portuguese: “O estudo do romance enquanto gênero caracteriza-se por dificuldades particulares.”
  • 31
    In Portuguese: “A teoria do romance enquanto gênero distingue-se por dificuldades peculiares.”
  • 32
    TN. The translation of the sentence in Epic and Novel is “The study of the novel as a genre is distinguished by peculiar difficulties” (BAKHTIN, 1981, p.3).
  • 33
    In the original: “duas conferências proferidas por Bakhtin nas reuniões do grupo de teoria da literatura organizado pelo professor Leonid Timofêiev no Instituto de Literatura Mundial Maskim Górki de Moscou.”
  • 34
    In the original: “quebrou os paradigmas tradicionais nos estudos e enfoques da história e da teoria do romance.”

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 Apr 2020
  • Date of issue
    Apr-Jun 2020

History

  • Received
    27 Jan 2020
  • Accepted
    12 Feb 2020
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