Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Social management is a broad multidisciplinary field; thus, it requires consensus among scholars. This paper responds to two questions: What elements and categories are prioritized in social management studies by Brazilian scholars? Is there novelty in the elements of SM at the Brazilian approach or it is a superposition with other international perspectives? The methods were lexical analysis, descending hierarchical classification techniques, correspondence analysis, and similarity analysis. The hierarchical clustering of elements extracted from the literature from 1990 to 2019 reveals that the field of social management has six dimensions and originated from previous studies about social participation, governance, and others. Despite the criticism on the concept, there is consensus among Brazilian authors; however, few new ideas emerge, showing a slow grown in the field, besides a low internationalization level. The advance of the praxis is minimizing the level of abstraction; Brazilian scholars defend the triad society, state, and market, but their studies focused more on state and society. On the contrary, international studies recognized the role of firms in social management. The differentiation of the Brazilian perspective of social management is a cognitive citizenship, educational and pedagogical process.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT We analyzed the effect of managerial ownership, leverage, and managerial discretion on the agency costs of 14,719 Chilean companies. The results of the instrumental variables (IV) regressions indicate that managerial ownership and capital structure have a negative and non-linear effect on agency costs. Managerial ownership concentration is an effective means of internal control over agency costs, discarding the managerial entrenchment effect. The non-linear impact of debt suggests that for high leverage levels, agency costs would increase due to higher bankruptcy costs. Managerial discretion reduces agency costs; however, in firms with low growth opportunities, it increases them. These results have relevant implications for firms’ corporate policy and investors.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT Several tourism destinations around the world have started to implement smart city projects with the aim of improving the standard of living of their citizens, as well as the sustainability of their urban and touristic areas, which motivated the emergence of the concept of smart tourism destination. However, the extant literature on this subject is still incipient. Thus, this article aims to investigate, via an exploratory case study, whether the implementation of a smart city initiative in a touristic destination has helped it be transformed into a smart tourism destination. For that, a smart tourism destination development model is presented and applied as the theoretical lens adopted in this research. The results showed a clear misalignment between the smart city initiative and the touristic destination analyzed, as despite the opportunities arising from the technological infrastructure provided by the smart city project, the touristic sector of the city under analysis was not able to take advantage of the opportunities enabled by the smart city project. Lastly, one concluded that political discontinuity, missing local government tourism strategy and governance, lack of engagement of the citizens, and disregard for the local context were the main reasons for that misalignment.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT This paper aims at investigating the resource-seeking internationalization process of an international nongovernmental organization (INGO) from the process point of view. INGOs have received scant attention in the international business literature, despite their relevance in almost every aspect of aid and development and as actors of global governance. The research question addresses the issue of whether or not INGOs can follow a path similar to business firms in their internationalization process. The study departs from two different theoretical perspectives - the Uppsala model and the born global perspective - to study the case of the NGO Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), an international, private, nonprofit, member-based organization. We identify three stages in the resource-seeking internationalization process of the NGO, which present similarities with that of business organizations. The study contributes to the IB literature by revealing key aspects of the internationalization trajectory of an NGO to raise funds and recruit volunteers in advanced and emerging economies with the purpose of employing these resources to support its emergency assistance activities in less developed countries, and to the literature on INGOs in exploring the issue of resource-seeking internationalization.
Resumo em Inglês:ABSTRACT We analyze how followers respond to principled and unprincipled leaders as they express positive and negative emotions, based on the moral tenets of authentic leadership theory. Grounded on the theoretical principles of emotion contagion and cognitive interpretation, we propose that negative affective displays taint followers’ perceptions of authentic leaders and that positive affective displays brighten followers’ perceptions of inauthentic leaders. We tested these hypotheses in two laboratory experiments. Results indicate that while negative affective displays significantly disfavored perceptions about an authentic leader, positive affective displays did not favor attitudes about the leader. In contrast, positive affective displays not only favored attitudes toward an inauthentic leader but also positively influenced judgments regarding the leader’s ethicality. Passive negative displays led to more favorable attitudes toward an inauthentic leader than active negative displays. Our findings unveil followers’ susceptibility to distant leader’s emotion displays, highlighting the nexus among leadership, emotions, and ethics, as well as their relevance in the organizational and political arenas.