This paper aimed to evaluate the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) ellipsoidal heights in conjunction with height anomalies provided by Global Geopotential Model (GGM) XGM2019e, refined by Residual Terrain Modelling (RTM) technique, to obtain normal heights in Brazil, referred to the Imbituba Brazilian Vertical Datum (IBVD) and the International Height Reference System (IHRS). For this purpose, a local modelling approach has been analyzed in contrast to the national modeling one on the reference geopotential value. For this, a methodology based on geopotential space was adapted. In the local modeling, two study subregions were defined using the spatial clustering analysis of IBVD and GGM/RTM height anomalies differences outliers. The parameters have been estimated using three different configurations. In the parameters validation step, Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) of the discrepancies between transformed and Brazilian official normal heights were calculated. In both subregions more accurate results have been obtained with the local modeling. In the SP1 subregion the accuracy increased tenfold (0.97m to 0.10m) and SP2 improved from 0.39m to 0.17m. For the linkage to the future realization of IHRS, the accuracy analysis was not possible. However, discrepancies between calculated normal heights and Brazilian official normal heights have been analyzed.
Normal heights; GNSS; Global Geopotential Model; Vertical datum linkage; IHRS