The biological fixation between the dental implant surfaces and jaw bones should be considered a prerequisite for the long-term success of implant-supported prostheses. In this context, the implant surface modifications gained an important and decisive place in implant research over the last years. As the most investigated topic in, it aided the development of enhanced dental treatment modalities and the expansion of dental implant use. Nowadays, a large number of implant types with a great variety of surface properties and other features are commercially available and have to be treated with caution. Although surface modifications have been shown to enhance osseointegration at early implantation times, for example, the clinician should look for research evidence before selecting a dental implant for a specific use. This paper reviews the literature on dental implant surfaces by assessing in vitro and in vivo studies to show the current perspective of implant development. The review comprises quantitative and qualitative results on the analysis of bone-implant interface using micro and nano implant surface topographies. Furthermore, the perspective of incorporating biomimetic molecules (e.g.: peptides and bone morphogenetic proteins) to the implant surface and their effects on bone formation and remodeling around implants are discussed.
dental implants; topography; surface modifications; biomimetic coating; osseointegration