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Clinical Assessment of Rosemary-based Toothpaste (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.): A Randomized Controlled Double-blind Study


The present study was to investigate the action of a toothpaste made from the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. (rosemary) in a clinical randomized, controlled, open and double-blind trial. One hundred and ten volunteers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomly separated into two groups according to the toothpastes used: Group A (experimental) and Group B (control). They were assessed at baseline and 30 days after the study using the gingival bleeding index (GBI) and the plaque index (PI). Data analysis was conducted to calculate the effects of the two toothpastes on gingival bleeding and plaque, using measurements such as the excess relative risk (ERR), the Relative Risk Reduction (RRR), the Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) and the Number Needed for Treatment (NNT). The two toothpastes provided similar results in terms of the reduction in the risk of gingival bleeding (relative and absolute): a reduction of 38% in Group A, ERR=0.38; a reduction of 29.3% in Group B, ERR=0.293; A and B reduced by 18% ARR=0.18). The reductions in bacterial plaque were also similar (22.7% reduction in Group A, RRR=0.227; 28% reduction in Group B, RRR= 0.28). The number needed for treatment values for bleeding and plaque were A and B NNT=5 and A and B NNT=7, respectively. The rosemary-based toothpaste effectively treated gingival bleeding and reduced bacterial plaque, when compared with conventional toothpaste.

Key Words:
Rosmarinus officinalis; phytotherapy; gingivitis; biofilm; toothpaste

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