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Analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and ozonated water against biofilm in oval canals

Abstract

This in vitro study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 8 µg/mL ozonated water agitated by passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) or PUI combined with EndoActivator (EA) against mature multispecies biofilm. One hundred and five oval-shaped mandibular premolars were instrumented, sterilized, and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus, divided into: control group - saline; O3 group - ozonated water; O3 PUI group - ozonated water with PUI agitation; O3 PUI+EA group - ozonated water with PUI+EA agitation; NaOCl group - NaOCl; NaOCl PUI group - NaOCl with PUI agitation; and NaOCl PUI+EA group - NaOCl with PUI+EA agitation. Microbiological samples were collected before (S1) and after (S2) the disinfection procedures and the data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. In the culture method, there was significant disinfection in the O3 PUI+EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI, and NaOCl PUI+EA groups (p˂0.05). The combination of NaOCl with PUI+EA reduced microbial counts to zero (p˂0.05). In the qPCR method, there was a significant reduction in the total count of viable microorganisms in the O3 PUI, O3 PUI+EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI, and NaOCl PUI+EA groups (p˂0.05). It can be concluded that 2.5% NaOCl with and without agitation, as well as 8 µg/mL ozonated water with its action enhanced by the agitation techniques, were effective in root canal disinfection, and their antimicrobial efficacy is related to the microorganisms present in the biofilm.

Key Words:
biofilm; apical periodontitis; disinfection; sodium hypochlorite; ozone

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