Imaging exams have important role in diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD). Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) stands out for allowing three-dimensional image evaluation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cases diagnosed as COD on CBCT scans, as well identify the main imaging features related to these lesions. An analysis was performed in a database containing 22,400 radiological reports, in which all cases showing some type of COD were initially selected. These CBCT exams were reevaluated to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and determine the prevalence and distribution of the types of COD with regard to gender, age and preferred location, while describing its most common imaging aspects. Data were presented using descriptive analyses. There were 82 cases diagnosed as COD in the CBCT images (prevalence of 0.4%). The distribution of patients was 11 (13.4%) male and 71 (86.6%) female, with a mean age of 49.8 years (age-range 17-85 years). There were 47 (57.3%) cases of periapical COD, 23 (28%) of focal COD and 12 (14.6%) of florid COD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. In most cases, the lesions were mixed or hyperdense. All COD had well-defined limits and there were no cases of tooth displacement. In conclusion, periapical COD was the most common type and the most affected bone was the mandible. Imaging evaluation is critical for diagnosis and dentists should bear in mind all possible radiographic presentations of COD in order to prevent misleading diagnoses and consequently, inadequate treatments.
cemento-osseous dysplasia; cone-beam computed tomography; florid cemento-osseous dysplasia; focal cemento-osseous dysplasia; periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia