Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objective Emergence Delirium (ED), particularly in children, is characterized by mental confusion, irritability, disorientation, and inconsolable crying. ED prolongs the time required in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and increases concern and anxiety in parents. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of low-dose clonidine in preventing ED in children receiving sevoflurane anesthesia for tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy. Methods A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Sixty-two children aged 2-12 years, scheduled to undergo tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy, and classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I/II were included, with 29 being randomized to receive 1 µg.kg-1 clonidine intravenously, and 33 allocated to a control group that received no clonidine. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Children with altered state of consciousness, neurological deficit, history of allergy to dipyrone, or receiving other drugs such as preanesthetic agents were excluded from the study. The primary outcome was the presence of ED in the initial 20 minutes in the PACU according to the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale. The Chi-Square test and Fisher’s two-tailed exact test were used for statistical analysis, as applicable. Significance level was set at 5%, and Risk Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results The frequency of ED was significantly decreased in the group of children who received clonidine (17.2% vs. 57.6%; RR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.13-0.70; p = 0.001). There was no difference between groups with respect to the frequency of postoperative self-harm (falls and bruises), dislodged catheters, and for most of the other adverse events evaluated. Conclusions The use of 1 µg.kg-1 intravenous clonidine during anesthesia induction can effectively reduce the incidence of ED in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy/adenotonsillectomy under general inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02181543.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives: Maneuvers precluding the downward shift of the mandibula and providing slight extension of the head have been shown to increase upper airway dimensions. This study aimed to investigate the role of Neck Collars (NC) in maintaining airway patency during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination in a pediatric population aged between 0 and 16 years. Methods: One hundred twenty-five children were recruited in this prospective study. Subjects were randomly assigned to NC group (NC+) or standard imaging group (NC-). Measurements of anteroposterior and transverse dimensions and cross-sectional area were performed to determine the upper airway size at three distinct levels: soft palate, base of the tongue, and tip of the epiglottis. Results: The anteroposterior diameter and cross-sectional area at the levels of base of the tongue and soft palate were significantly higher in NC+ patients compared to NC- patients. However, anteroposterior dimensions and cross-sectional areas at the epiglottis level were similar in the two groups. When patients were analyzed according to age groups of 0-2, 2-8, and 8-16 years, the anteroposterior diameter and cross-sectional area at the levels of base of the tongue and soft palate were significantly higher in NC+ patients compared to NC- patients in all age groups. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrates that the application of a NC may improve retropalatal end and retroglossal airway dimensions in a pediatric population undergoing MRI examination and receiving sedation in supine position.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Patient satisfaction is a reliable and measurable indicator of the quality provided by a healthcare service. There are several questionnaires for measuring it, but only a few have shown good psychometric properties, an outstanding one being the EVAN-G (Evaluation du Vécu de l’Anesthésie Générale) questionnaire, which measures patient satisfaction regarding perioperative care and is validated in French. The aim of this study is the validation of a Spanish version of the EVAN-G questionnaire. Methods: A translation/back-translation of the questionnaire into Spanish was carried out and the final version obtained was administered to three hundred patients. Its psychometric properties were measured and compared with those of the original EVAN-G questionnaire to verify that they had been maintained after the previous translation process. The questionnaire’s content, construct and external validity were measured. To calculate reliability, Cronbach-α coefficient and test-retest method were used. The Global Satisfaction Index was calculated and satisfaction level in our sample was analyzed. Results: Content, construct and external validity were proven with similar results that in the original EVAN-G. The translated version of the questionnaire showed good reliability: Cronbach-α coefficient was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient measured by test-retest method was 0.9. The acceptability was high. The average Global Satisfaction Index in our sample was 73 ± 12. Conclusions: The translation into Spanish and cross-cultural adaptation of the EVAN-G questionnaire has proven its validity, reliability, and acceptability to measure patient satisfaction in interventions performed under general anesthesia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives: Worldwide, trauma is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to identify the predictors of mortality of trauma patients requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the ICU of our institution in Greece during a six-year period (2010-215). Results: Among 326 patients, trauma was caused by road traffic accidents in .5%, followed by falls (21.1%) and violence (7.4%). Thirty-day mortality was 27.3%. Multivariate analysis showed that higher New Injury Severity Score (NISS), severe head/neck injury, acute kidney injury, septic shock and hemorrhagic shock were significantly associated with mortality while higher Revised Injury Severity Classification, version II (RISC II) and the administration of enteral nutrition were associated with survival. NISS showed the higher accuracy in predicting 30-day mortality followed by RISC II, while scores based only in physiological variables had lower predictive ability. Conclusions: Increased mortality was strongly associated with the severity of the injury upon admission. Traumatic brain injury, septic shock and acute kidney injury have also been found among the strongest predictors of mortality. NISS can be considered as a statistically superior score in predicting mortality of severely injured patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives: Epidural Volume Extension (EVE) involves instillation of normal saline into the epidural space soon after an intrathecal injection, with the aim to augment the sensory block height. Its clinical relevance lies in the possibility of using reduced intrathecal dose and yet achieving the desired sensory block level. Intrathecal dose is a known determinant of the level of sensory block. Whether EVE is dependent on intrathecal dose is not known. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind study to compare the maximum sensory level (Smax) achieved with or without application of EVE to two different reduced intrathecal doses. Eighty four adult male patients of ASA status I or II with body weight between 50-70 kg and height in the range of 150-180 cm, scheduled for orthopedic lower limb surgery using combined spinal epidural anesthesia were randomized to receive, either intrathecal dose (5 or 8 mg) with or without EVE, in accordance to group allocation. Results: Smax was lowered by application of EVE to 5 mg intrathecal bupivacaine (T8.9±4.3 vs. T6.4±1.9 with and without EVE respectively; p = 0.030). Smax was similar when EVE was applied to 8 mg intrathecal bupivacaine than without it (T5.8±1.8 vs. T6.4±2.2 respectively; p = 0.324). Conclusion: EVE should not be applied to 5 mg plain bupivacaine during a combined spinal epidural block in patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic surgery as it may result in a decrease in the maximum sensory level.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objectives: The use of neuromuscular blockers during surgery represented a landmark for anesthesiology. However, their use can prompt residual Neuromuscular Blockade (RNMB) and objective monitoring of neuromuscular function is crucial to warrant the recovery of muscle strength. The present study aimed to estimate the incidence of RNMB and late Neuromuscular Blockade (LNMB) at the Post-Anesthetic Recovery Unit (PACU). Method: The study included 85 patients, 43 of which received cisatracurium and 42 of which, rocuronium. The depth of the Neuromuscular Blockade (NMB) was assessed by Train Of Four (TOF). NMB reversal was performed with the administration of neostigmine and atropine.RNMB was defined when a patient presented TOF below 90% at the PACU. Results: RNMB at the PACU was diagnosed in 39.5% and 40.5% of the patients receiving cisatracurium and rocuronium, respectively (p = 1.0). LNMB at the PACU was found in 32.6% and 16.7% of the patients receiving cisatracurium and rocuronium, respectively (p = 0.131). Conclusions: The incidence ofRNMB remains significant despite the use of intermediate-acting neuromuscular blockers and reversal agents. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of RNMB or LNMB in patients receiving cisatracurium or rocuronium. The use of objective NMB monitoring is effective for the diagnosis of RNMB, as well as for treatment management.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objective: Pectoral nNerve (PECS) block type-1 is an Ultrasound (US)-guided interfacial block that can be performed for postoperative analgesia management after breast surgery. In the procedure, a local anesthetic solution is injected into the interfacial area between the Pectoralis Major muscles (PMm) and Pectoralis minor muscles (Pmm). The present study compared PECS block type-1 administered preoperatively or postoperatively for postoperative analgesia after breast augmentation surgery. Methods: The patients were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30 in each): a preoperative PECS block group (Pregroup), postoperative PECS block group (Postgroup), and control group (Group C). Opioid consumption and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were evaluated at postoperative period. Results: The pains scores in the Pregroup were significantly lower than those in the control group. Although there was no significantly difference in the VAS scores of the Postgroup and control group at postoperative 1 hour, the scores in the Postgroup were significantly lower than those in the control group at all the other evaluated times (p < 0.05). The VAS scores in the Pregroup were significantly lower than those in the Postgroup 8 hours after the surgery. Opioid consumption was significantly lower in the Pregroup as compared with that in the other two groups (p < 0.05). The use of rescue analgesia in the Pregroup was significantly lower than that in the other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Performing PECS block type-1 preoperatively reduced VAS scores and opioid consumption after breast augmentation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Laparoscopic surgical approaches enhance recovery, reduce postoperative pain, and shorten hospital length-of-stay. Nevertheless, increased intra-abdominal pressure is associated with decreased renal blood flow, renal hypoxia and acute kidney injury. When combined with Trendelenburg positioning, renal function may further deteriorate. We tested the primary hypothesis that the combination of laparoscopic surgical approach and Trendelenburg position is associated with larger reductions in estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) within the initial 48 postoperative hours compared to open surgery without Trendelenburg positioning. Secondarily, we tested, if laparoscopic procedures are associated with greater incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury. Methods: Adults who had laparoscopic colorectal surgery in Trendelenburg position at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus from 2009 to 2016 were propensity-matched to patients who had comparable open procedures. Patients with pre-existing renal impairment were excluded. Results: Among 7,357 eligible patients, 1,846 laparoscopic cases with Trendelenburg were matched to 1,846 open cases. No association was found between laparoscopic approach and postoperative eGFR. A significant protective effect of the laparoscopic procedure on the odds of having AKI was found. Patients who had laparoscopic surgeries were an estimated 0.70 (95% CI 0.55, 0.90, pHolm-adj = 0.006) times as likely to have AKI as open surgical patients. Conclusion: Despite compelling potential mechanisms, laparoscopic approach with Trendelenburg position in adult colorectal surgeries did not worsen postoperative eGFR, and actually reduced postoperative acute kidney injury. Given the other advantages of laparoscopic surgery, the approach should not be avoided for concerns about renal injury.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Postoperative Hyperlactatemia (PO-HL) is a frequent condition associated with poor prognosis. In recent years, there has been growing evidence that adrenergic stimulation may contribute to increased lactate levels. The use of adrenergic agonists for the control of intraoperative hypotension is frequent, and its impact on the development of PO-HL is unknown. Objective To evaluate whether the use of intraoperative adrenergic agents is associated with the occurrence of PO-HL. Methods This was a prospective observational study. The inclusion criteria were undergoing elective open colon surgery, being ≥60 years old and signing informed consent. The exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, unplanned surgery, and anticipated need for postoperative mechanical ventilation. Baseline and intraoperative variables were collected, and arterial lactate data were collected at baseline and every 6 hours postoperatively for 24 hours. Hyperlactatemia was defined as lactate >2.1 mEq.L-1. Results We studied 28 patients, 61% of whom developed hyperlactatemia. The variables associated with PO-HL in the univariate analysis were anesthetic time, the total dose of intraoperative ephedrine, and lower intraoperative central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between the use of ephedrine (p = 0.004), intraoperative hypotension (p = 0.026), and use of phenylephrine (p = 0.001) with PO-HL. Conclusions The use of intraoperative ephedrine, phenylephrine and intraoperative hypotension were independently associated with the development of PO-HL. This finding should lead to new studies in this field, as well as a judicious interpretation of the finding of a postoperative increase in lactate levels.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objectives The role of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative management of hemostasis has attracted increasing attention. The fibrinolytic system participates in hemostasis, removing clots after repair of the vascular injury. Over the past two decades, several studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents in reducing perioperative bleeding and transfusion requirements. Some of the conditions that seem to benefit from antifibrinolytic drugs involve trauma, postpartum hemorrhage, cardiac surgery, spine surgery, knee or hip arthroplasty, urological and gynecological surgery, among others. However, there are currently few publications focusing on the perioperative features of fibrinolytic system, which will be the subject of the present review. Content and conclusions Fibrinolytic physiology, its relationship with the clot structure and its perioperative behavior are described. Pathophysiological mechanisms related to anesthesiology clinical practice and their possible perioperative scenarios are addressed according to a suggested classification. This article aims to provide anesthesiologists with a broader understanding of the normal functioning of fibrinolysis, the mechanisms of possible deviations from normality in the perioperative period, the pathophysiological rationale supporting the current indications of antifibrinolytics, and some recent outcomes obtained with their use.
Abstract in English:Abstract Latex responds for most allergic reactions in children, and repeated exposure to the agent is the main cause of sensitization. We report the case of a child allergic to latex who developed anaphylaxis during kidney transplantation performed in a latex-free environment. After immediate treatment with epinephrine the patient gradually improved. Subsequent investigation revealed that kidney harvesting was performed without latex allergy precautions, suggesting graft contamination by the antigen. We conclude that, for preventing this type of anaphylaxis, it is essential to implement latex-free procedures during donor organ harvesting.
Abstract in English:Abstract The management of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and the effect of antiviral drugs in patients with severe COVID-19 have been debated. This case presents the management of a 64-year-old man COVID-19 patient admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with fever, fatigue, shortness of breath and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome. Helmet mask was successfully used to treat his hypoxemic respiratory failure without any aerosol problems. Tocilizumab, an antagonist interleukin-6, was intravenously infused as an alternative drug. After administration, the high level of IL-6, CRP, ferritin, D-dimer, triglyceride, and H-scores decreased, and the patient observed good clinical and laboratory improvements. In this case report, we describe the effect of noninvasive ventilation delivered by helmet mask and antiviral drugs, and the intravenous administration of tocilizumab in a patient with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome and COVID-19.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder which is due to mutations in TYMP. The case reported here is of an 18-year-old male with MNGIE syndrome who presented for two different operations on two different occasions under regional anesthesia. The patient presented with urinary incontinence and abdominal pain. A cystoscopy under spinal anesthesia was scheduled. At 3 months after discharge, gastric perforation was diagnosed and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, surgical repair was planned. Surgical and perioperative periods were uneventful. Based on this experience, we believe that regional anesthesia can be considered safe for use in patients with MNGIE disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mitochondrial Myopathy is a rare pathology caused by a defect in the mitochondrial DNA metabolism, leading to defects in the formation of adenosine triphosphate, in the Krebs citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. It is manifested by exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue on small efforts, muscle weakness, tachycardia, and difficulty breathing. There are few case reports on the operative management of adult patients suffering from mitochondrial myopathy. With this report, we intend to describe the anesthetic management of a patient with mitochondrial myopathy who underwent laparoscopic gastroplasty and outline some anesthetic considerations about this pathology.