Abstract in English:Abstract Background Anesthetic and/or opioid abuse is more prevalent among anesthesiologists than in other medical specialties and it has been associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with lethal anesthetic and/or opioid abuse among anesthesiologists. Methods We evaluated psychological factors, and occupational history and circumstances of death of anesthesiologists who died from anesthetic abuse. Data were obtained post-mortem from colleagues, and relatives. After finding eligible cases, we identified the key informants, who were interviewed personally or via email, through the qualitative method known as “Psychological Autopsy”. Results Eighteen cases of death were identified, but we were able to interview 44% of them (n = 8), most of whom were young males. They died at home or at the hospital and were found “at the scene”. Being an introspective person who did not share personal issues at workplace was the most prevalent personal characteristic. At work, they seemed to perform very well their functions, but some presented subtle changes such as to staying more than usual at the workplace and/or neglecting some of their responsibilities. The main reported factors to explain their substance abuse were emotional problems including psychiatric, excessive hours of work, and other health factors. Conclusion This study identified that emotional disturbances, compulsive work, and general health problems were the more prominent factors involved with those deaths. Further, larger studies are needed to better understand how these factors could be early identified in order to timely prevent anesthetic and/or opioid abuse and several deaths among anesthesiologists.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The prevalence of Substance Use Disorders (SUD) and acceptance of drug testing among anesthetists in Brazil has not been determined. Methods An internet-based survey was performed to investigate the prevalence of SUD among anesthetists in Brazil, to explore the attitudes of anesthetists regarding whether SUD jeopardizes the health of an impaired provider or their patient, and to determine the provider's perspective regarding acceptance and effectiveness of drug testing to reduce SUD. The questionnaire was distributed via social media. REDCap was utilized to capture data. A sample size of 350 to achieve a confidence level of 95% and confidence interval of 5 was estimated. Study report was based on STROBE and CHERRIES statements. Results The survey was returned from 1,295 individuals. Most individuals knew an anesthesia provider with a SUD (82.07%), while 23% admitted personal use. The most common identified substances of abuse were opioids (67.05%). Very few respondents worked in a setting that performs drug testing (n = 17, 1.33%). Most individuals believed that drug testing could improve personal safety (82.83%) or the safety of patients (85.41%). Individuals with a personal history of SUD were less likely to believe in the effectiveness of drug testing to reduce one's own risk (74.92% vs. 85.18%, p < 0.0001) or improve the safety of patients (76.27% vs. 88.13%, p < 0.001). Conclusions SUDs are common among anesthetists in Brazil. Drug testing would be accepted as a viable means to reduce the incidence although a larger study should be performed to investigate the logistical feasibility.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Postoperative pulmonary complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection. This study was undertaken to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) and length of hospital stay (LOS) in pulmonary resection patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in Brazil. Methods A retrospective data gathering from 196 patients who underwent pulmonary resection between 2012 and 2016 was conducted. Demographic and hospital admission data were collected from patients with complete medical records. Univariate analysis was performed, followed by Poisson's regression for predicting the prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay. Results Thirty-nine patients (20%) displayed pulmonary complications in the postoperative period. The risk factors associated with an increased prevalence of postoperative pulmonary complications in a multivariate analysis were: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) ≥ 3 (PR 4.77, p = 0.03, 95% CI: 1.17 to 19.46), predicted diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide- corrected single breath (PR 0.98, p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.96 to 0.99) and age of the patient (PR 1.04; p = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06). Those associated with an increased prevalence of prolonged hospital stay were: duration of surgical procedure longer than five hours (PR 6.94, p = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.66 to 12.23), male sex (PR 5.72, p < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.87 to 9.58), and presence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PR 11.92, p < 0.001, 95% CI: 7.42 to 16.42). Conclusions The rate of postoperative pulmonary complications in the study population is in line with the world average. Recognizing risk factors for the development of PPCs may help optimize allocation resources and preventive efforts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and aims Post-operative analgesia for Spine surgeries is difficult without patient control analgesia (PCA) and inadequate monitoring facilities. The objective was to study the effectiveness of analgesia of intravenous administration of low dose fentanyl and morphine for postoperative analgesia following spine fusion surgeries. Methods One hundred adult patients undergoing spine instrumentation surgeries were randomly allotted into two groups: Group M (morphine) or Group F (fentanyl). The patients received either 0.02 mg.kg-1.h-1 of morphine or 0.3 mcg.kg-1.h-1 of fentanyl infusion postoperatively. If the patient had pain, additional bolus dose of 0.04 mg.kg-1 and 0.6 mcg. kg-1 bolus for morphine and fentanyl respectively were given and noted. The additional analgesic consumption was recorded. The Ramsay sedation score (RSS), visual analogue score (VAS), vital parameters and complications were observed. Results The demographic characteristics did not reveal significant difference among the two groups. In morphine group, 32 patients did not require any additional bolus dose, 15 patients needed one bolus dose and one patient each required two and three boluses. In fentanyl group, two, 24, 20 and four patients required 0, 1, 2 and 3 bolus doses respectively. There were no statistically significant variations in hemodynamic features like heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation, RSS and VAS. The complication rate was not significant among the groups. Conclusion Low dose continuous infusion of morphine is more effective than fentanyl with fewer requirements of rescue analgesics for postoperative analgesia. Both drugs are safe without any serious complications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Postoperative pain from transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate (TRUS-P) biopsy under sedation is often mild. Benefit of opioids used during sedation is controversial. Objective The objective was to compare numeric rating scale (NRS) score at 30 minutes after TRUS-P biopsy between patients receiving propofol alone or with fentanyl. Methods We randomly allocated 124 patients undergoing TRUS-P biopsy to receive either fentanyl 0.5 mcg.kg-1 (Group F) or normal saline (Group C). Both groups received titrated propofol sedation via Target-controlled infusion (TCI) with Schneider model until the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (OAA/S) scale 0-1 was achieved. Hemodynamic variables, patient movement, postoperative pain score, patient and surgeon satisfaction score were recorded. Results Overall, most patients (97.5%) had no to mild pain. Group F had significantly lower median NRS score at 30 minutes compared to Group C (0 [0, 0] vs. 0 [0, 0.25], p = 0.039). More patients in Group C experienced pain (90% vs. 75.8%, p = 0.038). Perioperative hypotension was higher in group F (81.7%) compared to Group C (61.3%) (p = 0.013). Thirty-five (56.5%) patients in Group F and 25 (42.7%) patients in Group C had movement during the procedure (p = 0.240). Surgeon's satisfaction score was higher in Group F (10 [9, 10]) than Group C (9 [9, 10]) (p = 0.037). Conclusion Combining low dose fentanyl with TCI propofol sedation may provide additional benefit on postoperative pain after TRUS-P biopsy, but results in perioperative hypotension. Fentanyl may attenuate patient movement during the procedure, which leads to greater surgeon's satisfaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The role of intravenous lidocaine infusion in endoscopic surgery has been previously evaluated for pain relief and recovery. Recently, it has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and opioid in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection. Similar to endoscopic submucosal dissection, operative hysteroscopy is also an endoscopic surgical procedure within natural lumens. The present study was a randomized clinical trial in which we evaluated whether intravenous lidocaine infusion would reduce postoperative pain in patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery. Objective To evaluate whether intravenous lidocaine infusion could reduce postoperative pain in patients undergoing operative hysteroscopy. Methods Eighty-five patients scheduled to undergo elective hysteroscopy were randomized to receive either an intravenous bolus of lidocaine 1.5 mg.kg-1 over 3 minutes, followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 2 mg.kg-1. h-1 during surgery, or 0.9% normal saline solution at the same rate. The primary outcome was to evaluate postoperative pain by Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes included remifentanil and propofol consumption. Results In the lidocaine group, the VAS was significantly lower at 0.5 hour (p = 0.008) and 4 hours (p = 0.020). Patients in the lidocaine group required less remifentanil than patients in the control group (p < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the two groups in the propofol consumption. The incidence of throat pain was significantly lower in the lidocaine group (p = 0.019). No adverse events associated with lidocaine infusion were discovered. Conclusion Intravenous lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant reduces short-term postoperative pain in patients undergoing operative hysteroscopy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) has emerged as an effective and feasible mode of providing analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Though a variety of local anaesthetic combinations are used for providing TPVB, literature is sparse on use of dexmedetomidine in TPVB. We aimed to compare levobupivacaine and levobupivacaine-dexmedetomidine combination in ultrasound guided TPVB in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methodology 70 ASA I/II patients, aged 18-60 years, scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were enrolled and divided into two groups. Before anaesthesia induction, group A patients received unilateral right sided ultrasound guided TPVB with 15 ml 0.25% levobupivacaine plus 2 ml normal saline while group B patients received unilateral right sided ultrasound guided TPVB with 15 ml 0.25% levobupivacaine plus 2 ml solution containing dexmedetomidine 1 µg.kg-1. Patients were monitored for pain using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at rest, on movement, coughing and comfort scores post surgery. Total analgesic consumption in first 48 hour postoperative period, time to first request analgesic and pain scores were recorded. Results Total amount of rescue analgesia (injection tramadol plus injection tramadol intravenous equivalent dose) consumed during 48 hours postoperatively in group A was 146.55 mg while in group B was 111.30 mg (p = 0.026). Mean time for demanding rescue analgesia was 273 minutes in group A while in group B was 340 minutes (p = 0.00). Conclusion TPVB using dexmedetomidine 1 µg.kg-1 added to levobupivacaine 0.25% in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy significantly reduced total analgesic consumption in first 48 hours and provided longer duration of analgesia postoperatively compared to levobupivacaine 0.25% alone.
Abstract in English:Abstract Study objective Patients undergoing open nephrectomy surgery experience severe perioperative pain, which is primarily due to incision of several muscles. Abdominal wall blocks are known to reduce pain without causing epidural-associated hypotension. We conducted this study to compare unilateral ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum block and posterior transversus abdominis block in combination with general anesthesia alone in terms of intraoperative and postoperative analgesics and hemodynamics and postoperative complications. Methods This was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial conducted in the operating room. This study included 48 patients aged 20-60 years, with ASA I and II, and a body mass index ≤ 30 kg.m-2 who were scheduled for open nephrectomy procedure.The 48 patients scheduled for nephrectomy were randomly allocated into one of the following three groups after induction of general anesthesia: Group A (n = 16) received USG transmuscular QLB; Group B (n = 16) received unilateral USG posterior transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block; and Group C (n = 16; control group) did not receive any blocks. Introperative fentanyl consumption, and hemodynamics (heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP)) were recorded after anesthesia induction, at surgical incision, and every 15 min till the end of surgery. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was evaluated immediately at 30 min and 1,2,4,6, and 12 hours postoperatively. The time of first analgesic request was also recorded. Results Intraoperative fentanyl consumption (µg) was significantly lower in Groups A and B (164.69 ± 27.35 and 190.31 ± 44.48, respectively) than in Group C (347.50 ± 63.64) (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, total pethidine consumption was significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C (85.31 ± 6.68, 84.06 ± 4.17 mg, and 152.19 ± 43.43 mg, respectively) (p < 0.001. Time to rescue analgesia was longer in Groups A and B than in Group C (138.75 ± 52.39 min, 202.50 ± 72.25 min, and 37.50 ± 13.42 min, respectively) (p < 0.001). VAS score was significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. Conclusion Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block and posterior transversus abdominis blocks were effective in providing perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing open nephrectomy. However, quadratus lumborum block provided superior analgesia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block is a commonly performed anesthesiology technique in the upper extremity. Local anesthetics may be administered at different temperatures for both neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the temperature of the local anesthetic at the time of administration on the onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks in infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block. Methods A total of 80 patients undergoing elective upper extremity surgery were randomly assigned to one of the following groups using a computer-based randomization software; low temperature (4 °C) (Group L, n = 26), room temperature (25 °C) (Group R, n = 27) and warmed (37 °C) (Group W, n = 27). A 1:1 mixture of 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine was used as local anesthetic. Infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block was performed under ultrasound guidance in all patients preoperatively. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were recorded. Results Each group had different onset of motor (p < 0.001) and sensory (p < 0.001) blocks. The duration of motor block was similar between groups (p = 221). However, a significant difference was found in the duration of sensory block between group L (399.1 ± 40.8 min) and group R (379.6 ± 27.6 min) (p = 0.043). There was no complication related to nerve block procedure. Conclusions The administration of the local anesthetic at lower temperatures may prolong the onset of both motor and sensory blocks in infraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives The risk of emergence agitation (EA) is high in patients undergoing nasal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of EA in adults undergoing septoplasty and the effect of ketamine on EA. Methods In this randomized study, a total of 102 ASA I-II patients who underwent septoplasty between July 2018 and April 2019 were divided into two groups: ketamine (Group-K, n = 52) and saline (Group-S, n = 50). After anesthesia induction, Group-K was intravenously administered 20 mL of saline containing 1 mg kg-1 ketamine, whereas Group-S was administered 20 mL of saline. Sedation and agitation scores at emergence from anesthesia, incidence of cough, emergence time, and response to verbal stimuli time were recorded. The sedation/agitation and pain levels were recorded for 30 minutes in the recovery unit. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the incidence of EA (Group-K: 15.4%, Group-S: 24%). The incidence of cough during emergence was higher in Group-S than in Group-K, but the response time to verbal stimuli and emergence time were shorter in Group-S. The sedation and agitation scores were similar after surgery. Pain scores were higher in Group-S at the time of admission to the recovery unit and were similar between groups in the other time points. Conclusion Administration of 1 mg kg-1 ketamine after anesthesia induction does not affect the incidence of EA in patients undergoing septoplasty, but it prolongs the emergence and response time to verbal stimuli and reduces the incidence of cough.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objective Advances in surgical technique, postoperative management, and immunosuppressive therapy have led to a steady increase in the number of patients undergoing organ transplantation. This study aimed to compare the incidence of postoperative complications between young and elderly patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) at a single university hospital. Method The medical records of 253 patients who underwent LT between January 2010 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: those younger than 65 years (group Y, n = 231) and those older than 65 years (group O, n = 22). Data on patient demographics, perioperative management, and postoperative complications were collected. Results The patients' baseline characteristics, including underlying diseases and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, were not different between groups. Preoperative laboratory findings were not significantly different between the two groups, except for hemoglobin level. The total amounts of infused fluid and packed red blood cells were higher in group O than in group Y. The postoperative plasma creatinine level was higher in group O than in group Y; however, the incidence of postoperative complications was not considerably different between the two groups. In addition, there was no difference in the survival rate after LT depending on age. Conclusion With the development of medical technology, LT in elderly patients is not an operation to be avoided, and the prognosis is expected to improve. Therefore, continuous efforts to understand the disease characteristics and physical differences in elderly patients who require LT are essential.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Unhealthy teeth can seriously affect general health and increase the risk of death in elderly people. There has been no confirmation of which device is most effective for elderly patients with teeth loss. Therefore, we compared four intubation devices in elderly patients with partial and total tooth loss aiming to reduce risk during anesthesia. Methods Two hundred patients were randomized to undergo tracheal intubation with the Macintosh laryngoscope, the Glidescope, the Fiberoptic bronchoscope or the Lightwand as part of general anesthesia. A unified protocol of anesthetic medications was used. HR and BP were measured at T0, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) blood samples were drawn at T0, T1 and T2. Intubation time and postoperative complications, including dental damage and losses, were recorded. Results Reduced fluctuations in HR, DBP, and SBP were observed in the Lightwand group. Intubation time was significantly shorter in the Lightwand group (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in epinephrine levels, but norepinephrine levels were less volatile in the Fiberoptic bronchoscope and Lightwand groups. Fewer patients in the Lightwand group experienced dental damage and other postoperative complications than in the other three groups. Although a higher success rate on the first attempt was as high as in the Fiberoptic bronchoscope group, shorter intubation time was observed only in the Lightwand group. Conclusion The Lightwand offers less hemodynamic stimulation than the Macintosh laryngoscope, Glidescope, and Fiberoptic bronchoscope. Because it had the shortest intubation time, the Lightwand caused the least damage to the teeth and throat of elderly patients. Our findings showed that tracheal intubation with the Lightwand was advantageous for preventing cardiovascular stress responses with short intubation times and fewer postoperative complications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Opioids are widely used as an analgesic drug in the surgical setting. Remifentanil is an ultra-short acting opioid with selective affinity to the mu (µ) receptor, and also exhibits GABA agonist effects. The aim of this study was study of the neurotoxic or neuroprotective effect of different doses of remifentanil in glutamate-induced toxicity in olfactory neuron cell culture. Materials and methods Olfactory neurons were obtained from newborn Sprague Dawley rat pups. Glutamate 10-5 mM was added to all culture dishes, except for the negative control group. Remifentanil was added at three different doses for 24 hours, after which evaluation was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Total Oxidant Status (TOS), and Annexin V. Results The highest and lowest viability values were obtained from the low and high remifentanil doses at approximately 91% and 75%, respectively. TAC and TOS were correlated with the MTT results. TAC, TOS and MTT most closely approximated to the sham group values in the remifentanil 0.02 mM group. Conclusions Our results suggest that remifentanil has the potential to reduce glutamate toxicity and to increase cell viability in cultured neuron from the rat olfactory bulb.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background We aimed to assess the feasibility of using supraglottic devices as an alternative to orotracheal intubation for airway management during anesthesia for endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurisms in our department over a nine-year period. Methods Retrospective single center analysis of cases (2010-2018). Primary outcomes: airway management (supraglottic device repositioning, need for switch to orotracheal intubation, airway complications). Secondary outcomes: aneurysm complexity, history of subarachnoid hemorrhage, hemodynamic monitoring, and perioperative complications. Results We included 187 patients in two groups: supraglottic device 130 (69.5%) and orotracheal intubation 57 (30.5%). No adverse incidents were recorded in 97% of the cases. Three supraglottic device patients required supraglottic device repositioning and 1 supraglottic device patient required orotracheal intubation due to inadequate ventilation. Three orotracheal intubation patients had a bronchospasm or laryngospasm during awakening. Forty-five patients (24.1%) had complex aneurysms or a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Thirty-three of them (73.3%) required orotracheal intubation compared to 24 of the 142 (16.9%) with non-complex aneurysms. Two patients in each group died during early postoperative recovery. Two in each group also had intraoperative bleeding. A post-hoc analysis showed that orotracheal intubation was used in 55 patients (44%) in 2010 through 2014 and 2 (3.2%) in 2015 through 2018, parallel to a trend toward less invasive blood pressure monitoring from the earlier to the later period from 34 (27.2%) cases to 5 (8.2%). Conclusion Supraglottic device, like other less invasiveness protocols, can be considered a feasible alternative airway management approach in selected patients proposed for endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurisms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction and objectives Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been associated with a decrease in postoperative cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in patients submitted to general anesthesia, whether inhalation or total intravenous anesthesia. Consequently, the DEX effects on postoperative agitation and delirium in patients submitted to general anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery have been investigated. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and double-blind clinical trials (RCTs) was undertaken assessing adults submitted to elective procedures under general anesthesia receiving DEX or placebo. The search included articles published in English in the Pubmed and Web of Science databases using keywords such as dexmedetomidine, delirium, and agitation. Duplicate publications, studies involving cardiac surgery or using active control (other than saline solution) were included. A random effects model was adopted using the DerSimonian-Laird method and estimate of Odds Ratio (OR) for dichotomous variables, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables, with their respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Results Of the 484 articles identified, 15 were selected comprising 2,183 patients (1,079 and 1,104 patients in the DEX and control group, respectively). The administration of DEX was considered a protective factor for postoperative cognitive and behavioral dysfunction (OR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.23-0.57 and p < 0.001), regardless of the anesthesia technique used. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine administration reduced by at least 43% the likelihood of postoperative cognitive and behavioral dysfunction in adult patients submitted to general anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Preeclampsia is a multifactorial condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Fluid therapy in these patients is challenging since volume expansion may precipitate pulmonary edema, and fluid restriction may worsen renal function. Furthermore, cardiac impairment may introduce an additional component to the hemodynamic management. This article reviews the repercussions of preeclampsia on renal and cardiovascular systems and the development of pulmonary edema, as well as to discuss fluid management, focusing on the mitigation of adverse outcomes and monitoring alternatives. The literature review was carried out using PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases from May 2019 to March 2020. Papers addressing the subjects of interest were included regardless of the publication language. There is a current trend towards restricting the administration of fluids in women with non-complicated preeclampsia. However, patients with preeclampsia may experience hemorrhagic shock, requiring volume resuscitation. In this case, hemodynamic monitoring is recommended to guide fluid therapy while avoiding complications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Oral anticoagulants prevent thromboembolic events but expose patients to a significant risk of bleeding due to the treatment itself, after trauma, or during surgery. Any physician working in the emergency department or involved in the perioperative care of a patient should be aware of the best reversal approach according to the type of drug and the patient's clinical condition. This paper presents a concise review and proposes clinical protocols for the reversal of oral anticoagulants in emergency settings, such as bleeding or surgery. Contents The authors searched for relevant studies in PubMed, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library database and identified 82 articles published up to September 2020 to generate a review and algorithms as clinical protocols for practical use. Hemodynamic status and the implementation of general supportive measures should be the first approach under emergency conditions. The drug type, dose, time of last intake, and laboratory evaluations of anticoagulant activity and renal function provide an estimation of drug clearance and should be taken into consideration. The reversal agents for vitamin K antagonists are 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K, followed by fresh frozen plasma as a second-line treatment. Direct oral anticoagulants have specific reversal agents, such as andexanet alfa and idarucizumab, but are not widely available. Another possibility in this situation, but with less evidence, is prothrombin complex concentrates. Conclusion The present algorithms propose a tool to help healthcare providers in the best decision making for patients under emergency conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The CLIC system in the Dräger Apollo anesthesia workstation allows a successful pre-use machine checkout without the presence of a carbon dioxide absorbent canister. It also allows the canister to be changed without interrupting controlled ventilation. However, this canister can be easily installed improperly with the CLIC adapter. We report a case in which a patient could not be ventilated by mask after the induction of general anesthesia, resulting in oxygen desaturation before successful ventilation was achieved with a bag valve mask. This case illustrates the importance of a leak test after components of the breathing circuit are changed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Central airway obstruction presents as an emergency with dyspnea and stridor. Anesthetic management of rigid bronchoscopy-guided tracheal stenting is highly stimulating procedure requiring general anesthesia. But it may lead to life threatening airway obstruction and cardiovascular collapse after induction. Total intravenous anesthesia based on propofol-remifentanil is an optimal anesthetic technique, but remifentanil is not available in many countries. Although dexmedetomidine-ketamine has been used for procedural sedation, its use for rigid bronchoscopy in the setting of central airway obstruction has not been described in literature. We describe near ideal anesthetic technique for management of central airway obstruction using dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination.
Abstract in English:Abstract Peripheral Arterial Obstructive Disease (PAOD) may course with severe ischemic pain. In low-income health systems, patients may wait for vascular surgery. Continuous peripheral nerve block may be an effective alternative, with fewer side effects, in this scenario. A female patient with acute arterial obstruction of upper limb evolving with severe ischemic pain. She was submitted to a continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block, which led to a satisfying pain control until the amputation surgery. The early postoperative period evolved with good pain management. This approach may be effective and safe as an analgesia option for ischemic pain.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Neuraxial hematoma is a rare complication of the epidural technique which is commonly used for high quality postoperative pain relief. In case of urgent initiation of multiple antithrombotic therapy, the optimal timing of epidural catheter removal and need for treatment modification may be quite challenging. There are no specific guidelines and published reports are scarce. Case report We present the uneventful removal of an indwelling epidural catheter in a patient who was put on emergency triple antithrombotic treatment with Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH), aspirin and clopidogrel in the immediate postoperative period, due to acute coronary syndrome. In order to define the optimal conditions and timing for catheter removal, so as to reduce the risk of complications, various laboratory tests were conducted 3 hours after aspirin/clopidogrel intake. Standard coagulation tests revealed normal platelet count, normal prothrombin time and normal activated partial thromboplastin time, while Platelet Function Analysis (PFA-200) revealed abnormal values (increased COL/EPI and COL/ADP values, both indicating inhibition of platelet function). The anti-Xa level, estimated 4 hours after LMWH administration, was within therapeutic range. At the same time, Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) showed a relatively satisfactory coagulation status overall. The epidural catheter was removed 26 hours after the last dual antiplatelet dose and the next dose was given 2 hours after removal. Enoxaparin was withheld for 24 hours and was resumed after 6 hours. Neurologic checks were performed regularly for alarming signs and symptoms suggesting development of an epidural hematoma. No complications occurred. Conclusion Point-of-care coagulation and platelet function monitoring may provide a helpful guidance in order to define the optimal timing for catheter removal, so as to reduce the risk of complications. A case-specific management plan based on a multidisciplinary approach is also important.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives An epidural blood patch is used to treat postdural puncture and liquor hypotension headache. We report the use of an epidural blood patch in a critical pediatric patient. Case report A 10-year-old girl with acute leukemia developed venous cerebral thrombosis with hemorrhagic transformation one month after intrathecal chemotherapy. Given the unusual clinical and imagiological evolution even after decompressive craniectomy, we suspected cerebrospinal fluid hypotension. Spine imaging revealed signs of post-lumbar puncture fistula; we hence performed a blind blood patch. Conclusions Recognizing cerebrospinal fluid hypotension in critical pediatric patients is important. Less-conventional life-saving measures, such as a blind blood patch, may be considered in such patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has a relevant role in the treatment of critically ill patients displaying severe dyspnea. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a method of NIMV, is also widely used in the management of acute heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, and symptomatic sleep apnea. However, numerous traumatic complications of CPAP treatment in the face region, head, and thorax have been reported and may be related to the application of a continuous positive high pressure to the airway. Conversely, we have observed no complications due to CPAP-related increased intra-abdominal pressure. In this article, we describe a clinical case of a patient with an acute rectus sheath hematoma during CPAP treatment. This previously unreported complication demonstrates that CPAP should be carefully used in patients with exacerbated COPD with difficulty in expiration
Abstract in English:Abstract We report the first case of using an anterior scalene plane block at the superior trunk level achieving phrenic nerve blockade to treat intolerable referred shoulder pain after liver Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of a diaphragm-abutting liver tumor despite prevention with a full-dose non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The anterior scalene plane block rapidly alleviated pain without significant complications.