Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, Volume: 72, Issue: 1, Published: 2022
  • On the shoulders of giants Editorial

    Carmona, Maria José Carvalho
  • Perioperative cognitive evaluation and training: the use of digital games for assessment and prevention of cognitive decline after major non-cardiac surgery Editorial

    Schmidt, André P.; Carmona, Maria José C.
  • Assessment of a digital game as a neuropsychological test for postoperative cognitive dysfunction Original Investigation

    Lucatelli, André; Goulart, Ananaira Alves; Silveira, Paulo Sergio Panse; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Pereira, Valéria Fontenelle Angelim; Valentin, Livia Stocco Sanches; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction may result from worsening in a condition of previous impairment. It causes greater difficulty in recovery, longer hospital stays, and consequent delay in returning to work activities. Digital games have a potential neuromodulatory and rehabilitation effect. In this study, a digital game was used as a neuropsychological test to assess postoperative cognitive dysfunction, with preoperative patient performance as control. Methods: It was a non-controlled study, with patients selected among candidates for elective non-cardiac surgery, evaluated in the preand postoperative periods. The digital game used has six phases developed to evaluate selective attention, alternating attention, visuoperception, inhibitory control, short-term memory, and long-term memory. The digital game takes about 25 minutes. Scores are the sum of correct answers in each cognitive domain. Statistical analysis compared these cognitive functions preand post-surgery using a generalized linear mixed model (ANCOVA). Results: Sixty patients were evaluated, 40% male and 60% female, with a mean age of 52.7 ± 13.5 years. Except for visuoperception, a reduction in post-surgery scores was found in all phases of the digital game. Conclusion: The digital game was able to detect decline in several cognitive functions postoperatively. As its completion is faster than in conventional tests on paper, this digital game may be a potentially recommended tool for assessing patients, especially the elderly and in the early postoperative period.
  • Comparison of digital games as a cognitive function assessment tool for current standardized neuropsychological tests Original Investigation

    Goulart, Ananaira Alves; Lucatelli, André; Silveira, Paulo Sergio Panse; Siqueira, José de Oliveira; Pereira, Valéria Fontanelle Angelim; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Valentin, Livia Stocco Sanches; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: Cognitive dysfunction may occur postoperatively. Fast and efficient assessment of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) can minimize loss of quality of life, and therefore, a study comparing a digital game with standard neuropsychological tests to assess executive, mnemonic, and attention functions to evaluate POCD seems to be relevant both for research and clinical practice. Methods: A battery of standardized tests and a digital game (MentalPlus®) were administered to 60 patients at the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas in São Paulo (36 women and 24 men), with ages between 29 and 82 years, preand post-surgery performed under anesthesia. Correlation and linear regression model were used to compare the scores obtained from the standardized tests to the scores of the six executive and cognitive functions evaluated by the game (shortand long-term memory, selective and alternating attention, inhibitory control, and visual perception). Results: After correlation analysis, a statistically significant result was found mainly for the correlation between the scores from the phase of the digital game assessing the visuoperception function and the scores from the A and B cards of the Stroop Test (p < 0.001, r = 0.99 and r = 0.64, respectively), and the scores from TMTA (p = 0.0046, r = 0.51). We also found a moderate correlation between the phase of the game assessing short-memory function and VVLT (p < 0.001, r = 0.41). No statistically significant correlations were found for the other functions assessed. Conclusion: The digital game provided scores in agreement with standardized tests for evaluating visual perception and possibly short-term memory cognitive functions. Further studies are necessary to verify the correlation of other phases of the digital game with standardized tests assessing cognitive functions.
  • Comparison of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels after robot-assisted laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy: an observational study Original Investigation

    Karaveli, Arzu; Kavakli, Ali Sait; Cakin, Ozlem; Aykal, Guzin; Yildiz, Ali; Ates, Mutlu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy are at increased risk of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) because of intraoperative bleeding, obstructive uropathy, and older age. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) may become important for diagnosis of postoperative AKI after urogenital oncosurgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of NGAL as a predictor of AKI diagnosis in patients who underwent Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy (RRP) and Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP) for prostate cancer. Methods: We included 66 patients who underwent RRP (n = 32) or RALP (n = 34) in this prospective, comparative, nonrandomized study. Patients’ demographic data, duration of surgery and anesthesia, amount of blood products, vasopressor therapy, intraoperative blood loss, fluid administration, length of hospital stay, creatinine, and plasma NGAL levels were recorded. Results: Intraoperative blood loss, crystalloid fluid administration, and length of hospital stay were significantly shorter in RALP. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of intraoperative blood transfusion. Postoperative creatinine and plasma NGAL levels were increased in both groups. The 6-h NGAL levels were higher in RRP (p = 0.026). The incidence of AKI was 28.12% in RRP and 26.05% in RALP, respectively. The NGAL level at 6 hours was more sensitive in the early diagnosis of AKI in RALP. Conclusion: Although postoperative serum NGAL levels were increased in both RRP and RALP, the 6-h NGAL levels were higher in RRP. RALP was associated with fewer intraoperative blood loss and fluid administration, and shorter length of hospital stay.
  • The effect of preemptive airway pressure release ventilation on patients with high risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Küçük, Mehtap Pehlivanlar; Erman Öztürk, Çağatay; Köylü İlkaya, Nazan; Küçük, Ahmet Oğuzhan; Ergül, Dursun Fırat; Ülger, Fatma

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of early APRV mode as a lung protective strategy compared to conventional methods with regard to ARDS development. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized, non-blinded, single-center, superiority trial with two parallel groups and a primary endpoint of ARDS development. Patients under invasive mechanical ventilation who were not diagnosed with ARDS and had Lung Injury Prediction Score greater than 7 were included in the study. The patients were assigned to APRV and P-SIMV + PS mode groups. Results: Patients were treated with P-SIMV+PS or APRV mode; 33 (50.8%) and 32 (49.2%), respectively. The P/F ratio values were higher in the APRV group on day 3 (p = 0.032). The fraction of inspired oxygen value was lower in the APRV group at day 7 (p = 0.011).While 5 of the 33 patients (15.2%) in the P-SIMV+PS group developed ARDS, one out of the 32 patients (3.1%) in the APRV group developed ARDS during follow-up (p = 0.197). The groups didn’t differ in terms of vasopressor/inotrope requirement, successful extubation rates, and/or mortality rates (p = 1.000, p = 0.911, p = 0.705, respectively). Duration of intensive care unit stay was 8 (2-11) days in the APRV group and 13 (8-81) days in the P-SIMV+PS group (p = 0.019). Conclusions: The APRV mode can be used safely in selected groups of surgical and medical patients while preserving spontaneous respiration to a make benefit of its lung-protective effects. In comparison to the conventional mode, it is associated with improved oxygenation, higher mean airway pressures, and shorter intensive care unit stay. However, it does not reduce the sedation requirement, ARDS development, or mortality.
  • Anesthesiologists’ perception on their residency training Original Investigation

    Mottana, Lilian V; Magalhães, Cleidilene R; Bevilacqua Filho, Clovis T; Barone, Patrick Dubugras; Jotz, Geraldo P

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Self-regulated professions such as medicine are characterized by professional commitment to the public they serve and require life-long development of expected skills. There is a paucity of data regarding quality of training during residency in anesthesiology. The objective of this study was to create an instrument to assess the anesthesiologists’ perception regarding the quality of their training during medical residency. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was sent to 120 anesthesiologists, assuming 15% response rate for worst case scenario, considering a number of 613 potential respondents. The answers to the questionnaire were submitted to psychometric evaluation through internal consistency analysis measured by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and factorial analysis by the principal components’ method with varimax rotation method with Kaiser normalization. The level of Concordance (C) and Disaccord (D) of each item were compared byz tests (consensus if p < 0.05). A question asking the respondents if they would recommend their training center to a relative or a friend was added to the questionnaire and considered as a secondary outcome. Results: One hundred and one responses were obtained. The Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.86, suggesting good reliability of the questionnaire. The initial analysis including all the 14 items presented on the questionnaire demonstrated that four components obeyed the Kaiser criterion, depicting 68.20% of variance. Consensus was achieved among participants regarding all items of the questionnaire. The medical residency in anesthesiology was recommended by 93% of the participants. Preceptors were considered role-models by 83% of the participants. Acquisition of practical skills was better evaluated in comparison to other areas. Conclusion: The questionnaire effectively characterized the perception of anesthesiologists regarding the quality of their training during medical residency. The information produced by this instrument could provide interesting clues on the quality of residency programs, pointing out areas of education that need more attention.
  • Cross-cultural adaptation of the painDETECT questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese Original Investigation

    Rio, Jéssica Pinto Martins do; Bittencourt, Juliana Valentim; Corrêa, Leticia Amaral; Freynhagen, Rainer; Reis, Felipe José Jandre dos; Melo, Tamiris Barbosa de; Galace, Diego; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Neuropathic pain is common in the general population worldwide and Brazil. The painDETECT questionnaire is a notable instrument for screening on neuropathic pain. A Brazilian version of the painDETECT is necessary to broaden the possibilities of identification of neuropathic pain in the Brazilian population for the proper diagnosis and treatment. The current study aimed to perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the painDETECT into the Portuguese language of Brazil. Methods: A cross-cultural adaptation study was conducted in 11 stages according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were performed. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha test (α). Results: Four translators, 10 experts, and 30 patients participated in the study. The expert committee adapted five out of nine items (item 2, 3, 6, 8, and 10) to the Brazilian context. The pretesting phase showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74) for the nine items, including the pain pattern and the body chart domains. The Cronbach’s α of the instrument with seven descriptor items of pain was 0.83. Conclusions: The painDETECT was cross-culturally adapted into a Brazilian context and can be used to identify neuropathic components in pain of Brazilian patients. Clinical implications: PainDETECT is available for Brazilians to identify neuropathic components in pain.
  • Ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block for open inguinal hernia repair: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Mattiazzi, Anna Paula Facco; Fiorentin, Joana Zulian; Brandão, Julio; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique; Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Inguinal hernia repair is associated with significant postoperative pain. We assessed the analgesia efficacy of unilateral Erector Spinae Plane block (ESP) performed under ultrasound guidance in patients submitted to open unilateral inguinal hernia repair, comparing ESP to spinal anesthesia administered with or without opioid. Methods: Forty-five patients with ages ranging from 27 to 83 years were randomly allocated into three groups: control group receiving spinal anesthesia (n = 14), ESP group receiving ESP block combined with spinal anesthesia (n = 16), and spinal morphine group receiving spinal anesthesia with morphine 1 mcg.kg-1 as adjuvant drug (n = 15). ESP was performed at the T8 level using 0.5% ropivacaine, 20 mL. We assessed the pain intensity in the initial 24 hours after surgery using the Visual Analogue Scale - VAS and rescue opioid requirement. Results: The ESP group showed four times higher consumption of rescue opioids than the spinal morphine group, or 26.7% vs. 6.2%, respectively (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 0.82 to 19.42; p = 0.048). The spinal morphine group showed higher incidence of adverse effects than the ESP group, 37.5% vs. 6.7%, respectively (p = 0.039). There were no statistically significant differences among groups for the mean values of VAS score at 24 hours after surgery (p = 0.304). Conclusion: At the doses used in this study, the ESP block was an ineffective technique for providing postoperative analgesia in unilateral open inguinal hernioplasty and was associated with higher consumption of rescue opioids when compared to spinal anesthesia with or without opioid.
  • Comparison of the intubation success rate between the intubating catheter and videolaryngoscope in difficult airways: a prospective randomized trial Original Investigation

    Ozdemirkan, Aysun; Onal, Ozkan; Ozcan, Irem Gumus; Aslanlar, Emine; Saltali, Ali; Sari, Mehmet; Ciftci, Cansu; Bayram, Hasan Huseyin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Several devices and algorithms have already been examined and compared for difficult airway management. However, there is no existing study comparing the success of the Intubating Catheter (IC) and the Videolaryngoscope (VL) in patients who are difficult to intubate. We aimed to compare Frova IC and McGrath VL in terms of intubation success rates in patients with difficult intubation. Methods: This prospective, randomized study was performed in an university hospital. Patients who underwent an operation under general anesthesia and whom airway management process was deemed difficult were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups by envelopes containing a number: the intubating catheter group (Group IC), intubated using the Frova IC, and the videolaryngoscope group (Group VL), intubated using the McGrath VL. Study data were collected by a technician who was blind to the study groups and the type of device used in the intubation procedure. Results: A total of 49 patients with difficult airway were included in the study, including 25 patients in the Frova IC Group and 24 patients in the McGrath VL Group. The rate of successful intubation was determined to be 88% in Group IC and 66% in Group VL (p = 0.074). The mean duration of intubation attempt in Group VL was 44.62 seconds, whereas in Group IC, it was 51.12 seconds (p = 0.593). Group VL was found to have a significantly lower Cormack-Lehane grade compared to Group IC (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Frova IC is a candidate to be an indispensable instrument in terms of costeffectiveness in clinics such as anesthesia and emergency medicine, where difficult intubation cases are frequently encountered. However, the combination of Frova IC and McGrath VL seems to be more successful in difficult intubation situations, so future studies should focus on using these two devices together.
  • The effect of two different doses of dexmedetomidine to prevent emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Yi, Wenjing; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Yan; Wan, Lichun; Li, Wenxian; Jia, Jie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate different doses of dexmedetomidine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Method: One hundred and thirty children aged 3-10 years scheduled for adenotonsillectomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Anesthesia was induced with 0.5 μg.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX 0.5 group) or 1 μg.kg-1 dexmedetomidine (DEX 1 group) at the beginning of surgery. Observers who recorded the data in the postanesthesia care unit were blinded to the allocation. The primary outcome was the percentage of emergence agitation. The times to spontaneous breath, awake, extubate, and postanesthesia care unit stay were also recorded. Results: One hundred twenty four children were randomized into two groups. Five children were excluded because of adverse events and dropout (DEX 0.5 group, n = 58; DEX 1 group, n = 62). No significant differences were noted in the percentage of emergence agitation between the two groups. The times to extubation (p = 0.003), awake, and postanesthesia care unit stay in DEX 0.5 group were shorter than those in DEX 1 group (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the time to spontaneous breath. Approximately 8% of patients in DEX 0.5 group and 18% patients in DEX 1 group presented low SpO2, showing a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.043). Conclusions: A dose of 0.5 μg.kg-1 dexmedetomidine was equally effective as 1 μg.kg-1 dexmedetomidine in preventing emergence agitation. Trial registration: The trial is currently completed recruitment, registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (ID:NCT03760809). Inclusion began on 4 January, 2019.
  • Effect of mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass on oxidative stress: a randomized clinical trial Original Investigation

    Orak, Yavuz; Baylan, Filiz Alkan; Kocaslan, Aydemir; Eroglu, Erdinc; Acipayam, Mehmet; Kirisci, Mehmet; Boran, Omer Faruk; Doganer, Adem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes systemic oxidative stress response and endothelial damage in systemic organs. We investigated the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and mechanical ventilation (MV) applications on oxidative stress in CPB. Methods: Seventy-one patients were recruited and 60 completed the study. Randomized groups: MV off (Group 1); MV on, tidal volume (TV) at 3-4 mL.kg-1 (Group 2); MV on, TV at 3-4 mL.kg-1, PEEP at 5 cmH2O (Group 3), n = 20 in each group. As oxidative stress markers, we used glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), total and native thiol (TT, NT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase. We also investigated the correlation between oxidative stress and postoperative intubation time. Results: The postoperative GPx levels in Group 2 were higher than Group 3 (p = 0.017). In groups 2 and 3, TAS levels were higher postoperatively than intraoperatively (p = 0.001, p = 0.019, respectively). In Group 2, the TT levels were higher postoperatively than preoperatively and intraoperatively (p = 0.008). In Group 3, the postoperative MDA levels were higher than preoperatively (p = 0.001) and were higher than both postoperative levels of Group 1 and 2 (p = 0.043, p = 0.003). As the preoperative TAS (Group 2) decreased and the postoperative NT (Group 2) and catalase (Group 3) increased, the postoperative intubation time lengthened. Conclusion: MV (3-4 mL.kg-1) alone seems to be the most advantageous strategy. Prolonged postoperative intubation time was associated with both increased NT and catalase levels.
  • Comparison of minimal-flow sevoflurane versus desflurane anesthesia: randomized clinical trial Original Investigation

    Taş, Berna Ayanoğlu; Şanlı Karip, Ceren; Abitağaoğlu, Süheyla; Celal Öztürk, Mehmet; Arı, Dilek Erdoğan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Minimal-flow anesthesia provides various advantages, such as reduced environmental pollution, proper humidification and warming of anesthetic gases, and reduced costs. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of minimal-flow sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia and their effects on hemodynamics, postoperative recovery, respiratory parameters, and liver and kidney functions. Methods: A total of 60 ASA I-II patients aged 18-70 years who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation were included in the study. The patients were divided into Group S (sevoflurane) and Group D (desflurane). After anesthesia induction, the gas flow was initiated at a rate of 4 L.min-1 using a concentration of 8% in Group D and 3.5% in Group S, and the time to reach 0.8 MAC was recorded. The gas flow was then switched to minimal flow. Patient hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, body temperatures and arterial blood gas levels were recorded. The integrated pulmonary index (IPI) was monitored postoperatively. Biochemical findings were recorded 12 hours after the operation. The amount of bleeding and blood transfused, and the costs involved were calculated. Results: The patients’ demographic characteristics, duration of surgery, hemodynamic parameters, IPI values, body temperatures, and arterial blood gas levels were similar at all time points. Biochemical findings, amount of bleeding and amount of blood transfused were similar between the two groups. The mean cost was lower in Group S than in Group D (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The study found no significant difference in terms of reliability between minimalflow sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia. Furthermore, the procedure was found to be more cost-effective for Group S than for Group D.
  • Impact of drains positioning on pulmonary function after coronary artery bypass grafting: an observational study Original Investigation

    Gomes, Débora Santos de Oliveira; Silva, Elzane Jesus de Almeida; Silva, Josimar Silva e; Barbosa, Hayssa de Cássia Mascarenhas; Guimarães, André Raimundo; Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a procedure associated with a decline in pulmonary function. Among the main causes is the presence of the drain that is usually positioned in the intercostal or subxiphoid region. Objective: To measure the interference of drains positioning on pulmonary function in patients undergoing CABG. Methods: Observational study that assessed preoperative pulmonary function through vital capacity (VC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). These variables were evaluated in three different moments: in the presence of two drains, when removing one, and after removing all drains. Results: We evaluated 45 patients with a mean age of 62 ± 7 years with male prevalence of 29 (64%) individuals. The insertion of drains caused a decline in pulmonary function after surgery by reducing MIP by 48%, MEP by 11%, VC by 39%, and PEF by 6%. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that drains positioning after CABG surgery may produce weakness of the respiratory muscles, change ventilatory mechanics, and impair normal pulmonary function postoperatively.
  • Hemodynamic outcome of different ventilation modes in laparoscopic surgery with exaggerated trendelenburg: a randomised controlled trial Original Investigation

    Yılmaz, Hakan; Kazbek, Baturay Kansu; Köksoy, Ülkü Ceren; Gül, Ahmet Murat; Ekmekçi, Perihan; Sinem Çağlar, Gamze; Tüzüner, Filiz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Purpose: To compare hemodynamic effects of two different modes of ventilation (volumecontrolled and pressure-controlled volume guaranteed) in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecology surgeries with exaggerated Trendelenburg position. Methods: Thirty patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecology operations were ventilated using either volume-controlled (Group VC) or pressure-controlled volume guaranteed mode (Group PCVG) (n = 15 for both groups). Hemodynamic variables were measured using Pressure Recording Analytical Method by radial artery cannulation in addition to peak and mean airway pressures and expired tidal volume. Results: The only remarkable finding was a more stable cardiac index in Group PCVG, where other hemodynamic parameters were similar. Expired tidal volume increased in Group VC while peak airway pressure was lower in Group PCVG. Conclusion: PCV-VG causes less hemodynamic perturbations as measured by Pressure Recording Analytical Method (PRAM) and allows better intraoperative hemodynamic control in exaggerated Trendelenburg position in laparoscopic surgery.
  • Effects of lidocaine and esmolol on hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation: a randomized clinical trial Original Investigation

    Mendonça, Fabrício Tavares; Silva, Samuel Laurindo da; Nilton, Tiago Maurmann; Alves, Igor Reis Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction and objectives: Although lidocaine is widely used to prevent cardiovascular changes resulting from laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation, it is still unclear whether there are more efficacious drugs. This study aimed to compare the beta-blocker esmolol with lidocaine regarding the effects on hemodynamic response after orotracheal intubation. Methods: The study has a prospective, randomized, double-blind, superiority design, and assessed 69 participants between 18 and 70 years of age, ASA I-II, scheduled for elective or emergency surgery under general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1.5 mg.kg-1 esmolol bolus followed by 0.1 mg.kg-1.min-1 esmolol infusion (n = 34) or 1.5 mg.kg-1 lidocaine bolus followed by 1.5 mg.kg-1.h-1 lidocaine infusion (n = 35). We recorded changes in heart rate, arterial blood pressure and incidence of adverse events. Results: Post-intubation tachycardia episodes were significantly less frequent in the esmolol group (5.9% vs. 34.3%; Relative Risk (RR) 0.17; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.04-0.71; Number Needed to Treat (NNT) 3.5; p = 0.015. After orotracheal intubation, mean heart rate was significantly lower in the esmolol group (74.5 vs. 84.5, p = 0.006). Similar results were observed in the subsequent 3 and 6 minutes (75.9 vs. 83.9, p = 0.023 and 74.6 vs. 83.0, p = 0.013, respectively). Conclusion: Esmolol was a safe and more effective intervention to reduce incidence of tachycardia and control heart rate immediately after tracheal intubation when compared to lidocaine.
  • Comparison between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl bolus in attenuating the stress response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation: a randomized double-blind trial Original Investigation

    Mahiswar, Aditya P; Dubey, Prakash K; Ranjan, Alok

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation lead to a sympathoadrenal response. We compared the efficacy of dexmedetomidine with fentanyl bolus to attenuate this response. Methods: One hundred patients admitted for routine surgical procedures under general anesthesia were enrolled in this double blind, randomized, controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group F received injection of fentanyl 2 μg.kg-1 and Group D received injection of dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg-1 diluted up to 5 mL by adding normal saline intravenously over 60 seconds. Five minutes thereafter, following induction with propofol and vecuronium, tracheal intubation was performed after 3 minutes of mask ventilation. Hemodynamic parameters were observed at an interval of 2 minutes before tracheal intubation and at an interval of 1 minute for 5 minutes after tracheal tube cuff inflation. Continuous variables are presented as mean with 95% confidence interval, and t-test was applied for comparing the difference of means between two groups after checking the normality condition. Chi-square test was applied to test the independence of attributes of categorical variables. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA was performed to compare the outcome variables between the two groups. Results: The difference in heart rate and mean arterial pressure of patients in two groups after laryngoscopy and intubation was not statistically significant at any point of time. The hemodynamic changes did not require any intervention in the form of administration of rescue medication. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg-1 is as effective as fentanyl 2 μg.kg-1 in attenuating the hemodynamic response accompanying laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Clinical trial number & registry URL: CTRI/2017/09/009857 [ctri.nic.in]
  • The impact of IPACK combined with adductor canal block under ultrasound guidance on early motor function after total knee arthroplasty Original Investigation

    Zheng, Fang-Yu; Liu, Yong-Bo; Huang, Hui; Xu, Shuai; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Ying-Zhi; Chu, Hai-Chen

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Infiltration between the Popliteal Artery and Capsule of the posterior Knee (IPACK) combined with an adductor canal block under the guidance of ultrasound on early motor function after Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: A sample of 60 cases who were scheduled for elective unilateral TKA were divided into two groups using random number table method: a group with IPACK combined with an adductor canal block (I group, n = 30), and a group with femoral nerve block combined with superior popliteal sciatic nerve block (FS group, n = 30). Before anesthesia induction was completed, the patients in I group received an ultrasound-guided adductor canal block with 15 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine and an IPACK block with 25 mL of ropivacaine, and the patients in FS group received a femoral nerve block and a superior popliteal sciatic nerve block with 20 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine under ultrasound guidance. Post-operation, all the patients received patient-controlled intravenous analgesia combined with an oral celecoxib capsule to relieve pain and maintain a visual analogue scale score of ≤ 3. Results: The quadriceps femoris muscle strength score was significantly higher in I group than in FS group (p = 0.001), while the modified Bromage score were significantly lower and walking distance results were significantly higher in I group than in FS group (both p = 0.000). Conclusion: Compared with femoral nerve block combined with superior popliteal sciatic nerve block, IPACK combined with adductor canal block had a mild impact on early motor functions after TKA.
  • Effects of erector spinae plane block and retrolaminar block on analgesia for multiple rib fractures: a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial Original Investigation

    Zhao, Yaoping; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Shaoqiang; Cai, Nan; Cheng, Long; Xie, Hao; Wang, Geng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of Erector Spinae Plane Block (ESPB) and Retrolaminar Block (RLB) on intraand postoperative analgesia in patients with Multiple Rib Fractures (MRFs). Methods: A total of 80 MRFs patients were randomly divided into the ESPB (Group E) and RLB (Group R) groups. After general anesthesia, ESPB and RLB were performed under ultrasound guidance, respectively, together with 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine and Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA). Results: Thirty-four cases in Group E and 33,cases in Group R showed unclear paravertebral spaces. The intraoperative dosage of remifentanil (mean ± SD) (392.8 ± 118.7 vs. 501.7 ± 190.0 μg) and postoperative morphine PCIA dosage, (7.35 ± 1.55 vs. 14.73 ± 2.18 mg) in Group R were significantly less than those in Group E; the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores in Group R at 2 (2.7 ± 1.2 vs. 3.4 ± 1.4), 4 (2.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.8 ± 0.9), 12 (2.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.0 ± 0.8), and 24 hours (2.6 ± 1.0 vs. 3.1 ± 0.9) after surgery were significantly lower than those in Group E. Finally, the normal respiratory diaphragm activity (2.17 ± 0.22 vs. 2.05 ± 0.19), pH (median [IQR] (7.38 [7.31-7.45] vs. 7.36 [7.30-7.42]), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (44 [35-49] vs. 42.5 [30-46]) after the operation in Group R were significantly better than those in Group E (p < 0.05). Conclusions: RLB was a more effective analgesic method than ESPB in the treatment of MRF.
  • Association between acute kidney injury and mortality after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a retrospective observational study Original Investigation

    Para, Ender; Azizoğlu, Mustafa; Sagün, Aslınur; Temel, Gülhan Orekici; Birbiçer, Handan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) affect mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. There have been few studies examining the prevalence of AKI and mortality after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the present study, we investigated the association between AKI and mortality in post-cardiac arrest patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: Our retrospective analysis included 109 patients, admitted to the ICU following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 2014 and 2016. We compared two scoring systems to estimate mortality. Results and discussion: AKI were diagnosed in 46.7% (n = 51) of the patients based on the RIFLE criteria and 66.1% (n = 72) using the KDIGO. Mortality rate was significantly higher among patients with AKI diagnosed according to the RIFLE criteria (p = 0.012) and those with AKI diagnosed using KDIGO criteria (p = 0.003). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that both scoring systems were able to successfully detect mortality (Area under the ROC curve = 0.693 for RIFLE and 0.731 for KDIGO). Conclusion: AKI increases mortality and morbidity rates after cardiac arrest. Although more renal injury and mortality were detected with KDIGO, the sensitivity and specificity of both scoring systems were similar in predicting mortality in patients with Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC).
  • Assessment of lung ultrasound for early detection of respiratory complications in thoracic surgery Original Investigation

    Bosch, Laetitia; Mathe, Olivier; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Serres, Isabelle; Labaste, François; Masquère, Pierre; Grigoli, Maxime; Brouchet, Laurent; Conil, Jean-Marie; Minville, Vincent

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and objectives: To assess lung ultrasound for the diagnosis and monitoring of respiratory complications in thoracic surgery. Methods: Prospective observational study in a University hospital, single institution. Adult patients scheduled for pulmonary resection surgery excluding pneumonectomy. An ultrasound follow-up was performed from the day before the surgery to the third day after surgery with calculation of B-line and lung score (reaeration and loss of aeration scores). Respiratory complications were collected throughout the hospitalization period. Results: Fifty-six patients were included. Eighteen patients presented a respiratory complication (32%), and they presented significantly higher BMI and ASA scores. Patients operated by videothoracoscopy were less at risk of complications. At day 3, a reaeration score ≤ 2 on the ventilated side or ≤-2 on the operated side, and a B-line score > 6 on the operated side were in favor of a complication. Conclusion: Lung ultrasound can help in the diagnosis of respiratory complications following pulmonary resection surgery.
  • Comparison between intravenous and intrathecal clonidine for postoperative analgesia of patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy: randomized clinical trial Original Investigation

    Silva, Christiane Rodrigues da; Oliveira, Cinthya Iamile Frithz Brandão de; Nunes, Juscimar Carneiro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction and objectives: Alpha2 adrenergic agonists, such as clonidine, are used as adjuvants during anesthesia due to their analgesic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of clonidine administered intravenously and intrathecally on the postoperative pain score of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, according to the route of administration and postoperative opioid consumption. Methods: This randomized clinical trial, blind to patients and evaluator, assessed 60 patients, candidates for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under standardized general anesthesia techniques. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups (20 in each group): Control Group (CG), Intrathecal Clonidine Group (ITCG), and Intravenous Clonidine Group (IVCG). The primary outcome was the comparison of pain, Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR) scores among groups. The secondary outcome was report of adverse effects such as bradycardia, hypotension and sedation, and the need for rescue medication. Results: The mean age was 37.2 ± 8.2 years, and the mean body mass was 28.3 ± 3.6 kg.m-2. Regarding HR (p = 0.003) and pain (p = 0.027), patients in ITCG and CG showed a different profile over time, with CG showing higher consumption of morphine as rescue medication (p = 0.005). Conclusion: The administration of intrathecal and intravenous clonidine in low doses can reduce hemodynamic parameters and decrease postoperative requirement of analgesics. Further studies should investigate the ideal dose and method.
  • Cannabis and pain: a scoping review Narrative Review

    Pantoja-Ruiz, Camila; Restrepo-Jimenez, Paula; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Ferreirós, Alexandra; Rosselli, Diego

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract For centuries, cannabis has been used with many different purposes, including medicinal use, usually bypassing any formal approval process. However, during the last decade, interest in cannabis in medicine has been increasing, and several countries, including the United States and Canada, have produced their own legislation about marihuana and cannabis-based medicines. Because of this, interest in research has been increasing and evidence about its medical effects is becoming necessary. We conducted a review examining the evidence of cannabis in pain. Cannabis had been shown to be useful in acute and chronic pain, however recently, these results have been controverted. Within the different types of chronic pain, it has a weak evidence for neuropathic, rheumatic pain, and headache, modest evidence for multiple sclerosis related pain, and as adjuvant therapy in cancer pain. There is no strong evidence to recommend cannabis in order to decrease opioids in patients with chronic use. Even though cannabis-based medications appear to be mostly safe, mild adverse effects are common; somnolence, sedation, amnesia, euphoric mood, hyperhidrosis, paranoia, and confusion may limit the use of cannabis in clinical practice. Risks have not been systematically analyzed. Special concern arises on how adverse effect might affect vulnerable population such as elderly patients. More research is needed in order to evaluate benefits and risks, as well as the ideal administration route and dosages. As cannabis use increases in several countries, answers to these questions might be coming soon.
  • Implication of AV node blockers in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing head and neck surgery; BRASH syndrome: a case report Case Reports

    Park, Ju Ik; Jung, Moon Sik; Lee, Hyunho; Kim, Hochang; Oh, Jimi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract BRASH (Bradycardia, Renal failure, Atrioventricular [AV]-node blocker medications, Shock, and Hyperkalemia), a novel syndrome, is a synergistic interaction between AV node blockers and hyperkalemia, resulting in bradycardia. We report a case of BRASH syndrome with marked bradycardia in a patient with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) associated with synergistic interaction between mild hyperkalemia and AV node blockers. Anesthesiologists should be aware of these clinical features, in which ESRD patients with baseline mild hyperkalemia are particularly susceptible to bradycardia. This report will help in its early recognition as well as enable comprehensive and appropriate treatment strategies without further invasive therapy.
  • Acute left heart failure with pulmonary edema during resection of pediatric neuroblastoma: case report Case Report

    Gao, Shan; Dong, Youjing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Resection of an unknown neck mass in a 6-year-old child triggered acute left-sided heart failure and pulmonary edema. The lesion was confirmed as neuroblastoma by postoperative tissue examination. Such tumors regularly synthesize and secrete catecholamines, warranting caution in advance of surgical manipulation.
  • Pilot study of the effect of therapeutic photobiomodulation on postoperative pain in knee arthroplasty Short Communication

    Rezende, Marcia Uchoa de; Varone, Bruno Butturi; Martuscelli, Diego Ferreira; Ocampos, Guilherme Pereira; Freire, George Miguel Goes; Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Nine participants undergoing primary TKA submitted to spinal anesthesia, sedation, ultrasound-guided obturator and Femoral nerve Block analgesia, and photobiomodulation Therapy (FBMT) were evaluated regarding postoperative pain and morphine consumption. FBMT sessions were performed in the Immediate Postoperative period (IPO) and after 24 hours. Participants received 16.7±15 mg of morphine up to the third postoperative day. At IPO, mean pain score was 4.8 ± 3.2 and 5.6 ± 3.5, at rest and on movement, respectively. Photo biomodulation therapy can be considered an option for mitigating pain for patients undergoing TKA.
  • Can intraoral mask be a safe alternative for COVID-19 patients? Letter To The Editor

    Aytaç, Betül Güven; Aytaç, İsmail
  • A forceps-assisted fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation Letter To The Editor

    Xiong, Jun
Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) Rua Professor Alfredo Gomes, 36, Botafogo , cep: 22251-080 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ / Brasil , tel: +55 (21) 97977-0024 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: editor.bjan@sbahq.org