Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is a recently described block. In many reports, ESPB has been reported to provide effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD). Herein, we compared the effectiveness of ESPB and control group in postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing CD under spinal anesthesia. Method: This assessor-blinded, prospective, randomized, efficiency study was conducted in the postoperative recovery room and ward at a tertiary university hospital. Eighty-six patients ASA II–III were recruited. Following exclusion, 80 patients were randomized into two equal groups (block and control group). Standard multimodal analgesia was performed in the control group while ESPB block was performed in the intervention (ESPB) group. Opioid consumption was measured and pain intensity between groups was compared using Numeric Rating Scores (NRS). Results: NRS was lower in Group ESPB at 3rd and 6th hours. There was no difference between NRS scores at other hours. Opioid consumption was lower in Group ESPB. Conclusion: When added to multimodal analgesia, bilateral ultrasound guided low thoracic ESPB leads to improve the quality of analgesia in the first 24 hours in patients undergoing CD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Anxiety and fear are common among pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery. In addition to psychologically unpleasant, they can elicit endocrine and metabolic changes. Administration of benzodiazepines in this patient group is uncommon and investigation focusing on the topic is rare. This study aimed to determine anxiolysis efficacy of low-dose midazolam administered preoperatively, right before cesarean delivery, and to evaluate whether its administration impacts neonatal vitality, maternal consciousness, and recall of the moment the baby was born. Method: Fifty pregnant women with indication for cesarean delivery were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study and allocated into two groups of 25 participants each (Midazolam and Control group). Midazolam (0.0125 mg.kg-1) or a placebo solution was administered immediately before spinal anesthesia and the anxiolytic effect was assessed using a visual analogue scale before and after administration. We registered the Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes, the Ramsay scale and recall of the moment of birth, that was assessed 90 minutes after birth. Results: Pregnant women from the Midazolam group presented a 1.3-point reduction in anxiety on the visual analogue scale, while the Control group showed virtually no change (p = 0.027). We observed no statistically significant changes in Apgar scores, level of maternal consciousness and recall of the moment of delivery. Conclusions: Low-dose midazolam can provide anxiety management in pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery with no significant undesirable effects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Intra- and postoperative nausea, vomiting and shivering are mentioned as the most common problem following spinal anesthesia. The aim of this study is to compare two different doses of granisetron to control the shivering, nausea, and vomiting caused by spinal anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean section (C/S). Method: This study is a randomized, triple-blind clinical trial. The participants received 1-mg or 3-mg granisetron. Women who underwent elective C/S were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status grade I or II and age range of 18–40 years. Primary outcome was changes in the score of shivering, and nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcomes were Apgar score, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, temperature and heart rate. Results: According to binary logistic regression, the incidence of shivering (6.9% vs. 1.5%; p-value = 0.049), and nausea and vomiting (19.2% vs. 9.2%; p-value = 0.024) was significantly higher in patients received 1-mg granisetron in comparison with 3-mg granisetron. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the occurrence of shivering, and nausea and vomiting were not associated with the dose of granisetron. There was no significant difference between the age and Apgar score of 1 (p = 0.908) and 5 (p = 0.843) minute(s) between the two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that although 3-mg of granisetron reduces the incidence of intra-and postoperative shivering, nausea and vomiting after spinal anesthesia in comparison with 1-mg of granisetron, the difference was not statistically significant.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Maximum decrease of blood pressure and number of minutes of hypotension were independently associated with umbilical arterial pH. However, the impact of hypotension considering the duration of it on umbilical arterial pH is unknown. Methods: Pregnant women aged ≥ 20 years who delivered a baby at full-term via a cesarean delivery under a single-shot spinal anesthesia between January 2017 and March 2019 were included. The main outcome was to predict umbilical arterial pH, based on the value of the time integral of hypotension. Patient demographics, patient comorbidities, and intraoperative data, including the total dose of ephedrine and phenylephrine by fetal delivery and cumulative duration of maternal hypotension, were evaluated. Maternal hypotension was reflected as a decrease in systolic arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure to < 80% of baseline values. The systolic arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure were independently included in a multiple regression analysis along with all other explanatory factors to predict the umbilical arterial pH. Results: Of the 416 eligible patients, 381 were enrolled. When including the systolic arterial pressure or mean arterial pressure in the model, emergency cases, the total dose of ephedrine, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and systolic arterial pressure or mean arterial pressure values were found to be significant predictive factors of umbilical arterial pH. Conclusion: Our results suggest that an elevated time integral of maternal hypotension may have anegative impact on umbilical arterial pH. Therefore, to minimize the riskof fetal acidosis, maternal hypotension should be prevented with the consideration of vasopressors selection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Multimodal analgesia (MMA) is the current standard practice to provide post-cesarean analgesia. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of quadratus lumborum (QL) block and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block as an adjunct to MMA. Method: Eighty mothers undergoing cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive either TA P or transmuscular QL block (QLB) with 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine on each side. Postoperatively, all the subjects were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours. The primary outcome was the time to first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were the pain scores during rest and movement, number of doses of tramadol, postoperative nausea-vomiting, sedation, and mother’s satisfaction with the pain management. Results: The median (IQR) time to first analgesic request was 12 (9.25, 13) hours in the QL group and 9 (8.25, 11.37) hours in the TA P group (p = 0.0008). Patients in QL group consumed less doses of tramadol than those in TA P group (p < 0.0001). Pain scores were significantly lower in the QL group at all time points (p < 0.0001) except at 8th hour when at rest, p = 0.0024, and on movement, p = 0.0028. The maternal satisfaction was significantly higher in the QL group (p = 0.0017). Conclusion: Our study showed the significant delay in time to first analgesic request in QL group patients. Patients in the QL group had lower pain scores, required fewer analgesic supplements, and had more satisfaction. Nausea-vomiting and sedation were comparable.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The study purpose was to determine the safety and efficacy of different doses of epidural fentanyl plus local anesthetics on ambulation for patients who had elective cesarean delivery. Method: A prospective study at a single community hospital used posturography to compute Sway area for assessment of standing stability [ISRCTN14517337]. Continuous epidural infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine containing either 2.5 mcg.mL-1 (Group 1, n = 8) or 5 mcg.mL-1 fentanyl (Group 2,n= 8) was randomly assignedto an individual and started at a rate of 5 mL.h-1 postoperatively and continued for 48 hours after cesarean delivery in addition to standing acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Posturography measured with SYMPACK™ was used to compute Sway area for investigation of standing stability. The unpaired t-test was used to compare continuous variables between groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences of Sway area measured repeatedly within groups. Results: Participants’ demographics, pain status, and leg motor function one day after cesarean delivery were not different between groups. Sway area in Group 1 was not different across three repeated measurements. Sway area of Group 2 on postoperative day 1, with epidural analgesia, was significantly higher than at the baseline (4.1 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 cm2, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Because both low and high concentrations of epidural fentanyl allowed participants to ambulate with the same pain effect, the lower concentration of continuous epidural fentanyl (2.5 mcg.mL-1 at 5 mL.h-1) is warranted to avoid potential adverse events during ambulation after cesarean delivery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Over 30% of parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for cesarean section become intraoperatively hypothermic. This study assessed the magnitude of hypothermic insult in parturients and newborns using continuous, high-resolution thermometry and evaluated the efficiency of intraoperative forced-air warming for prevention of hypothermia. Method: One hundred and eleven parturients admitted for elective or emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with newborn bonding over a 5-month period were included in this retrospective observational cohort study. Patients were divided into two groups: the passive insulation group, who received no active warming, and the active warming group, who received convective warming through an underbody blanket. Core body temperature was continuously monitored by zero-heat-flux thermometry and automatically recorded by data-loggers. The primary outcome was the incidence of hypothermia in the operating and recovery room. Neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Results: The patients in the passive insulation group had significantly lower temperatures in the operating room compared to the actively warmed group (36.4°C vs. 36.6°C, p = 0.005), including temperature at skin closure (36.5°C vs. 36.7°C, p = 0.017). The temperature of the newborns after discharge from the postanesthetic care unit was lower in the passive insulation group (36.7°C vs. 37.0°C, p = 0.002); thirteen (15%) of the newborns were hypothermic, compared to three (4%) in the active warming group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Forced-air warming decreases perioperative hypothermia in parturients undergoing cesarean section but does not entirely prevent hypothermia in newborns while bonding. Therefore, it can be effectively used for cesarean section, but special attention should be given to neonates.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) develops due to puncture of the dura mater. The risk factors that influence PDPH incidence are Body Mass Index (BMI), sex, spinal needle type, history of headache, and loss of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume, yet there is no consensus on these risk factors. The pathophysiology of PDPH is poorly understood. The molecular pathways that may lead to PDPH are unknown. In this study, CSF – derived microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated for their potential to predispose to PDPH in a population of pregnant women. Method: Pregnant women going under cesarean section via spinal anesthesia were included in the study with the criteria of the subjects presenting American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I. Patients were classified into two groups as with PDPH (n = 10) and without PDPH (n = 12) based on International Headache Society’s PDPH definition. CSF-derived microRNAs were investigated for their differential expression levels in PDPH patients compared with the healthy controls using microfluidic gene expression platform. Results: Out of seventy-six miRNAs, two miRNAs, namely miR-142-3p and miR-17-5p, were significantly downregulated in PDPH patients (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0,05). BMI and age did not influence PDPH occurrence. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) of the PDPH patients was 6,8 out of 10. Conclusion: We have shown that downregulation of miR-142-3p and miR-17-5p may predispose pregnant women to PDPH upon spinal anesthesia. However, which genes are targeted by miR-142-3p and miR-17-5p-mediated effect on PDPH remains to be elucidated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Inadequate emergence after anesthesia (IEA) is a common phenomenon in adult patients undergoing anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of IEA for elective cancer surgery, and to study its influence on the quality of recovery. Method: In this observational, prospective study, 148 patients scheduled for elective cancer surgery were included. IEA was considered for patients having emergence delirium or hypoactive emergence applying The Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) 10 minutes after admission at PACU. Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PQRS) was used at baseline and after surgery at minutes 15 (T15) and 40 (T40), and days 1 (D1) and 3 (D3). Results: Of the 148 patients, 48 (32%) had IEA. Complete recovery at PQRS was less frequent in patients with IEA on physiological domain at T15 and D1, and activities of daily living domain at D3. Patients with IEA recovered more frequently in emotive domain at T15, T40, and D3. Determinants of IEA were age, riskof surgery, congestive heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, ASA physical status, RCRI score, and duration of anesthesia. IEA patients had more frequently postoperative delirium and stayed for longer at PACU and at the hospital. Conclusion: IEA was a common phenomenon after anesthesia for elective curative surgery for cancer. Patients with IEA were older and had more comorbidities and a higher surgical risk. Patients with IEA had a less frequent complete recovery on the PD and in AD domains, and a more frequent complete recovery on the ED.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is a regional block that may be used for several surgeries. However, the evidence regarding obstetrical procedures is not pooled in the literature. Objectives: To assess whether ESPB improves the postoperative pain after cesarean section by a systematic review and meta-analysis. Method: The protocol of this review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020192760). We included randomized controlled trials from databases until August 2020. The primary outcome was pain measured on a visual analogic scale; secondary outcomes were analgesic duration, postoperative opioid dose within the 24 hours, nausea/vomiting. The risk of bias and the GRADE criteria to assess quality of evidence were analyzed. Results: From 436 retrieved studies, three were selected. There was no difference in the pain scores between ESPB and controls at rest after surgery at 4 h (mean difference [MD] = 0.00; 95% CI: -0.72 to 0.72; I2 = 0%; very low certainty), 12 h (MD = -1.00; 95% CI: -2.00 to -0.00; I2 = 0%, low certainty) and 24 h (MD = -0.68; 95% CI: -1.56 to 0.20; I2 = 50%; very low certainty). There was a smaller consumption of tramadol with ESPB compared with controls (MD = -47.66; 95% CI: -77.24 to -18.08; I2 = 59%; very low certainty). The analgesic duration of ESPB was longer than the controls (MD = 6.97; 95% CI: 6.30 to 7.65; I2 = 58%; very low certainty). Conclusion: ESPB did not decrease the postoperative pain scores when compared to other comparators. However, ESPB showed a lower consumption of tramadol and a longer blockade duration, although the quality of evidence of these outcomes were very low.
Abstract in English:Abstract This report describes the case of a pregnant woman who arrived for preanesthetic assessment of External Cephalic Version (ECV) for fetus in breech presentation and cesarean section in case of ECV failure. Although the technique seems simple, attempts to rotate the fetus can result in elevated intracranial pressure, which might cause malformation bleeding. The most appropriate anesthetic technique in cases of arteriovenous malformations during C-sections has not been determined. Neuroaxial anesthesia is safe only instable brain cavernomas, but the presence of spinal malformations contraindicates it. Anesthetic goals include stabilizing the blood pressure and reducing the risk of rupture.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: The objective of this case series was to present the importance of labour analgesia and the preference for erector spinae plane (ESP) block as a new technique that can be used for labour analgesia. Case reports: The three patients were 25-year-old primipara with 5-cm cervical dilation, a 30-year-old multiparous with 5-cm cervical dilatation, and a 32-year-old primipara with 4-cm cervical dilation. Conclusions: Bilateral ESP block may be an alternative analgesic technique for the first stage of labour.
Abstract in English:Abstract Intracranial hematoma after spinal anesthesia is a rare complication. It generally presents with posture-dependent headache that becomes persistent. We describe the case of patient submitted to spinal anesthesia for cesarean section who presented a non-posture-dependent headache, resistant to clinical treatment, that progressively worsened and with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The patient had a history of head trauma without symptoms. The CT-scan revealed a chronic bilateral parietal hematoma with a recent bleeding component, treated surgically. We concluded that spinal puncture led to chronic hematoma to rebleed. We have reported the case to draw attention to the importance of investigating atypical headache after spinal anesthesia.
Abstract in English:Abstract The use of sugammadex for reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade after caesarean section is nowadays common practice, but concerns exist about its use in pregnant women undergoing non-obstetric surgery. We report six cases of pregnant women submitted to general anesthesia for non-obstetric surgery in which neuromuscular blockade was reversed with sugammadex. We followed the outcome of both mother and baby during and after delivery. Sugammadex seemed to be a safe option for both mother and baby but more reports are necessary to fill the evidence gap and increase the global knowledge about its safety in this special group of patients.