Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients and is known to have several predisposing and precipitating factors. Seasonality affects cognitive function which has a more dysfunctional pattern during winter. We, therefore, aimed to test whether seasonal variation is associated with the occurrence of delirium and hospital Length Of Stay (LOS) in critically ill non-cardiac surgical populations. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients recovering from non-cardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between March 2013 and March 2018 who stayed in Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) for at least 48 hours and had daily Confusion Assessment Method Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) assessments for delirium. The incidence of delirium and LOS were summarized by season and compared using chi-square test and non-parametric tests, respectively. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between delirium and LOS with seasons, adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results Among 2300 patients admitted to SICU after non-cardiac surgeries, 1267 (55%) had postoperative delirium. The incidence of delirium was 55% in spring, 54% in summer, 55% in fall and 57% in winter, which was not significantly different over the four seasons (p= 0.69). The median LOS was 12 days (IQR = [8, 19]) overall. There was a significant difference in LOS across the four seasons (p= 0.018). LOS during summer was 12% longer (95% CI: 1.04, 1.21; p= 0.002) than in winter. Conclusions In adult non-cardiac critically ill surgical patients, the incidence of postoperative delirium is not associated with season. Noticeably, LOS was longer in summer than in winter.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The effect of regional analgesia on perioperative infectious complications remains unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a composite of serious infections after colorectal surgery is less common in patients with regional analgesia than in those given Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia (IV-PCA) with opiates. Methods Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery lasting one hour or more under general anesthesia at the Cleveland Clinic Main Campus between 2009 and 2015 were included in this retrospective analysis. Exposures were defined as regional postoperative analgesia with epidurals or Transversus Abdominis Plane blocks (TAP); or IV-PCA with opiates only. The outcome was defined as a composite of in-hospital serious infections, including intraabdominal abscess, pelvic abscess, deep or organ-space Surgical Site Infection (SSI), clostridium difficile, pneumonia, or sepsis. Logistic regression model adjusted for the imbalanced potential confounding factors among the subset of matched surgeries was used to report the odds ratios along with 95% confidence limits. The significance criterion was p < 0.05. Results A total of 7811 patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria of which we successfully matched 681 regional anesthesia patients to 2862 IV-PCA only patients based on propensity scores derived from potential confounding factors. There were 82 (12%) in-hospital postoperative serious infections in the regional analgesia group vs. 285 (10%) in IV-PCA patients. Regional analgesia was not significantly associated with serious infection (odds ratio: 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval 0.87‒1.49; p-value = 0.339) after adjusting for surgical duration and volume of intraoperative crystalloids. Conclusion Regional analgesia should not be selected as postoperative analgesic technique to reduce infections.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To analyze the effects of an ERAS program on complication rates, readmission, and length of stay in patients undergoing pulmonary resection in a tertiary university hospital. Methods Ambispective cohort study with a prospective arm of 50 patients undergoing thoracic surgery within an ERAS program (ERAS group) versus a retrospective arm of 50 patients undergoing surgery before the protocol was implemented (Standard group). The primary outcome was the number of patients with 30-day surgical complications. Secondary outcomes included ERAS adherence, non-surgical complications, mortality, readmission, reintervention rate, pain, and hospital length of stay. We performed a multivariate logistic analysis to study the correlation between outcomes and ERAS adherence. Results In the univariate analysis, we found no difference between the two groups in terms of surgical complications (Standard 18 [36%] vs. ERAS 12 [24%], p = 0.19). In the ERAS group, only the readmission rate was significantly lower (Standard 15 [30%] vs. ERAS 6 [12%], p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, ERAS adherence was the only factor associated with a reduction in surgical complications (OR [95% CI] = 0.02 [0.00, 0.59], p = 0.03) and length of stay (HR [95% CI] = 18.5 [4.39, 78.4], p < 0.001). Conclusions The ERAS program significantly reduced the readmission rate at our hospital. Adherence to the ERAS protocol reduced surgical complications and length of stay.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol is composed by evidence-based interventions that aim to improve recovery through a reduction in surgical stress response. Although ERAS protocols have been introduced across the globe, exhaustive implementation is not as common. We aimed to study the ERAS protocol compliance in colorectal surgery, assessing the relationship between compliance and postoperative complications. Methods A single-center cohort study was conducted. All consecutive patients admitted to elective colorectal surgery were included. We assessed study endpoints according to ERAS protocol perioperative compliance score above 75%. Our primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative events, which includes in-hospital postoperative complications and need for reoperation after 30 days and need for readmission after discharge. Secondary endpoints were surgery-to-discharge time, postoperative use of only non-opioid adjuvants and the individual components of the primary endpoint. Results A total of 224 colorectal patients were included. The primary endpoint occurred in 59.2% (n = 58) of non-compliant patients comparing to 34.1% (n = 43) in compliant patients. In univariate analysis, compliance to ERAS protocol had an inferior risk for the primary endpoint (p< 0.001). In a logistic regression model, compliance was independently associated with a reduced risk for the primary endpoint with a odds-ratio of 0.42 (95% CI 0.23-0.75, p= 0.004). Conclusion Compliance with the ERAS protocol is associated with less complications, a reduced surgery-to-discharge time and use of only non-opioid adjuvants in the postoperative period. More studies are needed to target the most appropriate compliance goal.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The higher risk of perioperative complications associated with obesity has made anesthesiologists increasingly concerned with the management of obese patients. Measures that improve bariatric surgery patient safety have become essential. The implementation of ERAS protocols in several surgical specialties has made it possible to achieve appropriate outcomes as to surgery safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient compliance with the recommendations of an ERAS protocol for Bariatric Surgery (ERABS) at a hospital specialized in obesity treatment. Methods Cross-sectional study, using a medical record database, in a hospital certified as an International Center of Excellence in Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery. The definition of the variables to be assessed was based on the most recent ERABS proposed by Thorell et al. Results were analyzed using descriptive epidemiology. Results The study evaluated all patients undergoing bariatric surgery in 2019. Mean compliance with the recommendations per participant was 42.8%, with a maximum of 55.5%, and was distributed as follows: 22.6% of compliance with preoperative recommendations, 60% to intraoperative recommendations, and 58.1% to postoperative recommendations. The anesthesiologist is the professional who provides most measures for the perioperative optimization of bariatric surgery patients. In our study we found that anesthesiologists complied with only 39.5% of ERABS recommendations. Conclusions Mean compliance with ERABS recommendations per participant was 42.8%. Considering that the study was carried out at a hospital certified as an international center of excellence, the need for introducing improvements in the care of patients to be submitted to bariatric surgery is evident.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of neuraxial techniques which delays patients’ discharge. Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) is a safe bedside technique with comparable efficacy to Epidural Blood Patch, the gold-standard treatment. There is no evidence on the ideal timing for SPGB performance. We aimed to evaluate the difference between early versus late SPGB concerning efficacy, symptom recurrence and hospital length of stay. Methods We present an observational study with 41 patients diagnosed with PDPH who were submitted to SPGB with ropivacaine 0,75%. The study sample (n = 41) was divided in two groups: an early (less than 24 hours after diagnosis) and a late (more than 24 hours after diagnosis) SPGB group. Pain was evaluated 15 minutes after the block and follow up occurred daily until patients were discharged. Patients’ demographic characteristics, neuraxial technique, timing of SPGB, qualitative pain relief and post-SPGB length of stay were registered and analyzed with SPSS statistics (v26) software. Results Early SPGB resulted in a significant reduction in length of stay (p = 0,009) and symptom recurrence (p = 0,036), showing equally effective pain relief, compared to late SPGB. Conclusions SPGB was equally effective in both groups. Data showed that early SPGB reduces length of hospital stay and symptom recurrence, which potentially allows early resumption of daily activities and a reduction in total health costs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Compound A is generated by sevoflurane when it reacts with carbon dioxide absorbers with strong bases at minimal fresh gas flow (FGF) and is nephrotoxic in animals. No conclusive data has shown increased risk in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate if minimal FGF promotes an increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when compared to high FGF in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Two hundred and four adult patients scheduled for on-pump cardiac surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups differentiated by FGF: minimal FGF (0.5 L.min−1) or high FGF (2.0 L.min−1). Baseline creatinine measured before surgery was compared daily to values assayed on the first five postoperative days, and 24-hour urinary output was monitored, according to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guideline to define postoperative cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Creatinine measurements were also obtained 20 and 120 days after hospital discharge. Results Postoperative AKI occurred in 55 patients, 26 patients (29.5%) in the minimal FGF group and 29 patients (31.5%) in the high FGF group (p= 0.774). Twenty days after discharge, 11 patients (6.1%) still had CSA-AKI and 120 days after discharge only 2 patients (1.6%) still had CSA-AKI. Conclusions When compared to high FGF, minimal FGF sevoflurane anesthesia during on-pump cardiac surgery is not associated with increased risk of postoperative AKI in this population at high risk for renal injury.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Early mobilization after surgery is a cornerstone of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs in total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our goal was to determine the time to mobilization after this surgery and the factors associated with early mobilization. Methods This was a predefined substudy of the POWER.2 study, a prospective cohort study conducted in patients undergoing THA and TKA at 131 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the time until mobilization after surgery as well as determining those perioperative factors associated with early mobilization after surgery. Results A total of 6093 patients were included. The median time to achieve mobilization after the end of the surgery was 24 hours [16-30]. 4,222 (69.3%) patients moved in ≤ 24 hours after surgery. Local anesthesia [OR = 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.90); p= 0.001], surgery performed in a self-declared ERAS center [OR = 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55-0.60); p< 0.001], mean adherence to ERAS items [OR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92-0.93); p< 0.001], and preoperative hemoglobin [OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98); p< 0.001] were associated with shorter time to mobilization. Conclusions Most THA and TKA patients mobilize in the first postoperative day, early time to mobilization was associated with the compliance with ERAS protocols, preoperative hemoglobin, and local anesthesia, and with the absence of a urinary catheter, surgical drains, epidural analgesia, and postoperative complications. The perioperative elements that are associated with early mobilization are mostly modifiable, so there is room for improvement.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the common surgical intervention for benign biliary diseases. Postoperative pain after LC remains as an important problem, with two components: somatic and visceral. Trocar entry incisions lead to somatic pain, while peritoneal distension with diaphragm irritation leads to visceral pain. Following its description by Forero et al., the erector spinae plane (ESP) block acquired considerable popularity among clinicians. This led to the use of ESP block for postoperative pain management for various operations. Materials and methods This study was conducted between January and June 2019. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. All the patients received bilateral or unilateral ESP block at the T8 level preoperatively according to their groups. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms NRS scores either at rest or while coughing at any time interval except for postoperative 6th hour (p = 0.023). Morphine consumption was similar between the groups but was significantly lower in group B at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.044 and p = 0.022, respectively). Twelve patients in group A and three patients in group B had shoulder pain and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011). Discussion In conclusion, bilateral ESP block provided more effective analgesia than unilateral ESP block in patients undergoing elective LC. Bilateral ESP block reduced the amount of opioid consumption and the incidence of postoperative shoulder pain.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background There has been a growing interest in the use of ketamine following orthopedic surgeries. We hypothesized that low dose intravenous ketamine during surgery would help in mobilization following total knee replacement (TKR) in oncology patients as assessed by the timed to up and go (TUG) test at 72 hours post-surgery. Our secondary objectives were to compare the opioid requirement at the end of 72 hours, pain scores, satisfaction with pain management, adverse effects, range of joint movement achieved in the post-operative period and the functional recovery at the end of 1 month. Methods After the ethics commitee approval, registration of the trial with the Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI), and informed consent, this double-blinded trial was conducted. Using computer generated randomization chart, an independent team randomized the patients into ketamine group which received at induction, a ketamine bolus dose of 0.5 mg.kg-1 before the incision followed by 10 µg.kg-1min-1 infusion which was maintained intraoperatively till skin closure and the saline group received an equivalent volume of saline. Postoperatively, patient controlled morphine pumps were attached and the pain score with morphine usage were recorded for 72 hours. The TUG tests and range of motion were assessed by the physiotherapists until 72 hours. Results Fifty-two patients were enrolled in the trial. Demographics were comparable. No significant intraoperative hemodynamic changes and post-operative adverse events were noted between the groups. A decrease in the TUG test, along with decreased opioid usage with a better range of movements was noted in the ketamine group, but this was not statistically significant. Day of discharge, patient satisfaction score, and functional recovery assessed by Oxford Knee Score (OKS) were comparable between the groups. Conclusion In conclusion, low dose intraoperative ketamine infusion does not provide clinical benefit in perioperative pain management and postoperative rehabilitation following total knee endoprosthetic replacement in oncology.
Abstract in English:Abstract Backgraund: This prospective observational cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative anxiety levels and postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: Forty two female patients with body mass index ≥ 35, who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for treatment of obesity were included in the study. Spielberger's state and trait anxiety scales were used in this study. Demographic data of the patients, anesthetic and analgesic drugs during the surgery, pain levels measured with verbal analog scale at the postoperative 1st, 4th, 12th, and 24th hour, sedation levels measured with the Ramsay sedation scale, and the amount of analgesic consumed were recorded. Anesthesiologist, surgeon, and patient were not informed of the anxiety level results. The relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain and analgesic consumption was evaluated by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was applied. Normal Distribution control was performed by applying the Shapiro-Wilk test to residual values obtained from the final model. Results: There was no relationship between trait anxiety level and postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. A correlation was found between state anxiety level and pain level up to 24 hours and analgesic consumption (p < 0.05). According to the obtained model it had been observed that the university graduates consumed more analgesic compared to other education level groups. Conclusion: In this study, a relationship was found between preoperative state anxiety level and 24-hour pain scores and analgesic consumption in patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy under general anesthesia.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Postoperative cough may occur after tracheal intubation, but it is indistinct which drug is best at diminishing these events. Additionally, airway reflexes are commonly accompanied by severe hemodynamics responses during emergence. Objectives To evaluate the role of topical airway anesthesia on immediate post-extubation cough/bucking and extubation time. Methods Randomized clinical trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and LILACS published until December 23, 2020 were included. Our primary outcome was postoperative cough/bucking incidence which was compared between local anesthetics and controls. Extubation times were likewise considered. Predisposition appraisal and subgroup, affectability investigations were likewise performed. Results The pooled analysis found a 45% reduction in cough incidence after treatment with topical airway local anesthetic (RR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.72; p< 0.001). The number needed to treat (NNT) was 4.61. The intervention showed no differences in reduction of the extubation time (mean difference = -0.07; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.28; p= 0.49). Conclusion Topical airway anesthesia demonstrated better than placebo or no medication in reducing immediate post-extubation cough/bucking. Further studies could have this objective to combine the different ways to perform better outcomes for patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sugammadex is a distinctive neuromuscular reversal drug that acts by encapsulating the neuromuscular relaxant molecule and dislodging it from its site of action. Sugammadex has been approved for pediatric patients over 2 years of age. Although arrhythmias have been reported, there is no report of adverse effects in healthy children, such as severe bradycardia requiring intervention. We report two cases of severe bradycardia immediately after the administration of sugammadex in healthy children. Our aim is to alert to the occurrence of one of the most severe adverse effects of sugammadex, in the healthy pediatric population as well.
Abstract in English:Abstract The regional techniques for axillary analgesia are well established. However, few studies have investigated surgical anesthesia. In this report, extensive debridement of axillary necrotizing fasciitis, including the posteromedial region of the right arm, performed under exclusive regional anesthesia in a patient with probable difficult airway is described. The procedure was accomplished under a Serratus Plane Block (SPB) and supraclavicular brachial plexus block, guided by ultrasound, and with venous sedation. We observed satisfactory anesthesia 15 minutes after the intervention, efficient intraoperative pain control and within the following 24 hours. Surgical axilla anesthesia is feasible with the described blocks.
Abstract in English:Abstract Dural puncture is either diagnosed by unexpectedly profound response to medication test dose or development of a postpartum postural headache. Epidural blood patch is the gold standard for treatment of PDPH when conservative management fails. However, postpartum headaches can be resistant to multiple epidural blood patches. In such cases, preexisting intracranial processes should be considered and ruled out. We report here the unique case of a pregnant patient who developed a resistant headache in the postpartum period related to an incidental intracranial aneurysm. Subsequent treatment with endovascular embolization adequately relieved her symptoms. Early surgical consultation and a multidisciplinary team approach involving neurology and neuroimaging is required for successful management of patients such as the one described here.
Abstract in English:Abstract The subscapularis plane block is an effective approach to anesthetize axillary and upper subscapular nerves. There have been no reports regarding brachial plexus paralysis as a potential complication to date. Described here is a case of median nerve palsy following ultrasound-guided subscapularis plane block for awake frozen shoulder manipulation that was performed on a 52-year-old female diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis. The patient could not flex digits two and three, and ipsilateral inner palm numbness occurred shortly after the block commenced, with complete resolution in the next two hours. The local anesthetics spillage towards brachial plexus with possible partial paralysis should always be expected after subscapularis plane block.