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Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, Volume: 73, Issue: 4, Published: 2023
  • Point-Of-Care Cardiac Ultrasound:is it time for anesthesiologists to embrace and achieve competence? Editorial

    Papa, Fabio de V.; Galhardo Jr, Carlos; Pontes, João Paulo Jordão; Alves, Rodrigo Leal; Zamper, Raffael; Salgado, Marcello; da Costa, Luiz Guilherme Villares; Lineburger, Eric Benedet; dos Reis Falcão, Luiz Fernando
  • Is the combination of oral midazolam and ketamine as preanesthetic medication a safe and effective practice? Editorial

    Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Cumino, Débora de Oliveira; Nascimento Júnior, Paulo do; Barros, Guilherme Antonio Moreira de
  • Comparative study between suprasternal and apical windows: a user-friendly cardiac output measurement for the anesthesiologist Original Investigation

    Souza, Rafaela Souto e; Melo, Wendhell Barros de; Freire, Claudia Maria Vilas; Vilas Boas, Walkiria Wingester

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Transthoracic echocardiography is a safe and readily available tool for noninvasive monitoring of Cardiac Output (CO). The use of the suprasternal window situated at the sternal notch can be an alternative approach for estimating blood flow. The present study aimed to compare two methods of CO calculation. We compared the descending aorta Velocity-Time Integral (VTI) measurement from the suprasternal window view with the standard technique to determine CO that uses VTI measurements from the LVOT (Left Ventricular Outflow Tract) view. We also aimed to find out whether after basic training a non-echocardiographer operator can obtain reproducible measurements of VTI using this approach. Methods In the first part of the study, 26 patients without known cardiovascular diseases were evaluated and VTI data were acquired from the suprasternal window by a non-echocardiographer and an echocardiographer. Next, 17 patients were evaluated by an echocardiographer only and VTI and CO measurements were obtained from suprasternal and apical windows. Data were analyzed using the Bland and Altman method (BA), correlation and regression. Results We found a strong correlation between measurements obtained by a non-expert and an expert echocardiographer and detected that an inexperienced trainee can acquire VTI measurements from the suprasternal window view. Regarding agreement between CO measurements, data obtained showed a positive correlation and the Bland and Altman analysis presented a total variation of 38.9%. Conclusion Regarding accuracy, it is likely that TTE (Transthoracic Echocardiogram) measurements of CO from the suprasternal window view are comparable to other minimally invasive techniques currently available. Due to its user-friendliness and low cost, it can be a convenient technique for obtaining perioperative hemodynamic measurements, even by inexperienced operators.
  • Agreement analysis of stroke volume and cardiac output measurement between a oscillometric device and transthoracic echocardiogram in normotensive individuals: a preliminary report Original Investigation

    Godoy, Alejandro; Contreras, Alejandro; Tabares, Aldo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The evaluation of stroke volume (SV) is useful in research and patient care. To accomplish this, an ideal device should be noninvasive, continuous, reliable, and reproducible. The Mobil-O-Graph (MOG) is a noninvasive oscillometric matrix validated for measuring aortic and peripheral blood pressure, which through conversion algorithms can estimate hemodynamic parameters. Objectives To compare the MOG measurement of stroke volume, cardiac output, and cardiac index with the transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). Methods Healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older were included. Two-dimensional TTEs were performed by a single operator. Subsequently, the measurement of noninvasive hemodynamics with MOG was performed with the operator blind to the results of the echocardiogram. Correlation analyses between stroke volume, cardiac output, and cardiac index parameters were performed. The degree of agreement between the methods was verified using the Bland-Altman method. Results A total of 38 volunteers were enrolled with a mean age of 27.6 ± 3.8 years; 21 (55%) were male The SV by TTE was 76.8 ± 19.5 mL and 75.7 ± 19.3 mL by MOG, Rho = 0.726, p< 0.0001. The CO by TTE was 5.04 ± 0.8 mL.min-1 and 5.1 ± 0.8 mL.min-1 by MOG Rho = 0.510, p= 0.001. Bland-Altman plots showed a good concordance between the two techniques. Conclusions Our study shows that the measurement of SV and CO by noninvasive hemodynamics with the MOG device offers a good concordance with the TTE with very few values beyond the confidence limits.
  • Preoperative assessment of inferior vena cava collapsibility index by ultrasound is not a reliable predictor of post-spinal anesthesia hypotension Original Investigation

    Roy, Shayak; Kothari, Nikhil; Goyal, Shilpa; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Rakesh; Kaloria, Narender; Bhatia, Pradeep

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Post-spinal anesthesia hypotension is of common occurrence, and it hampers tissue perfusion. Several preoperative factors determine patient susceptibility to hypotension. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index (IVCCI) for predicting intraoperative hypotension. Methods One hundred twenty-nine adult patients who were scheduled for elective surgical procedures after administration of spinal (intrathecal) anesthesia were included in the study. Ultrasound evaluation of the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) was done in the preoperative area, and the patients were shifted to the Operating Room (OR) for spinal anesthesia. An independent observer recorded the change in blood pressure after spinal anesthesia inside the OR. Results Twenty-five patients developed hypotension (19.37%). Baseline systolic blood pressure and mean blood pressures were statistically higher in those patients who developed hypotension (p= 0.001). The logistic regression analysis for IVCCI and the incidence of hypotension showed r2 of 0.025. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.467 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.338 to 0.597; p= 0.615). Conclusions Preoperative evaluation of IVCCI is not a good predictor for the occurrence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia.
  • Comparison of onset of neuromuscular blockade with electromyographic and acceleromyographic monitoring: a prospective clinical trial Original Investigation

    Chaves-Cardona, Harold E.; Fouda, Eslam A.; Hernandez-Torres, Vivian; Torp, Klaus D.; Logvinov, Ilana I.; Heckman, Michael G.; Renew, Johnathan Ross

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Reliable devices that quantitatively monitor the level of neuromuscular blockade after neuromuscular blocking agents’ administration are crucial. Electromyography and acceleromyography are two monitoring modalities commonly used in clinical practice. The primary outcome of this study is to compare the onset of neuromuscular blockade, defined as a Train-Of-Four Count (TOFC) equal to 0, as measured by an electromyography-based device (TetraGraph) and an acceleromyography-based device (TOFscan). The secondary outcome was to compare intubating conditions when one of these two devices reached a TOFC equal to 0. Methods One hundred adult patients scheduled for elective surgery requiring neuromuscular blockade were enrolled. Prior to induction of anesthesia, TetraGraph electrodes were placed over the forearm of patients’ dominant/non-dominant hand based on randomization and TOFscan electrodes placed on the contralateral forearm. Intraoperative neuromuscular blocking agent dose was standardized to 0.5−1 of rocuronium. After baseline values were obtained, objective measurements were recorded every 20 seconds and intubation was performed using video laryngoscopy once either device displayed a TOFC = 0. The anesthesia provider was then surveyed about intubating conditions. Results Baseline TetraGraph train-of-four ratios were higher than those obtained with TOFscan (Median: 1.02 [0.88, 1.20] vs. 1.00 [0.64, 1.01], respectively, p < 0.001). The time to reach a TOFC = 0 was significantly longer when measured with TetraGraph compared to TOFscan (Median: 160 [40, 900] vs. 120 [60, 300] seconds, respectively, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in intubating conditions when either device was used to determine the timing of endotracheal intubation. Conclusions The onset of neuromuscular blockade was longer when measured with TetraGraph than TOFscan, and a train-of-four count of zero in either device was a useful indicator for adequate intubating conditions. Clinical trial number and registry URL NCT05120999,
  • Cardiac arrest patients admitted to intensive care unit after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a retrospective cohort study to find predictors for mortality Original Investigation

    Katircioglu, Kaan; Ayvat, Pinar; Gunturkun, Fatma

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background In-hospital cardiac arrest is a common situation in hospital settings. Therefore, healthcare providers should understand the reasons that could affect the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We aimed to determine the independent predictors for poor outcomes after the return of spontaneous circulation in in-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and also look for a relationship between patient’s background parameters and the status at intensive care unit. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study using cardiac arrest patients admitted to the intensive care unit after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 2011-2015. Patients’ data were gathered from hospital database. Estimated probabilities of survival were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine associated risk factors for mortality. Results In total, 197 cardiac arrest patients were admitted to anesthesia intensive care unit after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a 4-years period. Of 197 patients, 170 (86.3%) died in intensive care unit. Median of survival days was 4 days. Comorbidity (p= 0.01), higher duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p= 0.02), lower Glasgow Coma Score (p= 0.00), abnormal lactate level (p= 0.00), and abnormal mean blood pressure (p= 0.01) were the main predictors for increased mortality in cardiac arrest patients after intensive care unit admission. Conclusion The consequent clinical status of the patients is affected by the physiological state after return of spontaneous circulation. Comorbidity, higher duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, lower arrival Glasgow Coma Score, abnormal lactate level, and abnormal mean blood pressure were the main predictors for increased mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
  • Association of low-dose naltrexone and transcranial direct current stimulation in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blinded, parallel clinical trial Original Investigation

    Paula, Tânia Maria Hendges de; Castro, Mariane Schäffer; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; Paludo, Rodrigo Hernandes; Couto, Fabricia Fritz; Costa, Tainá Ramires da; Fortes, Juliana Pereira; Salbego, Maiara de Oliveira; Behnck, Gabriel Schardosim; Moura, Thielly Amaral Mesquita de; Tarouco, Mariana Lenz; Caumo, Wolnei; Souza, Andressa de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Fibromyalgia is a complex, generalized, and diffuse chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pharmacological approaches are widely used to relieve pain and increase quality of life. Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN) was shown to increase the nociceptive threshold in patients with fibromyalgia. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is effective for pain management. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and neuromodulatory effects of a combination of LDN and tDCS in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods This was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel, placebo/sham-controlled trial (NCT04502251; RBR-7HK8N) in which 86 women with fibromyalgia were included, and written informed consent was obtained from them. The patients were allocated into four groups: LDN + tDCS (n = 21), LDN + tDCS Sham (n = 22), placebo + tDCS (n = 22), and placebo+tDCS Sham (n = 21). The LDN or placebo (p.o.) intervention lasted 26 days; in the last five sessions, tDCS was applied (sham or active, 20 min, 2 mA). The following categories were assessed: sociodemographic, Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Profile of Chronic Pain Scale (PCP:S), Pain Pressure Threshold (PPT), and Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM). Blood samples were collected to analyze BDNF serum levels. Results At baseline, no significant difference was found regarding all measurements. VAS pain was significantly reduced in the LDN + tDCS (p = 0.010), LDN + tDCS Sham (p= 0.001), and placebo+tDCS Sham (p= 0.009) groups. In the PCP:S, the LDN+tDCS group showed reduced pain frequency and intensity (p= 0.001), effect of pain on activities (p= 0.014) and emotions (p= 0.008). Depressive symptoms reduced after all active interventions (p > 0.001). Conclusion Combined LDN+tDCS has possible benefits in reducing pain frequency and intensity; however, a placebo effect was observed in pain using VAS, and further studies should be performed to analyze the possible association.
  • Effect of intraoperative alveolar recruitment maneuver on intraoperative oxygenation and postoperative pulmonary function tests in patients undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomy: a single-blind randomized study Original Investigation

    Parmeswaran, Prabakaran; Gupta, Priyanka; Ittoop, Amanta L.; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Kumar, Ajit; Singla, Deepak

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomies (RAH) require Trendelenburg positioning and pneumoperitoneum, which further accentuate alteration in respiratory mechanics induced by general anesthesia. The role of Recruitment Maneuver (RM) as a lung-protective strategy during intraoperative surgical settings has not been much studied. We planned this study to evaluate the effect of RM on perioperative oxygenation and postoperative spirometry using PaO2/FiO2 and FEV1/FVC, respectively in patients undergoing RAH. Methods Sixty-six ASA I‒II female patients scheduled for elective RAH were randomized into group R (recruitment maneuver, n = 33) or group C (control, n = 33). Portable spirometry was done one day before surgery. Patients were induced with general anesthesia, and mechanical ventilation started with volume control mode, with Tidal Volume (TV) of 6-8−1, Respiratory Rate (RR) of 12 min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I: E ratio) of 1:2, FiO2 of 0.4, and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) of 5 cmH2O. Patients in group R received recruitment maneuvers of 30 cmH2O every 30 minutes following tracheal intubation. The primary objectives were comparison of oxygenation and ventilation between two groups intraoperatively and portable spirometry postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications, like desaturation, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, were monitored. Results Patients who received RM had significantly higher PaO2 (mmHg) (203.2+-24.3 vs. 167.8+-27.3, p < 0.001) at T2 (30 min after the pneumoperitoneum). However, there was no significant difference in portable spirometry between the groups in the postoperative period (FVC, 1.40 ± 0.5 L vs. 1.32 ± 0.46 L, p= 0.55). Conclusion This study concluded that intraoperative recruitment did not prevent deterioration of postoperative spirometry values; however, it led to improved oxygenation intraoperatively.
  • Efficacy of a single dose of esmolol to prevent extubation-related complications during emergence from anesthesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Original Investigation

    Mendonça, Fabrício Tavares; Barreto Filho, Jorge Humberto; Hungria, Matheus de Bastos Cerqueira Soares; Magalhães, Thiago Cavalcante

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Few trials have examined the efficacy of esmolol to attenuate hemodynamic and respiratory responses during extubation. However, the most appropriate dose of esmolol and an optimal protocol for administering this beta-blocker are uncertain. Methods Ninety patients ASA physical status I, II, and III (aged 18-60 years) scheduled to procedures with general anesthesia and tracheal extubation were selected. Patients were randomized into esmolol and placebo group to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single bolus dose of esmolol (2 on cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period. The primary outcome was the rate of tachycardia during extubation. Results The rate of tachycardia was significantly lower in esmolol-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients (2.2% vs. 48.9%, relative risk (RR): 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.01 to 0.32, p= 0.002). The rate of hypertension was also significantly lower in the esmolol group (4.4% vs. 31.1%, RR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.6, p= 0.004). Esmolol-treated patients were associated with higher extubation quality compared to patients who received placebo (p< 0.001), with an approximately two-fold increase in the rate of patients without cough (91.1%) in the esmolol group compared to the placebo group (46.7%). The rate of bucking was approximately 5-fold lower in the esmolol group (8.9% vs. 44.5%, respectively, RR: 0.20 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.5, p= 0.002, with an NNT of 2.8). Conclusion A single bolus dose of esmolol is an effective and safe therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period.
  • Role of melatonin in attenuation of hemodynamic response to intubation and anesthetic requirements: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study Original Investigation

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kumari, Kamlesh; Janweja, Sarita; Kumar, Rakesh; Verma, Manoj; Sharma, Ankur; Paliwal, Bharat; Kishan, Rama

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Melatonin has been studied to have anxiolytic, sedative, and analgesic effects. However, there is limited data on the effect of melatonin in the attenuation of hemodynamic response to intubation. We aimed to study whether preanesthetic oral melatonin attenuates hemodynamic responses to intubation and anesthetic requirements. Methods Sixty-four patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into melatonin or placebo group (n = 32 each). Melatonin group received two tablets (3 mg each) of melatonin, and the placebo group received two tablets of vitamin D3 120 min before induction. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded during induction and postintubation for 15 minutes. Total induction dose of propofol, total intraoperative fentanyl consumption, and adverse effects of melatonin were also noted. Results Postintubation rise in heart rate (HR) was less in the melatonin group compared to the placebo group (10.59% vs. 37.08% at 1 min, respectively) (p< 0.0001). Maximum percentage increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) was lesser in melatonin group than placebo group (SBP 9.25% vs. 37.73%, DBP 10.58% vs. 35.51%, MBP 9.99% vs. 36.45% at 1 min postintubation. respectively) (p< 0.0001). Induction dose of propofol (1.42 vs. 2.01 and the number of patients requiring additional fentanyl intraoperatively (3 vs. 11) were also significantly reduced in the melatonin group. Conclusion Premedication with 6 mg of oral melatonin resulted in significant attenuation of postintubation rise in HR, SBP, DBP, and MBP. It also reduced the induction dose of propofol, total intraoperative fentanyl consumption without any adverse effects.
  • Morphine promotes migration and lung metastasis of mouse melanoma cells Experimental Trials

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Dana, Nasim; Ghasemi, Ahmad; Abediny, Reza; Laher, Ismail; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Morphine is an analgesic agent used for cancer pain management. There have been recent concerns that the immunosuppressant properties of morphine can also promote cancer metastasis. Morphine is an agonist for toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) that has a dual role in cancer development. The promotor or inhibitor role of morphine in cancer progression remains controversial. We investigated the effects of morphine on migration and metastasis of melanoma cells through TLR4 activation. Methods Mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) were treated with only morphine (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) or in combination with a TLR4 inhibitor (morphine10 μM +CLI-095 1μM) for either 12 or 24 hours. Migration of cells was analyzed by transwell migration assays. Twenty C57BL/6 male mice were inoculated with B16F10 cells via the left ventricle of the heart and then randomly divided into two groups (n = 10 each) that received either morphine (10−1, sub-q) or PBS injection for 21 days (control group). Animals were euthanized and their lungs removed for evaluation of metastatic nodules. Results Morphine (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) increased cell migration after 12 hours (p < 0.001) and after 24 hours of treatment with morphine (10 μM) (p < 0.001). Treatment with CLI-095 suppressed migration compared to cells treated with morphine alone (p < 0.001). Metastatic nodules in the morphine-treated group (64 nodules) were significantly higher than in the control group (40 nodules) (p < 0.05). Conclusion Morphine increases the migration and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells by activating TLR4.
  • Sildenafil in endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension: an experimental study Experimental Trials

    Kemper, Daniella Aparecida Godoi; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Maia, Débora Rothstein Ramos; Mossoco, Cristina de Oliveira; Marcasso, Rogério Anderson; Cunha, Ligia Cristina Câmara; Auler Jr., José Otávio Costa; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Sepsis and septic shock still represent great challenges in critical care medicine. Sildenafil has been largely used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its effects in sepsis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that sildenafil can attenuate endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of endotoxemia. Methods Twenty pigs were randomly assigned to Control group (n = 10), which received saline solution; or to Sildenafil group (n = 10), which received sildenafil orally (100 mg). After 30 minutes, both groups were submitted to endotoxemia with intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) infusion (4 µ for 180 minutes. We evaluated hemodynamic and oxygenation functions, and also lung histology and plasma cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β, IL6, and IL10) and troponin I response. Results Significant hemodynamic alterations were observed after 30 minutes of LPS continuous infusion, mainly in pulmonary arterial pressure (from Baseline 19 ± 2 mmHg to LPS30 52 ± 4 mmHg, p< 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in PaO2/FiO2 (from Baseline 411 ± 29 to LPS180 334 ± 49, p< 0.05). Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly lower in the Sildenafil group (35 ± 4 mmHg at LPS30, p< 0.05). The Sildenafil group also presented lower values of systemic arterial pressure. Sildenafil maintained oxygenation with higher PaO2/FiO2 and lower oxygen extraction rate than Control group but had no effect on intrapulmonary shunt. All cytokines and troponin increased after LPS infusion in both groups similarly. Conclusion Sildenafil attenuated endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension preserving the correct heart function without improving lung lesions or inflammation.
  • The effects of magnesium sulfate added to epidurally administered local anesthetic on postoperative pain: a systematic review Systematic Review

    Oliveira Filho, Getúlio Rodrigues de; Mezzari Junior, Adilto; Bianchi, Giulia Nonticuri

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background This study evaluated the efficacy of epidurally administered magnesium associated with local anesthetics on postoperative pain control. Methods The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42021231910. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials comparing epidural administration of magnesium added to local anesthetics for postoperative pain in elective surgical adult patients. Primary outcomes were the time to the first Postoperative (PO) Analgesic Request (TFAR), 24-hour postoperative opioid consumption, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores at the first six and 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV), pruritus, and shivering. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Results Seventeen studies comparing epidural were included. Effect estimates are described as weighted Mean Differences (MD) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) for the main outcomes: TFAR (MD = 72.4 min; 95% CI = 10.22-134.58 min; p < 0.001; I2= 99.8%; GRADE: very low); opioid consumption (MD = -7.2 mg (95% CI = -9.30 - -5.09; p < 0.001; I2= 98%; GRADE: very low). VAS pain scores within the first six PO hours (VAS) (MD = -1.01 cm; 95% CI = -1.40-0.64 cm; p < 0.001; I2= 88%; GRADE: very low), at 24 hours (MD = -0.56 cm; 95% CI = -1.14-0.01 cm; p= 0.05; I2= 97%; GRADE: very low). Conclusions Magnesium sulfate delayed TFAR and decreased 24-hour opioid consumption and early postoperative pain intensity. However, imprecision and inconsistency pervaded meta-analyses, causing very low certainty of effect estimates.
  • Analysis of the efficacy of prophylactic tranexamic acid in preventing postpartum bleeding: systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Systematic Review

    Assis, Ivo de C.; Govêia, Catia S.; Miranda, Denismar B.; Ferreira, Rafael S.; Riccio, Luiza G.C.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the main causes of maternal mortality, mainly in the poorest regions of the world, drawing attention to the need for strategies for preventing it. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in decreasing blood loss in pregnant women in delivery, preventing PPH. Methods Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. We searched for publications in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, with the uniterms “postpartum, puerperal hemorrhage” and “tranexamic acid”, published between January of 2004 and January of 2020. The eligibility criteria were trials published in English with pregnant women assessed during and after vaginal or cesarean delivery about the effect of prophylactic use of TXA on bleeding volume. The random-effects model was applied with the DerSimonian-Laird test and the Mean Difference (MD) was calculated for continuous variables together with each 95% CI. This systematic review was previously registered in the PROSPERO platform under the registration n° CRD42020187393. Results Of the 630 results, 16 trials were selected, including one with two different doses, performing a total of 6731 patients. The intervention group received a TXA dose that varied between 10−1 and 1g (no weight calculation). The TXA use was considered a protective factor for bleeding (MD: -131.07; 95% CI: -170.00 to -92.78; p= 0.000) and hemoglobin variation (MD: -0.417; 95% CI: -0.633 to -0.202; p= 0.000). In the subgroup analysis related to the cesarean pathway, the effect of TXA was even greater. Conclusion The prophylactic use of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing the post-partum bleeding volume. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42020187393.
  • Oral preanesthetic medication in children - comparison between midazolam alone and in combination with ketamine: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Oliveira Filho, Getúlio Rodrigues de; Castilhos, Carlos Maestri; Kriegl, Jean Philippe; Bianchi, Giulia Nonticuri

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Up to 60% of pediatric surgical patients develop high levels of preoperative anxiety. This study compared the effects of oral combinations of midazolam and ketamine with oral midazolam alone for pediatric preanesthetic medication. Methods The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42020172920. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and Web of Science for randomized controlled trials comparing oral combinations of midazolam and ketamine with midazolam alone as preanesthetic medication in elective surgical pediatric patients. Meta-analyses included the following outcomes: anxiety and sedation levels, child’s behavior during separation from parents, face mask acceptance, and venipuncture. The quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Results Twenty studies were included. The following effects (RR (95% CI)) were observed for combinations of ketamine and midazolam relative midazolam alone: anxiolysis (1.2 (0.94-1.52); p= 0.15; I2 = 80%; GRADE = very low); satisfactory sedation (1.2 ( 1.10-1.31); p< 0.001; I2 = 71%; GRADE = very low); behavior during parental separation (1.2 (1.06-1.36); p= 0.003; I2 = 88%; GRADE = very low); facial mask acceptance (1.13 (1.04-1.24); p= 0.007; I2 = 49%; GRADE = very low); behavior during venipuncture (1.32 (1.11-1.57); p= 0.002; I2 = 66%; GRADE = very low). Conclusions While similar probabilities of obtaining anxiolysis were found, adequate sedation, calm behavior during child’s separation from parents, low levels of fear during face mask adaptation, and cooperative behavior during peripheral venous cannulation were more likely with midazolam-ketamine combinations.
  • Predictive performance of thyromental height for difficult laryngoscopies in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Carvalho, Clístenes Crístian de; Santos Neto, Jayme Marques; Orange, Flávia Augusta de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Thyromental height (TMH) was first reported as a great single test for prediction of difficult laryngoscopies, although further studies have shown variable estimates of its accuracy. We thus performed this meta-analysis to summarize the predictive values of TMH mainly for prediction of difficult laryngoscopies. Methods A search in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Scielo was conducted in June 2020. We included prospective cohorts fully reported with patients ≥ 16 years old, providing data on predictive values of TMH for prediction of either difficult laryngoscopies or difficult intubations. Diagnostic properties and association between TMH and Cormack and Lehanes’s classification by direct laryngoscopy were evaluated. A random-effects meta-analysis using hierarchical models was performed. Results Eight studies evaluating 2844 patients were included. All included studies had high risk of bias and low concern regarding applicability. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios were as follows: DOR, 57.94 (95% CI: 18.19-184.55); LR+, 11.32 (95% CI: 4.28-29.92); and LR-, 0.23 (95% CI: 0.15-0.35). Summary sensitivity and specificity for studies with common threshold were 82.6 (95% CI: 74-88.8%) and 93.5 (95% CI: 79-98.2%), respectively. The estimated AUC was 81.1%. Conclusion TMH arises as a good predictor of difficult laryngoscopies in adult patients from diverse populations presenting better predictive values than most previously reported bedside tests. However, the high risk of bias throughout the studies may have skewed the results of the individual research as well as the summary points of the present meta-analysis.
  • Anesthetic management of a patient with acquired angioedema submitted to broncofibroscopy: a case report Case Report

    Barata, Melanie; Marques, Ana; Tiago, Catarina; Dias-Vaz, Marta; Losa, Nuno; Oliveira, Carmen

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Acquired angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (AAE-C1INH) is a very rare condition of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. One of its major complications is potentially life-threatening, laryngeal edema. We report a 53-year-old woman with AAE-C1INH proposed for an elective broncofibroscopy. The direct stimulation caused by broncofibroscopy poses a high risk of angioedema, thus presenting an anesthetic challenge. Due to the risk of death, it is essential to adopt preventive measures. Short-term prophylaxis was performed, and the acute treatment was readily available. A well-structured multidisciplinary periprocedural plan makes it possible to safely approach the airway, in a remote area of the hospital.
  • Spinal cord ischemia as intraoperatory complication in shoulder surgery positioned in beach chair: case report Case Report

    Esteban, Mercedes Power; Tomé, Maria Lema; Fernandez, Rafael Ramos; Bunger, Beatriz García; Otero, Patricia Piñeiro; Rodríguez, Adoración Elvira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Spinal cord infarction is an uncommon phenomenon, which can be caused by different etiologies, constituting a real diagnostic challenge which can lead to devastating consequences. General anesthesia in beach chair positioning with intraoperative hypotension in order to avoid surgical bleeding are associated with hypoperfusion and potential neurological ischemia-related complications. We present a case of spinal cord ischemia in the context of shoulder surgery in a beach chair position.
  • Dual epidural catheters for labor analgesia in a spinal cord injury patient: a case report Case Report

    Khan, Ejaz; Garcia, David; Huang, Shaopeng; Mendonca, Roni; Vadhera, Rakesh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Impediment to local anesthetic solution in the epidural space results in unsatisfactory pain relief during labor epidural. Patients with a history of back trauma and spinal instrumentation have increased rates of epidural failure due to patchy spread of local anesthetic with obliterated epidural space. Dual Epidural Catheters (DEC) can be used in such clinical scenarios with complete labor analgesia and improved patient satisfaction. We present the successful management of a parturient with vertebral fracture at risk for epidural failure and neurologic injury due to bone fragments and inserted cranial and caudal to the fractured vertebra using ultrasound to avoid neurologic sequelae.
  • Awake airway endoscopy in mucopolysaccharidosis: a case report Case Report

    Fernandes, Sofia; Borges, João; Martins, Marta

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of rare genetic inherited diseases with a progressive course due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological systems that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. Clinical manifestations are variable, multisystemic, and include severe morphological changes. The anesthetic management of these patients is complex, particularly airway management, which can be planned to include a fiberoptic airway investigation prior to surgery. We present two cases of patients with MPS type VI and VII who underwent fiberoptic airway mapping under conscious sedation, with no complications. Since MPS is a rare but challenging disease concerning the airway management, we propose a safe and effective anesthetic technique that could be used for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and allow fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation at the time of surgery.
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    Onal, Ozkan; Onal, Merih
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    Hassan, Mohamed Elsayed; Mahran, Essam
Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) Rua Professor Alfredo Gomes, 36, Botafogo , cep: 22251-080 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ / Brasil , tel: +55 (21) 97977-0024 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil