Pathogenic bacteria load and safety of retail marine fish

Carga de bactérias patogênicas e segurança de peixes marinhos de varejo

S. Ogur About the author

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the pathogenic bacteria load of 14 species of marine fish obtained from two suppliers (in Bitlis city, Turkey), which provide fish for fish markets, and to reveal the safety of the marine fish in terms of microbiological quality. The counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were determined in anchovy, horse mackerel, salmon, red mullet, gilthead seabream, bonito, pilchard, common sole, sand smelt, axillary seabream, seabass, Mediterranean horse mackerel, bluefish, and garpike. It was determined that common sole, axillary seabream, seabass, bluefish and Mediterranean horse mackerel obtained from both suppliers were unacceptable in terms of the counts of TMAB. Twenty-four samples exceeded the critical limit of S. aureus and all the samples were unacceptable according to the critical limit of E. coli. While L. monocytogenes was isolated from 50.0% of the samples, Salmonella spp. was isolated from 39.3% of the samples. These results showed that the pathogenic bacteria load of the analyzed marine fish was quite high and they were unsafe in terms of microbiological quality.

Keywords:
marine fish; pathogenic bacteria; S. aureus; Salmonella spp.; L. monocytogenes

Resumo

Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a carga de bactérias patogênicas de 14 espécies de peixes marinhos obtidos de dois fornecedores (na cidade de Bitlis, Turquia), que fornecem peixes para mercados de peixes, e para revelar a segurança do peixe marinho em termos de qualidade microbiológica. As contagens de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas totais (TMAB), Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli, a presença de Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes foram determinados em anchova, carapau, salmão, salmonete, dourada, bonito, sardinha, linguado, cheirado, dourada-axilar, robalo, carapau-do-mediterrâneo, anchova e garpike. Foi determinado que o linguado, o dourada-axilar, o robalo, a anchova e o carapau-do-mediterrâneo obtidos de ambos os fornecedores eram inaceitáveis nas contagens do TMAB. Vinte e quatro amostras excederam o limite crítico de S. aureus, e todas as amostras foram inaceitáveis de acordo com o limite crítico de E. coli. Enquanto L. monocytogenes foi isolada em 50.0% das amostras, Salmonella spp. foi isolado de 39.3% das amostras. Esses resultados mostraram que a carga de bactérias patogênicas dos peixes marinhos analisados era bastante alta e eles eram inseguros em termos de qualidade microbiológica.

Palavras-chave:
peixes marinhos; bactérias patogênicas; S. aureus; Salmonella spp.; L. monocytogenes

1. Introduction

Marine fish are important for the human diet due to its high nutrition value. However, it has also a great risk for pathogens in spite of this advantage. The number of pathogens is affected by microbial flora in the marine. Salt amount and temperature of the water, its pollution rate, catching methods and chilling situations are other factors that affect the microbial flora of products. Marine fish may contain many pathogens that cause foodborne diseases if they are caught from contaminated waters or people do not follow hygiene rules during its transportation and storage. Pathogenic bacteria in marine fish constitute majority of these pathogenic agents (Feldhusen, 2000FELDHUSEN, F., 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial foodborne diseases. Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1651-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6. PMid:11113384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)...
).

Bacterial pathogens in marine fish are classified as three main groups. These are i) indigenous bacteria in natural flora of water resources: virulent Aeromonas hydrophila strains, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Vibrio vulnificus; ii) nonindigenous bacteria occurring as a result of fecal contamination: few pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes, Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp.; and iii) contaminated bacteria: Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), L. monocytogenes, and toxigenic Bacillus cereus strains (Feldhusen, 2000FELDHUSEN, F., 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial foodborne diseases. Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1651-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6. PMid:11113384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)...
).

Microflora of marine fish varies according to the genus, the water it lives in, season and development period. While the microorganisms in the skin, shell, gills, intestinal contents, and surrounding area cause first-degree contamination, secondary contamination occurs in processing, transportation, and marketing stages. Fish contain high moisture and protein and the pH values close to neutral; thus, microorganisms can develop in a very favorable media (Inal, 1992INAL, T., 1992. Food hygiene, health control of animal foods. Istanbul: Final Offset.).

If the contaminated microorganism is a pathogen (disease-causing) and its count increases, it first causes economic losses due to the degradation of the product and then causes invasive infection at the consumer side. Moreover, if the pathogenic microorganism produces also toxin, more serious foodborne poisonings (intoxication and toxicoinfection) occur (Sahin and Basoglu, 2011SAHIN, I. and BASOGLU, F., 2011. Food microbiology. 2nd ed. Bursa: Dora Publications.).

Staphylococcus aureus causes intoxications by forming toxins (Kutlu et al., 2011KUTLU, S., YESILSU, A.F. and FIRIDIN, S., 2011. Aquatic products as a source of contamination. Yunus Research Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 20-25.) and the enterotoxin produced by S. aureus bacteria leads to Staphylococcal poisoning. Since the cooking process does not destroy enterotoxin, food poisoning symptoms occur in the person consuming the food (Durgac, 2006DURGAC, E., 2006. Occurrence of foodborne related diseases in Turkey between 1960-2002: Turkish Statistical Institute records. Antakya: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University. Master’s Dissertion in Food Engineering.). Since the proteins and their amino acids in fish are disintegrated into peptides with low molecular weight, the growth of S. aureus is provided. S. aureus is not found in freshly caught seafood; contamination only takes place after the seafood has been caught. Workers carry enterotoxigenic S. aureus via skin infections, alongside their throats and noses, hence allowing it to easily reach its way into seafood. The contamination could be the cause of a combination of cross-contamination, unhygienic or incorrect processing and incorrect storage conditions (Simon and Sanjeev, 2007SIMON, S.S. and SANJEEV, S., 2007. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in fishery products and fish processing factory workers. Food Control, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1565-1568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.007.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.200...
).

Escherichia coli, which is a typical host microorganism found in the human intestinal tract, may also be an agent causing intestinal infections (Ivnitski et al., 1999IVNITSKI, D., ABDEL-HAMID, I., ATANASOV, P. and WILKINS, E., 1999. Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 599-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)00039-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)...
). Therefore, it is often used as the indicator of the fecal contamination. Escherichia coli is the part of the natural microflora in unpolluted warm tropical waters (Feldhusen, 2000FELDHUSEN, F., 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial foodborne diseases. Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1651-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6. PMid:11113384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)...
).

Salmonella spp., which causes foodborne gastrointestinal diseases across the world, is one of the most important microorganisms (USDA, 2015UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE – USDA, 2015 [viewed 20 October 2021]. Salmonella questions and answers [online]. Available from: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/foodborne-illness-and-disease/salmonella-questions-and-answers/
https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsi...
). Fish caught from offshore seas are not contaminated with Salmonella spp. under normal circumstances. Salmonella spp. can be found especially in the fresh fish caught from waters in polluted coastal areas. The contamination of Salmonella spp. in the marine depends on various factors. One such factor is pollution from nearby poultry farms (Feldhusen, 2000FELDHUSEN, F., 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial foodborne diseases. Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1651-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6. PMid:11113384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)...
). Salmonellosis based on Salmonella spp. is still an important infection that affects human life in many countries. Fifty-nine percent of Salmonellosis outbreaks could be traced to a specific food vehicle between 1973 and 1987 (Ivnitski et al., 1999IVNITSKI, D., ABDEL-HAMID, I., ATANASOV, P. and WILKINS, E., 1999. Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 599-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)00039-1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)...
).

In 1929, L. monocytogenes was deemed as a pathogen in humans. In 1981 it was also accepted as a foodborne pathogen (Farber and Losos, 1988FARBER, J.M. and LOSOS, J.S., 1988. Listeria monocytogenes: a food borne pathogen. Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 413-418. PMid:3124948.). Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne infections including diarrhea, bacteremia, meningitis, brain abscess, endocarditis, osteomyelitis or pneumonia. Listeriosis based on Listeria spp. has a high mortality rate although its prevalence is between 2-10 per million (Kilinc, 2001KILINC, B., 2001. Listeria monocytogenes in aquatic products. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3-4, pp. 565-574.; Midi et al., 2005MIDI, I., EKINCI, G., YAROGLU, S. and AKTAN, S., 2005. Brain abscesses due to Listeria monocytogenes: case Report. Firat Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 36-39.; Weinstein and Ortiz, 2004WEINSTEIN, K.B. and ORTIZ, J. 2004 [viewed 23 March 2022]. Listeria monocytogenes infection listeriosis [online]. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220684-overview
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/22...
). The bacterial load of the environment affects the bacterial flora of the fish and Listeria species are contaminated by contaminated waters (Ben Embarek, 1994BEN EMBAREK, P.K., 1994. Presence, detection and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90219-4. PMid:7811570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)9...
).

There is no information from Bitlis, Turkey about the pathogenic bacteria load or how safe commercially-sold marine fish. Bitlis, which is an inland city, is located 20-24 hours away from all of the coastal cities (Istanbul, Samsun, Izmir and Iskenderun) which are the main suppliers of marine fish. If the cold chain damaged during transportation, it is inevitable that the existing microbial load in the marine fish will gradually increase and the hygienic quality of it will gradually deteriorate until it will reach to Bitlis. So, the aim of this study was to determine the load of some pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes) in 14 species of marine fish obtained from two suppliers, which provide fish for fish markets, and to reveal the safety of the marine fish in terms of microbiological quality.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

Fourteen species of marine fish obtained from the two suppliers between January and February 2017 were used as the material. The suppliers in Bitlis transport the fish in the boxes containing crushed ice from Istanbul, Samsun, Izmir or Iskenderun to Bitlis for 20-24 hours.

Three packets of small fish (one packet of small fish contains several whole fishes and its total weight was 250-300 g) and 3 pieces of big fish (1 piece weighing 500-600 g) were taken based on the existence of the same fish species in both suppliers. A total of 84 samples (14 species X 2 suppliers X 3 packets or 3 pieces) were analyzed from the following species; anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), salmon (Salmo salar), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), bonito (Sarda sarda), pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), common sole (Pegusa lascaris), sand smelt (Atherina hepsetus), axillary seabream (Pagellus acarne), seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus), bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), and garpike (Belone belone). The fish were placed into sterile sample bags and then into a foam box filled with ice. Next they then were sent to the laboratory and analyzed there on the same day.

2.2. Methods

To find out whether or not the samples contained any pathogenic bacteria, counts were done for each of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. Each analysis was carried out twice. Colonies were counted using a colony counter.

2.2.1. Sample preparation

Twenty-five gram samples was taken from each fish flesh and placed in sterile Stomacher bags (Seward Medical, London, UK). Two hundred twenty-five milliliters of 0.1% peptone water (Merck, 107228) was added onto each sample. The mixture was then homogenized using a 400 mL lab blender (Stomacher, IUL Instrument, Spain) at an appropriate speed for 120 seconds. This was the first dilution. Serial dilutions (1:10, diluents in 0.1% peptone water (Merck, 1.07228)) to 10-8 were then prepared from the first dilution (Andrews and Hammack, 2003ANDREWS, W.H. and HAMMACK, T.S., 2003 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 1: food sampling/preparation of sample homogenate [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-1-food-samplingpreparation-sample-homogenate
https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-meth...
) and later used to analyze TMAB, S. aureus and E. coli.

2.2.2. Microbiological media and enumeration

2.2.2.1. Enumeration of TMAB

Zero point one milliliter of each serial dilution was spread onto Plate Count Agar (PCA, Biomark B298), and incubated for 24-48 h at 37 °C. All colonies that developed afterwards were TMAB (Maturin and Peeler, 2001MATURIN, L. and PEELER, J.T., 2001 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 3: aerobic plate count [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-3-aerobic-plate-count
https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-meth...
).

2.2.2.2. Enumeration of E. coli

Zero point one milliliter of each serial dilution was spread onto Violet Red Bile Agar Methylumbelliferyl-b-D-glucuronide (VRBA MUG, Biolife, 4021862), and then incubated for 18 h at 37 °C. After incubation, dark red colonies that were 1-2 mm in diameter were checked under a UV lamp and the fluorescent colonies from these colonies were evaluated as E. coli (Feng et al., 2020FENG, P., WEAGANT, S.D., GRANT, M.A. and BURKHARDT, W., 2020 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 4: enumeration of Escherichia coli and the coliform bacteria [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-4-enumeration-escherichia-coli-and-coliform-bacteria
https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-meth...
).

2.2.2.3. Enumeration of S. aureus

Zero point one milliliter of each serial dilution was spread onto Baird Parker Agar Base (Merck, 1.05406) containing Egg Yolk Tellurite Emulsion (Merck, 103785) and incubated for 48 h at 35 °C. Black glossy colonies with transparent zones that were 1-1.5 mm in diameter and developed after incubation were regarded as S. aureus (Tallent et al., 2016TALLENT, S., HAIT, J., BENNETT, R.W. and LANCETTE, G.A., 2016 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 12: Staphylococcus aureus [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-12-staphylococcus-aureus
https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-meth...
).

2.2.2.4. Isolation of Salmonella spp.

ISO 6579 was used to isolate Salmonella spp. First, a pre-enrichment culture was prepared. A twenty-five gram sample was homogenized in 225 mL of buffered peptone water (Merck 1.07228) and incubated for 16-20 hours at 35-37 °C for non-selective pre-enrichment purpose. After incubation, 0.1 mL and 10 mL of the pre-enrichment culture were transferred to 10 mL of Rappaport Vassiliadis Soy (RVS) Broth (Merck 1.07700) and 100 mL of Selenite Cystine (SC) Broth (Merck 1.07709), respectively, for selective enrichment. The RVS Broth was incubated for 24 hours at 42/43 °C, while the SC Broth was incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. Later, the selective enrichment culture was streaked onto Brilliant Green Phenol Red Lactose Sucrose Agar (Merck 1.10747) as well as onto Xylose Lysine Tergitol-4 (XLT-4) Agar (Merck 1.13919) to which XLT-4 Supplement (Liofilchem, 80410) was added. Both were then left to incubate aerobically for 24 hours at 37 °C. To confirm pink-red colored suspicious colonies surrounded by a bright red zone on Brilliant Green Phenol Red Agar and black suspicious colonies on XLT-4 Agar were indeed Salmonella ssp., the culture was then streaked onto Triple Sugar Iron Agar (Merck 1.03915) and Lysine Iron Agar (Merck 1.11640) and incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. It was then inoculated into Urea Broth (Merck 1.08483), and incubated again for 48 hours at 37 °C. Last, a Salmonella Latex Test Kit (Oxoid FT0203A) was used for serological confirmation (Andrews et al., 2016ANDREWS, W.H., JACOBSON, A. and HAMMACK, T.S., 2016 [viewed 10 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 5: Salmonella [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods/ucm070149.htm
https://www.fda.gov/food/foodsciencerese...
).

2.2.2.5. Isolation of L. monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes was isolated based on method of FDA’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual (Hitchins et al., 2016HITCHINS, D.A., JINNEMAN, K. and CHEN, Y., 2016 [viewed 13 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual: detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, chap. 10. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResea...
). First, a pre-enrichment culture was prepared. A twenty-five gram sample was homogenized in 225 mL of Buffered Listeria Enrichment Broth (LAB, LAB138) and incubated at 30 °C for 4 hours. After incubation, Listeria Enrichment Selective Supplement (LAB, LABX139) was added and incubated at the same temperature for additional 44 hours. Afterwards, the selective enrichment culture was streaked onto Palcam Listeria-Selective Agar (Merck, 1.11755) containing Listeria Palcam Antimicrobic Supplement (Biolife, 4240042) as well as Oxford Agar (Merck, 1.07004) containing Oxford Selective Supplement (Merck, 1.07006). In order to confirm that suspicious colonies growing on Palcam Listeria-Selective Agar, being olive green-gray colored, having sometimes black centers but always with black zones and suspicious blackish green brown colonies with black zones and sunken centers growing on Oxford Agar, were indeed L. monocytogenes, colonies were inoculated on Tryptone Soya Agar (Oxoid, CM013B) containing Yeast Extract (Merck, 1.03753) and incubated at 30-37 °C for 24-48 hours (Hitchins et al., 2016HITCHINS, D.A., JINNEMAN, K. and CHEN, Y., 2016 [viewed 13 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual: detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, chap. 10. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResea...
).

Suspected isolates which matched to all identification parameters (Gram staining, catalase activity, motility test, fermentation of maltose, rhamnose, mannitol, and xylose, hydrolyzation of esculin, reduction of nitrate) according to reference method were evaluated as L. monocytogenes CAMP, S. aureus and Rhodococcus equi tests were also applied to all suspected samples (Hitchins et al., 2016HITCHINS, D.A., JINNEMAN, K. and CHEN, Y., 2016 [viewed 13 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual: detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, chap. 10. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm
http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResea...
).

2.2.3. Counting TMAB, E. coli and S. aureus, and indicating the presence/the absence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes

The TMAB, E. coli, and S. aureus counts were indicated as a logarithm of colony-forming units per gram (log cfu/g) of the sample according to the number of colonies, dilution factor and cultivation amount (Bell et al., 2005BELL, C., NEAVES, P. and WILLAMS, A.P., 2005. Food microbiology and laboratory practice. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.). The results for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were expressed as present (+) / absent (‒) in 25 g (European Union, 2005EUROPEAN UNION, 2005 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs [online]. Official Journal of the European Union, Luxembourg, 1 jan. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/eur/2005/2073/body
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/eur/2005/...
).

2.2.4. Statistical analysis

The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 25.0). The results were expressed in mean ± standard deviation. The one-way analysis of variance was used to establish whether or not there was any difference between means according to microbial load. As the data were parametric and homogeneity of variance was provided, the Tukey test was conducted to find the sources of the differences between the groups. A P value of < 0.05 was accepted as a significant difference for each fish (Sumbuloglu and Sumbuloglu, 2002SUMBULOGLU, K. and SUMBULOGLU, V., 2002. Biostatistics. Ankara: Hatipoglu Printing and Publishing.).

3. Results

Table 1 shows the variations in the microbiological load of marine fish obtained from two suppliers. The count of TMAB is the most important analysis method for the overall microbiological quality of the seafood. The highest number of TMAB (6.78 ± 0.01 log cfu/g) was found in P. saltatrix obtained from the first supplier (P<0.05) (Table 1).

Table 1
Microbial Load of Retail Marine Fish

The difference between the majority of the tested fish species in terms of the count of TMAB was significant (P<0.05). But, considering counts of TMAB in the some fish species, S. salar from the first supplier, S. pilchardus from the second supplier, A. hepsetus from the second supplier and T. mediterraneus from the second supplier; T. trachurus from the first supplier and S. salar from the second supplier; M. barbatus from the second supplier and S. sarda from the second supplier; S. pilchardus from the first supplier and A. hepsetus from the first supplier; P. lascaris from the first and second supplier were similar (P>0.05) (Table 1).

The highest number of S. aureus (4.42 ± 0.01 log cfu/g) was determined in P. saltatrix obtained from the first supplier (P<0.05) (Table 1). The difference between the majority of the tested fish species in terms of the count of S. aureus was significant (P<0.05). But, considering counts of S. aureus in the some fish species, T. trachurus from the first supplier and A. hepsetus from the first supplier; S. salar from the first and second supplier; M. barbatus from the second supplier and S. sarda from the second supplier; S. pilchardus from the first supplier and D. labrax from the first supplier; P lascaris from the first supplier and B. belone from the first supplier; T. trachurus from the second supplier, S. aurata from the second supplier and P. saltatrix from the second supplier; S. aurata from the second supplier and S. pilchardus from the second supplier; S. aurata from the first supplier and S. sarda from the first supplier; T. trachurus from the second supplier, P. lascaris from the second supplier, D. labrax from the first supplier and P. saltatrix from the second supplier; S. sarda from the first supplier and D. labrax from the second supplier were similar (P>0.05) (Table 1).

The highest number of E. coli (5.52 ± 0.01 log cfu/g) was determined in P. lascaris obtained from the first supplier (P<0.05) (Table 1).

The difference between the majority of the tested fish species in terms of the count of E. coli was significant (P<0.05). But, considering counts of E. coli in the some fish species, S. aurata from the second supplier, S. pilchardus from the first supplier, A. hepsetus from the first supplier and P. acarne from the second supplier; M. barbatus from the second supplier, S. sarda from the first supplier and T. mediterraneus from the second supplier; S. aurata from the first supplier, B. belone from the first supplier and B. belone from the second supplier; S. sarda from the second supplier and P. acarne from the first supplier; P. lascaris from the first supplier and P. saltatrix from the first supplier; S. sarda from the first supplier and P. lascaris from the second supplier; S. sarda from the second supplier, S. pilchardus from the first supplier, A. hepsetus from the first supplier and P. saltatrix from the second supplier; S. aurata from the second supplier and T. mediterraneus from the first supplier; P. acarne from the second supplier and T. mediterraneus from the first supplier were similar (P>0.05) (Table 1).

While Salmonella spp. was isolated from 39.3% of the samples, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 50.0% of the samples (Table 1).

4. Discussion

The Turkish Food Codex Regulation on Microbiological Criteria (Turkey, 2011TURKEY, 2011 [viewed 5 February 2022]. Turkish food codex regulation on microbiological criteria [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 29 dec. Available from: https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-6.htm
https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2...
) states no limit values for the microbiological values of fresh chilled fish, but only the limit value for histamine level. For the count of total TMAB, Turkish Seafood Regulation (Turkey, 1995TURKEY, 1995 [viewed 27 September 2021]. Turkish Seafood Regulation [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 10 mar. Available from: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?Mev...
) states the critical limit as 6-7 log cfu/g for frozen fish. No sample exceeded the limit of 7 log cfu/g in the present study.

For newly caught fish and fish products, the total bacterial load of 2.00-6.00 log cfu/g is considered as normal and most of the consumer safety standards state that, the total bacterial load of 6.00 log cfu/g is acceptable (Olafsdottir et al., 1997OLAFSDÓTTIR, G., MARTINSDÓTTIR, E., OEHLENSCHLÄGER, J., DALGAARD, P., JENSEN, B., UNDELAND, I., MACKIE, I.M., HENEHAN, G., NIELSEN, J. and NILSEN, H., 1997. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 258-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01049-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)...
). Pegusa lascaris obtained from both suppliers as well as D. labrax, P. saltatrix, T. mediterraneus obtained from the first supplier exceeded the limit of 6.00 log cfu/g (Table 1).

However, the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) (ICMSF, 1986INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOODS – ICMSF, 1986. Microorganisms in foods, 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.) accepts the limit of TMAB in fresh fish as 5.00x105 cfu/g (5.69 log cfu/g). The count of TMAB was between 5.69-6.00 log cfu/g in S. sarda obtained from the first supplier, P. acarne obtained from the both suppliers and D. labrax obtained from the second suppliers (Table 1).

Erdem et al. (2010)ERDEM, M.E., KORAL, S., KAYIS, S., CEBI, H. and KESKIN, I., 2010. Investigation of contamination sources of total mesophyll bacteria and some pathogenic microorganisms in anchovy fish (Engraulis encrasicholus) in Trabzon province. 1. In: National Anchovy Workshop: Sustainable Fishing, 17-18 June 2010, Trabzon, Turkey. Trabzon: Central Fisheries Research Institute, pp. 156-163. found that the count of TMAB in anchovy (E. encrasicholus) samples sold at fish stalls in Trabzon, Turkey was 2.3x104 cfu/g (4.36 log cfu/g) in the first sampling period (20/11/2008), 1.6x103 cfu/g (3.20 log cfu/g) in the second sampling period (20/12/2008) and 2.6x103 cfu/g (3.41 log cfu/g) in the third sampling period (27/12/2008). In the current study, the count of TMAB in E. encrasicholus samples was found to be lower than these values (Table 1).

The count of TMAB was found to be 3.14 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in fresh bonito (S. sarda) samples and 5.37 ± 0.02 log cfu/g in fresh anchovy (E. encrasicholus) samples in January 2015 (Corapci, 2018CORAPCI, B., 2018. The sensory, nutritional, chemical and microbiological properties of without pre-treatment frozen stored (-22 ± 1 °C) anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758) and bonito (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793) meats. The Journal of Food, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1075-1090.). These values are quite different from the values of the same fish species detected in the current study (Table 1).

The count of TMAB in E. encrasicholus obtained from the second supplier (Table 1) is compatible with a previous study reporting that the average count of TMAB was 3.10 ± 1.10-3.42 ± 1.96 log cfu/g in anchovy (E. encrasicholus) samples sold at fish markets in three regions of Istanbul, Turkey (Mol and Tosun, 2011MOL, S. and TOSUN, S.Y., 2011. The quality of fish from retail markets in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002...
). The average count of TMAB was 3.36 ± 1.22-4.04 ± 1.21 log cfu/g in horse mackerel (T. trachurus) in the same study (Mol and Tosun, 2011MOL, S. and TOSUN, S.Y., 2011. The quality of fish from retail markets in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002...
); whereas, it was 4.62 ± 0.01-4.81 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in the current study (Table 1).

Bektas (2013)BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta. Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing. determined that the count of TMAB in gilthead seabream (S. aurata) samples taken from 4 different retail sale points in Isparta, Turkey was 3.000 ± 0.685-5.810 ± 0.469 log cfu/g for 4 weeks. Mol and Tosun (2011)MOL, S. and TOSUN, S.Y., 2011. The quality of fish from retail markets in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002...
found that the count of TMAB was 3.97 ± 1.16-5.74 ± 0.42 log cfu/g in seabass (D. labrax) and 3.72 ± 0.21-5.68 ± 0.31 log cfu/g in gilthead seabream (S. aurata). In the current study, the count of TMAB was 4.37 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 5.25 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in S. aurata and 6.07 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 5.93 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in D. labrax (Table 1).

Papadopoulos et al. (2003)PAPADOPOULOS, V., CHOULIARA, I., BADEKA, A., SAVVAIDIS, I.N. and KONTOMINAS, M.G., 2003. Effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 411-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)00148-X.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)...
found that the initial mesophylic bacteria load of fresh seabass (D. labrax) was 4 log cfu/g and evaluated the fish quality as “good”. This level was well below the TMAB value of the seabass (D. labrax) samples in the current study (Table 1).

Kaba et al. (2013)KABA, N., CORAPCI, B., YUCEL, S., OZER, O. and ERYASAR, K., 2013. Sensory, chemical and microbiological properties of smoked bonito ball (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793). Academic Food Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 45-50. determined the count of TMAB as 4.45 ± 0.00 cfu/g (0.65 ± 0.00 log cfu/g) in fresh bonito (S. sarda) samples analyzed before making the ball from smoked bonitos. The count of TMAB was 4.48 ± 0.29 log cfu/g in fresh bonito (S. sarda) sold at the fish market in Giresun, Turkey, between September and December 2015 and stored at 4 °C (Kulcu, 2017KULCU, D.B., 2017. Determination of microbiological quality characteristics of bonito fish (Sarda sarda) stored at different temperatures. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 120-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetS...
). The count of TMAB was found at high levels (5.16 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 5.80 ± 0.01 log cfu/g) in S. sarda in the current study (P<0.05) (Table 1).

The count of TMAB was reported to be 11.4x103 cfu/g (4.06 log cfu/g) in fresh pilchard (S. pilchardus) caught from Dardanelles, Turkey in 2010 (Ormanci and Arik Colakoglu, 2014ORMANCI, H.B. and ARIK COLAKOGLU, F., 2014. Quality characteristics of the traditional salted sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from Gallipoli. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, vol. 11, pp. 80-88.). It was 5.37 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 5.66 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in S. pilchardus tested in the current study (P<0.05) (Table 1).

Total viable count of fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel (T. mediterraneus) caught in the gulf of Chalkidiki (North Greece) found to be 4.09 log cfu/g and 3.97 log cfu/g, in December and in January, respectively (Tzikas et al., 2007TZIKAS, Z., AMVROSIADIS, I., SOULTOS, N. and GEORGAKIS, S., 2007. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and microbiological condition of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) muscle from the North Aegean Sea (Greece). Food Control, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 251-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.10.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.200...
). The count of TMAB contained in the same fish species was higher than this value in the current study (5.35 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 6.53 ± 0.01 log cfu/g) (Table 1).

The count of S. aureus was reported to be 2.00x102 cfu/g (2.30 log cfu/g) in fresh pilchard (S. pilchardus) (Ormanci and Arik Colakoglu, 2014ORMANCI, H.B. and ARIK COLAKOGLU, F., 2014. Quality characteristics of the traditional salted sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from Gallipoli. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, vol. 11, pp. 80-88.). In the current study, the count of S. aureus was 3.52 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 3.66 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in the same fish species (P<0.05) (Table 1).

Bektas (2013)BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta. Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing. determined that the count of Staphylococcus spp. was 2.477 ± 0.870-5.892 ± 1.243 log cfu/g in gilthead seabream (S. aurata) samples. The count of S. aureus was 3.24 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 3.63 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in S. aurata in the current study (P<0.05) (Table 1).

Many people carry S. aureus in their face, nose, and mouth. It is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium which causes many infections in humans, especially with a weak immune system. S. aureus contaminates the hands, face and nose and then the seafood during the processes (catching, placement in the boxes, transporting, selling, etc.). Then, it grows and produces enterotoxin until the seafood becomes ready to eat (Kocatepe et al., 2013KOCATEPE, D., ERKOYUNCU, I. and TURAN, H., 2013. Pathogen microorganisms and poisonings based on fisheries. Yunus Research Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 47-56.).

The presence of S. aureus is not seen in the native flora of marine fish caught from the unpolluted marine (Hernandez-Herrero et al., 1999HERNÁNDEZ-HERRERO, M.M., ROIG-SAGUÉS, A.X., RODRÍGUEZ-JEREZ, J.J. and MORA-VENTURA, M.T., 1999. Halotolerant and halophilic histamine forming bacteria isolated during the ripening of salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Journal of Food Protection, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 509-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.5.509. PMid:10340672.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.5...
). Some infections may occur when S. aureus, which is transmitted from workers to food and transmitted to consumers from food products prepared or stored under bad conditions, exceeds 5 log cfu/g (Varnam and Evans, 1991VARNAM, A.H. and EVANS, M.G., 1991. Foodborne pathogens. London: Wolfe Publishing Ltd.).

The count of S. aureus in frozen fish should not be more than the level of 3 log cfu/g (Turkey, 1995TURKEY, 1995 [viewed 27 September 2021]. Turkish Seafood Regulation [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 10 mar. Available from: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?Mev...
). The limit of S. aureus in fresh fish is also accepted as 1000 cfu/g (3 log cfu/g) by ICMSF (1986)INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOODS – ICMSF, 1986. Microorganisms in foods, 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.. Twenty-four samples exceeded this critical limit, except for E. encrasicolus obtained from the both suppliers as well as P. lascaris, B. belone obtained from the first supplier (Table 1).

The vegetative cells of S. aureus can be inactivated with heat treatment done for 2-50 min at 60 °C (Ash, 1997ASH, M., 1997. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal enterotoxins. In: A.D. HOCKING, ed. Foodborne microorganisms of public health significance. 5th ed. Australia: Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology Ltd. (NSW Branch) Food Microbiology Group.). However, the enterotoxin produced by S. aureus is heat resistant and therefore does not disintegrate when cooked (Azanza et al., 2001AZANZA, M.P.V., ORTEGA, M.P. and VALDEZCO, R.G., 2001. Microbial quality of rellenado milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forskal). Food Control, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 365-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(01)00030-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(01)...
). A heat treatment at higher temperatures is required to inactive staphylococcal enterotoxin. The norms of heat treatment vary from several hours at 80-100 °C to 5-10 min at 121 °C depending on the suspending medium and toxin type (Mossel et al., 1995MOSSEL, D.A.A., CORRY, J.E.L., STRUIJK, C.B. and BAIRD, R.M., 1995. Essentials of the microbiology of foods: a text for advanced studies. West Sussex: Wiley.).

Staphylococcal poisoning may occur with S. aureus bacteria producing enterotoxin. It was stated that the number of pathogens should reach 105 cells/g for S. aureus to form enterotoxins (Aytaç and Taban, 2011AYTAÇ, S.A. and TABAN, B.M., 2011. Foodborne intoxication. In: O. ERKMEN, ed. Food microbiology. Ankara: Efil Publisher.). Therefore, one can deduce that none of the fish samples in the study was risky in terms of enterotoxins – meaning that S. aureus could form (Table 1).

Escherichia coli bacteria were not found in gilthead seabream (S. aurata) samples sold at four points of sale (Bektas, 2013BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta. Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing.). The count of E. coli was found to be 3.47 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 4.42 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in S. aurata and 4.18 ± 0.01 log cfu/g and 4.51 ± 0.01 log cfu/g in D. labrax in the current study (P<0.05) (Table 1).

Escherichia coli is accepted as a hygiene indicator which shows whether or not fecal contamination is found in the product. And furthermore, it is an agent of the dangerous foodborne diseases (Sahin and Basoglu, 2011SAHIN, I. and BASOGLU, F., 2011. Food microbiology. 2nd ed. Bursa: Dora Publications.). The count of E. coli in frozen fish should not be higher than 0.95-1.08 log cfu/g (Turkey, 1995TURKEY, 1995 [viewed 27 September 2021]. Turkish Seafood Regulation [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 10 mar. Available from: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?Mev...
). But, the samples were approximately 2-3 times higher, except for E. encrasicolus obtained from the first supplier (Table 1).

The standard recommended by ICMSF (ICMSF, 1986INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOODS – ICMSF, 1986. Microorganisms in foods, 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.) is <3.0 MPN/g for E. coli in fish. According to this determination, all samples were unacceptable in the current study (Table 1).

Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. both should be not found in 25 g of fish (Turkey, 1995TURKEY, 1995 [viewed 27 September 2021]. Turkish Seafood Regulation [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 10 mar. Available from: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?Mev...
; ICMSF, 1986INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOODS – ICMSF, 1986. Microorganisms in foods, 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.). Bektas (2013)BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta. Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing. determined the average count of Salmonella spp. in gilthead seabream (S. aurata) samples sold at the two points of sale between 3.477 ± 0.733 log cfu/g and 5.810 ± 0.595 log cfu/g, but Salmonella spp. was not found in gilthead seabream (S. aurata) samples sold at the other two points of sale. In the current study, the development of Salmonella spp. was not also observed in S. aurata, P. acarne, D. labrax, P. saltatrix, T. mediterraneus and B. belone obtained from both suppliers (Table 1).

Although Salmonella isn’t psychrotrophic or native in the aquatic environment, it has been isolated from fish, sometimes (Youssef et al., 1992YOUSSEF, H., EL-TIMAWY, A.K. and AHMED, S., 1992. Role of aerobic intestinal pathogens of freshwater fish in transmission of human diseases. Journal of Food Protection, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 739-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-55.9.739. PMid:31084129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-55.9...
). If fish or other seafood is caught from fecally contaminated water, Salmonella spp. is found naturally in these foods (Banwart, 1981BANWART, G.J., 1981. Basic food microbiology. Westport: The AVI Publishing Company.). The cause behind the presence of Salmonella spp. in some fish may be human-based contamination due to unhygienic applications (use of ice obtained from contaminated water for chilling fish, dirty boxes where fish are kept, inadequate hand hygiene of personnel, etc.). Varnam and Evans (1991)VARNAM, A.H. and EVANS, M.G., 1991. Foodborne pathogens. London: Wolfe Publishing Ltd. reported that a minimum internal temperature of 74 °C is required for disintegrating Salmonella spp. in foods with high aw like analyzed fish samples.

Listeria monocytogenes was determined in S. salar, M. barbatus, S. aurata and T. mediterraneus obtained from both suppliers (Table 1).

The incidence of L. monocytogenes in some aquatic products has been reported in different researches (Rodassuarez et al., 2006RODAS-SUÁREZ, O.R., FLORESPEDROCHE, J.F., BETANCOURTRULE, J.M., QUINONESRAMIREZ, E.I. and VAZQUEZSALINAS, C., 2006. Occurrence and antibiotic sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from oysters, fish, and estuarine water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 7410-7412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00956-06. PMid:16980425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00956-06...
; Rodrigues et al., 2015RODRIGUES, J., KALEKAR, S., DOIJAD, S., D’COSTA, D., POHARKAR, K. and BARBUDDHE, S.B., 2015. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria spp. from seafood. Indian Journal of Fisheries, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 139-143.). Ben Embarek (1994)BEN EMBAREK, P.K., 1994. Presence, detection and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90219-4. PMid:7811570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)9...
stated that the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in fresh fish and seafood varied from 4-12% in temperate areas and was lower (0-2%) in tropical areas. Fifty percent prevalence for L. monocytogenes (Table 1) determined in the current study was not similar to Ben Embarek (1994)BEN EMBAREK, P.K., 1994. Presence, detection and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90219-4. PMid:7811570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)9...
’s study.

The presence of Listeria spp. was not observed in anchovy (E. encrasicholus) (Erdem et al., 2010ERDEM, M.E., KORAL, S., KAYIS, S., CEBI, H. and KESKIN, I., 2010. Investigation of contamination sources of total mesophyll bacteria and some pathogenic microorganisms in anchovy fish (Engraulis encrasicholus) in Trabzon province. 1. In: National Anchovy Workshop: Sustainable Fishing, 17-18 June 2010, Trabzon, Turkey. Trabzon: Central Fisheries Research Institute, pp. 156-163.). Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in E. encrasicholus obtained from the second supplier, but it was isolated in E. encrasicholus sample obtained from the first supplier in the current study. The development of L. monocytogenes was not also observed in P. lascaris, P. acarne, D. labrax and P. saltatrix obtained from both suppliers (Table 1).

The growth of all analyzed species of microorganisms was seen in T. trachurus, S. salar, M. barbatus, and S. sarda obtained from the second supplier and S. pilchardus obtained from the first supplier (Table 1). The quantity of T. trachurus, S. pilchardus and S. sarda caught from the marines in Turkey was 8065.6 tons, 23425.7 tons and 7577.6 tons, respectively according to the fisheries statistics of Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI) in 2017. According to TSI, as of 2017, S. pilchardus, T. trachurus and S. sarda were among three most commonly caught and commercially sold fish- ranking at, third, fifth, and sixth places (TSI, 2018TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE – TSI, 2018 [viewed 10 January 2022]. Amount of catching fishery products [online]. Available from: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1005
http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_i...
).

In mentioned studies, the fresh marine fish samples were obtained usually from the fish markets in the coastal cities or were analyzed immediately after they were caught (Papadopoulos et al., 2003PAPADOPOULOS, V., CHOULIARA, I., BADEKA, A., SAVVAIDIS, I.N. and KONTOMINAS, M.G., 2003. Effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 411-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)00148-X.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)...
; Tzikas et al., 2007TZIKAS, Z., AMVROSIADIS, I., SOULTOS, N. and GEORGAKIS, S., 2007. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and microbiological condition of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) muscle from the North Aegean Sea (Greece). Food Control, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 251-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.10.003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.200...
; Erdem et al., 2010ERDEM, M.E., KORAL, S., KAYIS, S., CEBI, H. and KESKIN, I., 2010. Investigation of contamination sources of total mesophyll bacteria and some pathogenic microorganisms in anchovy fish (Engraulis encrasicholus) in Trabzon province. 1. In: National Anchovy Workshop: Sustainable Fishing, 17-18 June 2010, Trabzon, Turkey. Trabzon: Central Fisheries Research Institute, pp. 156-163.; Mol and Tosun, 2011MOL, S. and TOSUN, S.Y., 2011. The quality of fish from retail markets in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002...
; Bektas, 2013BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta. Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing.; Kaba et al., 2013KABA, N., CORAPCI, B., YUCEL, S., OZER, O. and ERYASAR, K., 2013. Sensory, chemical and microbiological properties of smoked bonito ball (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793). Academic Food Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 45-50.; Ormanci and Arik Colakoglu, 2014ORMANCI, H.B. and ARIK COLAKOGLU, F., 2014. Quality characteristics of the traditional salted sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from Gallipoli. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, vol. 11, pp. 80-88.; Kulcu, 2017KULCU, D.B., 2017. Determination of microbiological quality characteristics of bonito fish (Sarda sarda) stored at different temperatures. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 120-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetS...
; Corapci, 2018CORAPCI, B., 2018. The sensory, nutritional, chemical and microbiological properties of without pre-treatment frozen stored (-22 ± 1 °C) anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758) and bonito (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793) meats. The Journal of Food, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1075-1090.). However, it takes at least 20-24 hours for marine fish to reach Bitlis. During this period, every application that causes contamination increases the microbial load of marine fish.

The transport temperature and the hygienic quality of the transport boxes of fish, the ice used for cooling, the fish stalls in the markets, and the personnel’s hands are very important. Inadequate hygiene practices cause pathogenic bacteria to contaminate fish.

Enterotoxigenic E. coli and S. aureus detected in seafood (Ayulo et al., 1994AYULO, A.M.R., MACHADO, R.A. and SCUSSEL, V.M., 1994. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in fish and seafood from the southern region of Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 171-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90116-3. PMid:7703011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)9...
) and fish have been reported to be isolated from the hands and nasal mucosa of workers (Acco et al., 2003ACCO, M., FERREIRA, F.S., HENRIQUES, J.A.P. and TONDO, E.C., 2003. Identification of multiple strains of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing nasal mucosa of food handlers. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 489-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)00049-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)...
). Fish are contaminated with microorganisms in many ways, primarily unhygienic treatments, storage conditions and cross-contamination (Jablonski and Bohach, 2001JABLONSKI, L.M. and BOHACH, G., 2001. Staphylococcus aureus. In: M.P. DOYLE, L.R. BEUCHAT and T.J. MONTVILLE, eds. Food microbiology. Fundamentals and frontiers. Washington: ASM Press.; Huang et al., 2001HUANG, S.L., WENG, Y.M. and CHIOU, R.Y.Y., 2001. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as affected by ethanol and NaCl. Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 546-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.4.546. PMid:11307895.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.4...
).

The total heterotrophic plate count of ice samples taken from different fish markets was determined to be 1.05 ± 0.98-2.95 ± 3.15 log cfu/mL at 37 °C and 1.38 ± 1.35-3.00 ± 3.25 log cfu/mL at 5 °C (Economou et al., 2017ECONOMOU, V., GOUSIA, P., KEMENETZI, D., SAKKAS, H. and PAPADOPOULOU, C., 2017. Microbial quality and histamine producing microflora analysis of the ice used for fish preservation. Journal of Food Safety, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. e12285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285...
).

The average count of TMAB was 4.8x102-8.5x102 cfu/cm2 in the morning samples and 6.3x102-7.5x102 cfu/cm2 in the evening samples in groups with the development of microorganisms in the study investigating the microbiological quality of the fish stalls. While the coliform group bacteria did not grow in the morning samples, the average coliform count was 1.8x102-2.2x102 cfu/cm2 in the evening samples (Kocatepe et al., 2011KOCATEPE, D., TASKAYA, G., KAYA, Y., TURAN, H. and ERKOYUNCU, I., 2011. Microbiological investigating of different fish stalls. Biology Sciences Research Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 73-77.).

The studies conducted by Acco et al. (2003)ACCO, M., FERREIRA, F.S., HENRIQUES, J.A.P. and TONDO, E.C., 2003. Identification of multiple strains of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing nasal mucosa of food handlers. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 489-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)00049-2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)...
, Economou et al. (2017)ECONOMOU, V., GOUSIA, P., KEMENETZI, D., SAKKAS, H. and PAPADOPOULOU, C., 2017. Microbial quality and histamine producing microflora analysis of the ice used for fish preservation. Journal of Food Safety, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. e12285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285...
, and Kocatepe et al. (2011)KOCATEPE, D., TASKAYA, G., KAYA, Y., TURAN, H. and ERKOYUNCU, I., 2011. Microbiological investigating of different fish stalls. Biology Sciences Research Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 73-77. showed clearly some contamination ways to seafood and fish.

In conclusion, the results of the current study showed the rate of contamination by four pathogens in marine fish sold in Bitlis for the first time. The samples of common sole, axillary seabream, seabass, bluefish and Mediterranean horse mackerel obtained from both suppliers were unacceptable according to the counts of TMAB. Twenty-four samples exceeded the critical limit of S. aureus. All samples were unacceptable according to the critical limit of E. coli. While L. monocytogenes was isolated from 50.0% of the samples, Salmonella spp. was isolated from 39.3% of the samples. These results showed that the pathogenic bacteria load of the analyzed marine fish was quite high and they were unsafe in terms of microbiological quality.

The study demonstrated that the conditions of appropriate cooling, transporting, processing, and storage in marine fish were very important. Risk assessment and risk reduction are necessary to reduce foodborne disease based on contaminated fish in Bitlis. In order to kill the pathogenic bacteria, the marine fish should be cooked well. An understanding of the impacts of S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria levels in marine fish are necessary to develop control measures to reduce the risk of infection caused by these microorganisms. Risk management should be taken into account throughout the whole food chain from the processing of raw material to consumption and should be applied in the context of proper food safety infrastructures such as regulation application and the systems of food product tracing and traceability.

References

  • ACCO, M., FERREIRA, F.S., HENRIQUES, J.A.P. and TONDO, E.C., 2003. Identification of multiple strains of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing nasal mucosa of food handlers. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 489-493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)00049-2
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(03)00049-2
  • ANDREWS, W.H. and HAMMACK, T.S., 2003 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 1: food sampling/preparation of sample homogenate [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-1-food-samplingpreparation-sample-homogenate
    » https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-1-food-samplingpreparation-sample-homogenate
  • ANDREWS, W.H., JACOBSON, A. and HAMMACK, T.S., 2016 [viewed 10 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 5: Salmonella [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods/ucm070149.htm
    » https://www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods/ucm070149.htm
  • ASH, M., 1997. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal enterotoxins In: A.D. HOCKING, ed. Foodborne microorganisms of public health significance. 5th ed. Australia: Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology Ltd. (NSW Branch) Food Microbiology Group.
  • AYTAÇ, S.A. and TABAN, B.M., 2011. Foodborne intoxication. In: O. ERKMEN, ed. Food microbiology Ankara: Efil Publisher.
  • AYULO, A.M.R., MACHADO, R.A. and SCUSSEL, V.M., 1994. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in fish and seafood from the southern region of Brazil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 1-2, pp. 171-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90116-3 PMid:7703011.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90116-3
  • AZANZA, M.P.V., ORTEGA, M.P. and VALDEZCO, R.G., 2001. Microbial quality of rellenado milkfish (Chanos chanos, Forskal). Food Control, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 365-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(01)00030-5
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(01)00030-5
  • BANWART, G.J., 1981. Basic food microbiology Westport: The AVI Publishing Company.
  • BEKTAS, M.O., 2013. Determination of the microbiological quality of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata Linneaus, 1758) marketed as fresh in Isparta Isparta: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Suleyman Demirel University. Master’s Dissertion in Fishing and Fish Processing.
  • BELL, C., NEAVES, P. and WILLAMS, A.P., 2005. Food microbiology and laboratory practice Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • BEN EMBAREK, P.K., 1994. Presence, detection and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafoods: a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90219-4 PMid:7811570.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90219-4
  • CORAPCI, B., 2018. The sensory, nutritional, chemical and microbiological properties of without pre-treatment frozen stored (-22 ± 1 °C) anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus 1758) and bonito (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793) meats. The Journal of Food, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1075-1090.
  • DURGAC, E., 2006. Occurrence of foodborne related diseases in Turkey between 1960-2002: Turkish Statistical Institute records Antakya: Graduate School of Applied and Natural Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University. Master’s Dissertion in Food Engineering.
  • ECONOMOU, V., GOUSIA, P., KEMENETZI, D., SAKKAS, H. and PAPADOPOULOU, C., 2017. Microbial quality and histamine producing microflora analysis of the ice used for fish preservation. Journal of Food Safety, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. e12285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12285
  • ERDEM, M.E., KORAL, S., KAYIS, S., CEBI, H. and KESKIN, I., 2010. Investigation of contamination sources of total mesophyll bacteria and some pathogenic microorganisms in anchovy fish (Engraulis encrasicholus) in Trabzon province. 1. In: National Anchovy Workshop: Sustainable Fishing, 17-18 June 2010, Trabzon, Turkey. Trabzon: Central Fisheries Research Institute, pp. 156-163.
  • EUROPEAN UNION, 2005 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs [online]. Official Journal of the European Union, Luxembourg, 1 jan. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/eur/2005/2073/body
    » https://www.legislation.gov.uk/eur/2005/2073/body
  • FARBER, J.M. and LOSOS, J.S., 1988. Listeria monocytogenes: a food borne pathogen. Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 413-418. PMid:3124948.
  • FELDHUSEN, F., 2000. The role of seafood in bacterial foodborne diseases. Microbes and Infection, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1651-1660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6 PMid:11113384.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)01321-6
  • FENG, P., WEAGANT, S.D., GRANT, M.A. and BURKHARDT, W., 2020 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 4: enumeration of Escherichia coli and the coliform bacteria [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-4-enumeration-escherichia-coli-and-coliform-bacteria
    » https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-4-enumeration-escherichia-coli-and-coliform-bacteria
  • HERNÁNDEZ-HERRERO, M.M., ROIG-SAGUÉS, A.X., RODRÍGUEZ-JEREZ, J.J. and MORA-VENTURA, M.T., 1999. Halotolerant and halophilic histamine forming bacteria isolated during the ripening of salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus). Journal of Food Protection, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 509-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.5.509 PMid:10340672.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.5.509
  • HITCHINS, D.A., JINNEMAN, K. and CHEN, Y., 2016 [viewed 13 March 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual: detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, chap. 10. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm
    » http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm071400.htm
  • HUANG, S.L., WENG, Y.M. and CHIOU, R.Y.Y., 2001. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as affected by ethanol and NaCl. Journal of Food Protection, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 546-550. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.4.546 PMid:11307895.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.4.546
  • INAL, T., 1992. Food hygiene, health control of animal foods Istanbul: Final Offset.
  • INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR FOODS – ICMSF, 1986. Microorganisms in foods, 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • IVNITSKI, D., ABDEL-HAMID, I., ATANASOV, P. and WILKINS, E., 1999. Biosensors for detection of pathogenic bacteria. Biosensors & Bioelectronics, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 599-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)00039-1
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5663(99)00039-1
  • JABLONSKI, L.M. and BOHACH, G., 2001. Staphylococcus aureus In: M.P. DOYLE, L.R. BEUCHAT and T.J. MONTVILLE, eds. Food microbiology. Fundamentals and frontiers Washington: ASM Press.
  • KABA, N., CORAPCI, B., YUCEL, S., OZER, O. and ERYASAR, K., 2013. Sensory, chemical and microbiological properties of smoked bonito ball (Sarda sarda, Bloch 1793). Academic Food Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 45-50.
  • KILINC, B., 2001. Listeria monocytogenes in aquatic products. Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 18, no. 3-4, pp. 565-574.
  • KOCATEPE, D., ERKOYUNCU, I. and TURAN, H., 2013. Pathogen microorganisms and poisonings based on fisheries. Yunus Research Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 47-56.
  • KOCATEPE, D., TASKAYA, G., KAYA, Y., TURAN, H. and ERKOYUNCU, I., 2011. Microbiological investigating of different fish stalls. Biology Sciences Research Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 73-77.
  • KULCU, D.B., 2017. Determination of microbiological quality characteristics of bonito fish (Sarda sarda) stored at different temperatures. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 120-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.146
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.146
  • KUTLU, S., YESILSU, A.F. and FIRIDIN, S., 2011. Aquatic products as a source of contamination. Yunus Research Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 20-25.
  • MATURIN, L. and PEELER, J.T., 2001 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 3: aerobic plate count [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-3-aerobic-plate-count
    » https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-3-aerobic-plate-count
  • MIDI, I., EKINCI, G., YAROGLU, S. and AKTAN, S., 2005. Brain abscesses due to Listeria monocytogenes: case Report. Firat Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 36-39.
  • MOL, S. and TOSUN, S.Y., 2011. The quality of fish from retail markets in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.2011002
  • MOSSEL, D.A.A., CORRY, J.E.L., STRUIJK, C.B. and BAIRD, R.M., 1995. Essentials of the microbiology of foods: a text for advanced studies West Sussex: Wiley.
  • OLAFSDÓTTIR, G., MARTINSDÓTTIR, E., OEHLENSCHLÄGER, J., DALGAARD, P., JENSEN, B., UNDELAND, I., MACKIE, I.M., HENEHAN, G., NIELSEN, J. and NILSEN, H., 1997. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 258-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01049-2
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(97)01049-2
  • ORMANCI, H.B. and ARIK COLAKOGLU, F., 2014. Quality characteristics of the traditional salted sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from Gallipoli. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, vol. 11, pp. 80-88.
  • PAPADOPOULOS, V., CHOULIARA, I., BADEKA, A., SAVVAIDIS, I.N. and KONTOMINAS, M.G., 2003. Effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice. Food Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 411-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)00148-X
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-0020(02)00148-X
  • RODAS-SUÁREZ, O.R., FLORESPEDROCHE, J.F., BETANCOURTRULE, J.M., QUINONESRAMIREZ, E.I. and VAZQUEZSALINAS, C., 2006. Occurrence and antibiotic sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from oysters, fish, and estuarine water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 7410-7412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00956-06 PMid:16980425.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00956-06
  • RODRIGUES, J., KALEKAR, S., DOIJAD, S., D’COSTA, D., POHARKAR, K. and BARBUDDHE, S.B., 2015. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria spp. from seafood. Indian Journal of Fisheries, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 139-143.
  • SAHIN, I. and BASOGLU, F., 2011. Food microbiology 2nd ed. Bursa: Dora Publications.
  • SIMON, S.S. and SANJEEV, S., 2007. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in fishery products and fish processing factory workers. Food Control, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1565-1568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.007
  • SUMBULOGLU, K. and SUMBULOGLU, V., 2002. Biostatistics Ankara: Hatipoglu Printing and Publishing.
  • TALLENT, S., HAIT, J., BENNETT, R.W. and LANCETTE, G.A., 2016 [viewed 3 June 2022]. Bacteriological analytical manual chapter 12: Staphylococcus aureus [online]. 8th ed. Silver Spring: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-12-staphylococcus-aureus
    » https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-12-staphylococcus-aureus
  • TURKEY, 1995 [viewed 27 September 2021]. Turkish Seafood Regulation [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 10 mar. Available from: http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
    » http://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.4988andMevzuatIliski=0andsourceXmlSearch=su%20%C3%BCr%C3%BCnleri
  • TURKEY, 2011 [viewed 5 February 2022]. Turkish food codex regulation on microbiological criteria [online]. Official Newspaper, Ankara, 29 dec. Available from: https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-6.htm
    » https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2011/12/20111229M3-6.htm
  • TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE – TSI, 2018 [viewed 10 January 2022]. Amount of catching fishery products [online]. Available from: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1005
    » http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1005
  • TZIKAS, Z., AMVROSIADIS, I., SOULTOS, N. and GEORGAKIS, S., 2007. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition and microbiological condition of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) muscle from the North Aegean Sea (Greece). Food Control, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 251-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.10.003
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.10.003
  • UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE – USDA, 2015 [viewed 20 October 2021]. Salmonella questions and answers [online]. Available from: https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/foodborne-illness-and-disease/salmonella-questions-and-answers/
    » https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/foodborne-illness-and-disease/salmonella-questions-and-answers/
  • VARNAM, A.H. and EVANS, M.G., 1991. Foodborne pathogens London: Wolfe Publishing Ltd.
  • WEINSTEIN, K.B. and ORTIZ, J. 2004 [viewed 23 March 2022]. Listeria monocytogenes infection listeriosis [online]. Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220684-overview
    » http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220684-overview
  • YOUSSEF, H., EL-TIMAWY, A.K. and AHMED, S., 1992. Role of aerobic intestinal pathogens of freshwater fish in transmission of human diseases. Journal of Food Protection, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 739-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-55.9.739 PMid:31084129.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-55.9.739

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    01 July 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    04 Apr 2022
  • Accepted
    09 June 2022
Instituto Internacional de Ecologia R. Bento Carlos, 750, 13560-660 São Carlos SP - Brasil, Tel. e Fax: (55 16) 3362-5400 - São Carlos - SP - Brazil
E-mail: bjb@bjb.com.br
Accessibility / Report Error