Retithrips syriacus (Mayet) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): first record damaging cotton plants in Brazil

C. A. D. Silva A. Cavalleri M. M. D. Morais W. L. Andrade P. S. Albuquerque Junior J. E. Serrão J. C. Zanuncio About the authors

Thrips (Thysanoptera) are dispersed in all regions of the world, but with higher frequency in tropical regions (Kerns et al., 2019KERNS, C.D., GREENE, J.K., REAY-JONES, F.P.F. and BRIDGES JUNIOR, W.C., 2019. Effects of planting date on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 699-707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy398. PMid:30597059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy398...
). More than half of the species of this order are phytophagous feeding on only one or a few plant species although some are polyphagous. Approximately 6,300 species of Thysanoptera are known worldwide, of which about 130 are pests (Thrips Wiki, 2022THRIPS WIKI, 2022 [viewed 15 January 2022]. ThripsWiki-providing information on the world's thrips [online]. Available from: https://thrips.info/wiki/Main_Page
https://thrips.info/wiki/Main_Page...
; Mound et al., 2022MOUND, L.A., WANG, Z., LIMA, E.F.B. and MARULLO, R., 2022. Problems with the concept of “pest” among the diversity of pestiferous thrips. Insects, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13010061. PMid:35055903.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects1301006...
). Some groups of thrips feed preferentially on flowers, while others prefer exclusively leaves, but pollen, fruits and young shoots can also be food sources for these insects (Mound et al., 2022MOUND, L.A., WANG, Z., LIMA, E.F.B. and MARULLO, R., 2022. Problems with the concept of “pest” among the diversity of pestiferous thrips. Insects, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13010061. PMid:35055903.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects1301006...
). Thrips are important for the agriculture due to direct and indirect damage, including virus transmission (Monteiro et al., 1998MONTEIRO, R.C., ZUCCHI, R.A. and MOUND, L.A., 1998. Thrips tabaci Lind.: é realmente uma praga do algodoeiro no Brasil? Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 489-494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0301-80591998000300021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0301-80591998...
). In addition, they feed on different species of cultivated plants and weeds, many of them found in the cotton production environment (Cook et al., 2011COOK, D., HERBERT, A., AKIN, D.S. and REED, J., 2011. Biology, crop injury, and management of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting cotton seedlings in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10024.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10024...
).

Thrips are commonly found at the early stages of cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.) feeding on the epidermal cells of the leaf mesophyll (Kaur et al., 2018KAUR, B., KURAPARTHY, V., BACHELER, J., FANG, H. and BOWMAN, D.T., 2018. Screening germplasm and quantification of components contributing to thrips resistance in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 2426-2434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201. PMid:29986081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201...
; Nadeem et al., 2022NADEEM, A., TAHIR, H.M. and KHAN, A.A., 2022. Plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats: their impact on sucking pests and predators complex in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field plots in arid climate at district Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 82, p. e236494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.236494. PMid:34133551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.2364...
). Intensive feeding by thrips causes terminal malformation in cotton seedlings, abnormal growth and, in extreme cases, death of the growing bud, leading to loss of apical dominance (Kerns et al., 2019KERNS, C.D., GREENE, J.K., REAY-JONES, F.P.F. and BRIDGES JUNIOR, W.C., 2019. Effects of planting date on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 699-707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy398. PMid:30597059.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy398...
).

In Brazil, Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is the main thrips species recorded and damaging cotton plants in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Pernambuco and São Paulo, although Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) and other species of Frankliniella spp. are also found in lowers numbers on this plant (Monteiro et al., 1998MONTEIRO, R.C., ZUCCHI, R.A. and MOUND, L.A., 1998. Thrips tabaci Lind.: é realmente uma praga do algodoeiro no Brasil? Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 489-494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0301-80591998000300021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0301-80591998...
).

In April 2022, a severe infestation by a thrips species was observed on cotton plants, BRS 368 RF, with 85 days old, grown in 30 pots with a capacity of 5 L each one in a screened greenhouse at the Embrapa Algodão, municipality de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil (7°13'35” S, 35°54'21” W). The number of individuals and aggregations of this thrips per plant, individuals per aggregations and the proportion of adults and immature stages on ten cotton plants were evaluated on all leaves of each plant. Adults of the thrips were collected from the leaves, transferred to glass vials containing 70% alcohol and identified (Mound and Marullo, 1996MOUND, L.A. and MARULLO, R., 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Gainesville: Associated Publishers. 488 p. Memoirs on Entomology, international, no. 6.). The thrips was identified as Retithrips syriacus Mayet (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) based on specimens deposited in the reference collection of the Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

A mean total of 38 individuals of R. syriacus were obtained per cotton plant in eight aggregations with 4.7 individuals per aggregation. Adults of R. syriacus represented 54% of the population of individuals sampled, present on both leaf sides, but mainly on the apical region of the cotton plants. Retithrips syriacus adults was found mainly on the adaxial part of the cotton leaves without belonging to aggregations (Figure 1 A-1B) only on the abaxial part of the leaves (Figure 1C). These aggregations were composed of 50%, 24% and 26% of larvae, pupae and adults R. syriacus, respectively. The larvae, initially hyaline, turned yellow-orange and then red; the pupae's voluminous body was dark red and less shiny than the larvae, with long bristles and a small, round, flattened disc at the apex (Bragard et al., 2021BRAGARD, C., SERIO, F., GONTHIER, P., MIRET, J.A.J., JUSTESEN, A.F., MAGNUSSON, C.S., MILONAS, P., NAVAS-CORTES, J.A., PARNELL, S., POTTING, R., REIGNAULT, P.L., THULKE, H.-H., VAN DER WERF, W., CIVERA, A.V., YUEN, J., ZAPPALÀ, L., GREGOIRE, J.-C., MALUMPHY, C., CZWIENCZEK, E., KERTESZ, V., MAIORANO, A. and MACLEOD, A., 2021. Pest categorisation of Retithrips syriacus. EFSA Journal, vol. 19, no. 11, p. e06888. PMid:34765032.). Newly emerged adults are black in color with both pairs of light wings with dark spots and light brown legs (Elimem et al., 2011ELIMEM, M., NAVARRO-CAMPOS, C. and CHERMITI, B., 2011. First record of black vine thrips, Retithrips syriacus Mayet, in Tunisia. EPPO Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 174-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2011.02461.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.20...
; Bragard et al., 2021BRAGARD, C., SERIO, F., GONTHIER, P., MIRET, J.A.J., JUSTESEN, A.F., MAGNUSSON, C.S., MILONAS, P., NAVAS-CORTES, J.A., PARNELL, S., POTTING, R., REIGNAULT, P.L., THULKE, H.-H., VAN DER WERF, W., CIVERA, A.V., YUEN, J., ZAPPALÀ, L., GREGOIRE, J.-C., MALUMPHY, C., CZWIENCZEK, E., KERTESZ, V., MAIORANO, A. and MACLEOD, A., 2021. Pest categorisation of Retithrips syriacus. EFSA Journal, vol. 19, no. 11, p. e06888. PMid:34765032.). Damage by R. syriacus usually resulted in small depressions on the leaf surface that turned gray as a result of cell death (Figure 1D) due to suction of cell contents (Elimem et al., 2011ELIMEM, M., NAVARRO-CAMPOS, C. and CHERMITI, B., 2011. First record of black vine thrips, Retithrips syriacus Mayet, in Tunisia. EPPO Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 174-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2011.02461.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.20...
). The increase in the number of aggregations of R. syriacus completely covered the leaves of the cotton plants, changing the natural green of the leaf blade to a silver tone with numerous black spots (Figure 1C), due to the feces of this mite in the area infested (Kaur et al., 2018KAUR, B., KURAPARTHY, V., BACHELER, J., FANG, H. and BOWMAN, D.T., 2018. Screening germplasm and quantification of components contributing to thrips resistance in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 2426-2434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201. PMid:29986081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201...
).

Figure 1
Adaxial part of the cotton leaf, partially damaged by Retithrips syriacus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with small chlorotic spots (A), adult insect (B), colony with red nymphs of R. syriacus (C) and silver leaf, severely attacked (D).

Retithrips syriacus is a polyphagous species native to Central Africa and found in several countries of the Americas, including Brazil (Moreira et al., 2012MOREIRA, A.N., OLIVEIRA, J.V.D., OLIVEIRA, J.E.D.M., OLIVEIRA, A.C. and SOUZA, I.D.D., 2012. Variação sazonal de espécies de tripes em videira de acordo com sistemas de manejo e fases fenológicas. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 328-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012000300003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012...
; Lima et al., 2019LIMA, I.M.B., ALMEIDA-FILHO, M.A., LIMA, M.G.A., BONILLA, O.H. and LIMA, E.F.B., 2019. Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated with flowers in a restinga fragment in northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 6-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.169071. PMid:29590250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.1690...
, 2020LIMA, É.F.B., O’DONNELL, C.A. and MIYASATO, E.A., 2020. The Panchaetothripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) of Brazil, with one new Caliothrips species. Zootaxa, vol. 4820, no. 2, pp. 201-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.2.1. PMid:33056065.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820....
). The number of host plants of these thrips includes over 50 species belonging to more than 20 families (Bragard et al., 2021BRAGARD, C., SERIO, F., GONTHIER, P., MIRET, J.A.J., JUSTESEN, A.F., MAGNUSSON, C.S., MILONAS, P., NAVAS-CORTES, J.A., PARNELL, S., POTTING, R., REIGNAULT, P.L., THULKE, H.-H., VAN DER WERF, W., CIVERA, A.V., YUEN, J., ZAPPALÀ, L., GREGOIRE, J.-C., MALUMPHY, C., CZWIENCZEK, E., KERTESZ, V., MAIORANO, A. and MACLEOD, A., 2021. Pest categorisation of Retithrips syriacus. EFSA Journal, vol. 19, no. 11, p. e06888. PMid:34765032.). Damage by this mite has been reported on numerous cultivated plants around the world, especially Gossypium hirsutum (Malvaceae), Persea americana (Lauraceae) and Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae). In Brazil, R. syriacus has been reported feeding on leaves of Carica papaya (Caricaceae), Eucalyptus sp. (Myrtaceae), Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae); Rosa sp. (Rosaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) and Vitis vinifera (Moreira et al., 2012MOREIRA, A.N., OLIVEIRA, J.V.D., OLIVEIRA, J.E.D.M., OLIVEIRA, A.C. and SOUZA, I.D.D., 2012. Variação sazonal de espécies de tripes em videira de acordo com sistemas de manejo e fases fenológicas. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 328-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012000300003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012...
; Lima et al., 2020LIMA, É.F.B., O’DONNELL, C.A. and MIYASATO, E.A., 2020. The Panchaetothripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) of Brazil, with one new Caliothrips species. Zootaxa, vol. 4820, no. 2, pp. 201-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.2.1. PMid:33056065.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820....
). This species is not a vector of phytoviruses and leaf tissue damage is produced by the mechanical action of its biting-sucking mouthparts (Mound et al., 2022MOUND, L.A., WANG, Z., LIMA, E.F.B. and MARULLO, R., 2022. Problems with the concept of “pest” among the diversity of pestiferous thrips. Insects, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13010061. PMid:35055903.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects1301006...
).

Thrips generally cause greater damage in periods of limiting climatic conditions for seedling growth, particularly in dry and hot climates (Kaur et al., 2018KAUR, B., KURAPARTHY, V., BACHELER, J., FANG, H. and BOWMAN, D.T., 2018. Screening germplasm and quantification of components contributing to thrips resistance in cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 2426-2434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201. PMid:29986081.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201...
; Nadeem et al., 2022NADEEM, A., TAHIR, H.M. and KHAN, A.A., 2022. Plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats: their impact on sucking pests and predators complex in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field plots in arid climate at district Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 82, p. e236494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.236494. PMid:34133551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.2364...
). Water stress conditions favor infestation of J. curcas plants by this pest (Lima et al., 2020LIMA, É.F.B., O’DONNELL, C.A. and MIYASATO, E.A., 2020. The Panchaetothripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) of Brazil, with one new Caliothrips species. Zootaxa, vol. 4820, no. 2, pp. 201-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.2.1. PMid:33056065.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820....
) and its location around the greenhouse may have stimulated the migration of R. syriacus thrips to cotton plants, resulting in high damage levels. Cotton plants was infested in periods with average temperature, relative humidity and precipitation of 25°C, 70% and 45 mm, respectively, in the region of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil.

This is the first record of R. syriacus damaging cotton plants in Brazil.

Acknowledgements

To the Brazilian institutions “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico (CNPq)”, “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES-Finance Code 001)”, “Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)” and “Programa Cooperativo sobre Proteção Florestal (PROTEF) do Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF)” for financial support.

References

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  • COOK, D., HERBERT, A., AKIN, D.S. and REED, J., 2011. Biology, crop injury, and management of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting cotton seedlings in the United States. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10024
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/IPM10024
  • ELIMEM, M., NAVARRO-CAMPOS, C. and CHERMITI, B., 2011. First record of black vine thrips, Retithrips syriacus Mayet, in Tunisia. EPPO Bulletin, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 174-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2338.2011.02461.x
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy201
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy398
  • LIMA, É.F.B., O’DONNELL, C.A. and MIYASATO, E.A., 2020. The Panchaetothripinae (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) of Brazil, with one new Caliothrips species. Zootaxa, vol. 4820, no. 2, pp. 201-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.2.1 PMid:33056065.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.2.1
  • LIMA, I.M.B., ALMEIDA-FILHO, M.A., LIMA, M.G.A., BONILLA, O.H. and LIMA, E.F.B., 2019. Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated with flowers in a restinga fragment in northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 6-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.169071 PMid:29590250.
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13010061
  • NADEEM, A., TAHIR, H.M. and KHAN, A.A., 2022. Plant age, crop stage and surrounding habitats: their impact on sucking pests and predators complex in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field plots in arid climate at district Layyah, Punjab, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 82, p. e236494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.236494 PMid:34133551.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.236494
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    » https://thrips.info/wiki/Main_Page

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    25 July 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    30 May 2022
  • Accepted
    13 July 2022
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