New evidence of the evolutionary relationship of the flavida complex with the genus Panstrongylus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) by karyosystematic

K. C. Borsatto Y. V. Reis F. F. F. Moreira M. T. V. Azeredo-Oliveira K. C. C. Alevi About the authors

Scientific note

The Triatominae subfamily (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) is composed of 152 species belonging to 18 genera and five tribes (Galvão, 2014GALVÃO, C. (2014). Vetores da doença de chagas no Brasil. Curitiba: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. 289 p.; Alevi et al., 2016ALEVI, K.C.C., REIS, Y.V., GUERRA, A.L., IMPERADOR, C.H.L., BANHO, C.A., MOREIRA, F.F.F. and AZEREDO-OLIVEIRA, M.T.V., 2016. Would Nesotriatoma bruneri Usinger, 1944 be a valid species? Zootaxa, vol. 4103, no. 4, pp. 396-400. PMid:27394745. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103.4.8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103....
; Mendonça et al., 2016MENDONÇA, V.J., ALEVI, K.C.C., PINOTTI, H., GURGEL-GONGALVES, R., PITA, S., GUERRA, A.L., PANZERA, F., ARAÚJO, R.F., AZEREDO-OLIVEIRA, M.T.V. and ROSA, J.A. 2016. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex. Zootaxa, vol. 4107, no. 2, pp. 239-254. PMID: 27394816. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4107.2.6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4107....
; Souza et al., 2016SOUZA, E.S., ATZINGER, N.C.B.V., FURTADO, M.B., OLIVEIRA, J., DAMIELI, J.N., VENDRAMINI, D.P., GARDIM, S. and ROSA, J.A., 2016. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. N. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil. ZooKeys, vol. 621, no. 621, pp. 45-62. PMid:27833419.; Rosa et al., 2017ROSA, J.A., JUSTINO, H.H.G., NASCIMENTO, J.D., MENDONÇA, V.J., ROCHA, C.S., CARVALHO, D.B., FALCONE, R., AZEREDO-OLIVEIRA, M.T.V., ALEVI, K.C.C. and OLIVEIRA, J., 2017. A new species of Rhodnius from Brazil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). ZooKeys, vol. 675, pp. 1-25.). The Triatomini tribe is the most diverse and one of the most important from the point of views epidemiological (Galvão, 2014GALVÃO, C. (2014). Vetores da doença de chagas no Brasil. Curitiba: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. 289 p.; WHO, 2015WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION – WHO, 2015. Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis). Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 90, pp. 33-44. PMid:25671846.). Schofield and Galvão (2009)SCHOFIELD, C.J. and GALVÃO, C., 2009. Classification, evolution, and species groups within the Triatominae. Acta Tropica, vol. 110, no. 2-3, pp. 88-100. PMid:19385053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.01.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica....
grouped these triatomines in complexes and specifics subcomplexes mainly based on morphological characters and geographic disposition. The flavida complex consists of the species Nesotriatoma bruneri Usinger, 1944, N. flavida (Neiva, 1911) and N. obscura Maldonado and Farr, 1962 [although recently it has been suggested that N. bruneri and N. flavida should be again synonymized (Alevi et al., 2016ALEVI, K.C.C., REIS, Y.V., GUERRA, A.L., IMPERADOR, C.H.L., BANHO, C.A., MOREIRA, F.F.F. and AZEREDO-OLIVEIRA, M.T.V., 2016. Would Nesotriatoma bruneri Usinger, 1944 be a valid species? Zootaxa, vol. 4103, no. 4, pp. 396-400. PMid:27394745. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103.4.8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103....
)].

Recently, Justi et al. (2014JUSTI, S.A., RUSSO, C.A.M., MALLET, J.R.S., OBARA, M.T. and GALVÃO, C., 2014. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Parasites & Vectors, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 149. PMid:24685273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-14...
, 2016JUSTI, S.A., GALVÃO, C. and SCHRAGO, C.G., 2016. Geological changes of the Americas and their Influence on the diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. e0004527. PMid:27058599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0...
) claim that although the complexes and subcomplexes show no taxonomic validity they must be monophyletic groups. Thus, the authors presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for the species groupings proposed by Schofield and Galvão (2009)SCHOFIELD, C.J. and GALVÃO, C., 2009. Classification, evolution, and species groups within the Triatominae. Acta Tropica, vol. 110, no. 2-3, pp. 88-100. PMid:19385053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.01.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica....
and observed that many groups are not monophyletic (brasiliensis, maculata, matogrossensis, flavida and sordida subcomplexes). The flavida complex although it has formed a monophyletic group, curiously was presented as evolutionarily related to Panstrongylus genus, as has been observed by other authors (Hypsa et al., 2002HYPSA, V., TIETZ, D., ZRZAVY, J., REGO, R.O., GALVAO, C. and JURBERG, J., 2002. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae): molecular evidence of a New World origin of the asiatic clade. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 447-457. PMid:12099798. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00023-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)...
).

Therefore, we will group all information related to the number and morphology of the chromosomes of Nesotriatoma spp. and Panstrongylus spp. with intuited of analyze the chromosomal relationship of these triatomines.

All species of Panstrongylus genus (except P. megistus and P. lutzi) and Nesotriatoma genus presents the karyotype 2n = 23 (20A + X1X2Y) (Table 1). Furthermore, all species of both genera (except P. lutzi) showed the same system of sex determination, as well as the same chromosomal characteristics (Table 1).

Table 1
Chromosomal characteristics of the species of flavida complex and Panstrongylus genus.

Recently, by means of dated phylogeny was supported that the ancestral of Nesotriatoma arrived in the Antillean islands approximately 14.8-18.8 millions of years (associated with rodent subfamily Capromyinae) (Justi et al., 2016JUSTI, S.A., GALVÃO, C. and SCHRAGO, C.G., 2016. Geological changes of the Americas and their Influence on the diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. e0004527. PMid:27058599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0...
) and by phylogenetic analysis we can see that Nesotriatoma and Panstrongylus share an ancestor comum (Justi et al., 2014JUSTI, S.A., RUSSO, C.A.M., MALLET, J.R.S., OBARA, M.T. and GALVÃO, C., 2014. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Parasites & Vectors, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 149. PMid:24685273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-14...
, 2016JUSTI, S.A., GALVÃO, C. and SCHRAGO, C.G., 2016. Geological changes of the Americas and their Influence on the diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. e0004527. PMid:27058599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0...
). Was suggested that the ancestor of these vectors presented karyotype 2n = 23 and that during the divergence and karyotype evolution of species occurred one event punctual of simploidy in the autosome of P. megistus and agmatoploidy in the X sex chromosome of P. lutzi (Alevi and Azeredo-Oliveira, 2018ALEVI, K.C.C. and AZEREDO-OLIVEIRA, M.T.V., 2018. Karyotype evolution of Chagas disease vectors. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. In press.).

Thus, by karyosystematic we confirm the phylogenetic relationship between flavida complex and Panstrongylus genus. We suggest that experimental hybrid crosses are to be conducted for analysis of possible prezygotic and postzygotic barriers installed in the Panstrongylus and Nesotriatoma genus.

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa e Extensão de São José do Rio Preto (Process number 60/2015—FAPERP, Brazil) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brazil).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 Feb 2018
  • Date of issue
    Nov 2018

History

  • Received
    01 Mar 2017
  • Accepted
    26 Apr 2017
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