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Effects of different combinations of N, P and K at different time interval on vegetative, reproductive, yield and quality traits of mango (Mangifera Indica. L) cv. Dusehri

Efeitos de diferentes combinações de N, P e K em diferentes intervalos nas características vegetativas, reprodutivas, produtivas e de qualidade da manga (Mangifera indica. L) cv. Dusehri

Abstract

The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.

Keywords:
NPK fertilizers; vegetative and reproductive growth; fruit quality; yield; Dusehri

Resumo

O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

Palavras-chave:
fertilizantes NPK; crescimento vegetativo e reprodutivo; qualidade do fruto; produtividade; Dusehri

1. Introduction

Among the members of Anacardiaceace family, Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is of high importance, widely adopted across tropical and subtropical zones with diverse climatic and soil conditions (Chapman, 1999CHAPMAN, K.R., 1999. Mango-special challenges in Asia and Oceania. In: Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Mango, 1999, Pattaya City, Thailand. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 95-106.).

Mango is well known fruit in the world and titled as the “King of fruits” due to its many qualities such as its wide adaptability, richness in nutritive value, wide-ranging varieties, delicious taste, superb flavor and admiration among the masses (Purseglove, 1969PURSEGLOVE, J., 1969. Mangoes west of India. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Mango and Mango Culture, 1969, New Delhi. The Hague: International Society for Horticultural Science, pp. 172-176.). Ago-climatic conditions of Pakistan favor’s the high-quality mango production.

Pakistan has been growing various types of fruits for their local and foreign consumption. It is a highly remunerative crop for the growers. Currently, 171.3 thousand hectares is under mango cultivation, contributing about 22.08% of the total fruit area and produced about 1653.8 million tonnes (MT). Mango is the second largest commercial fruit after the citrus in Pakistan. Pakistan holds 5th position after India, China, Thailand and Indonesia in the world (Pakistan, 2019PAKISTAN, Government, 2019. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan: Statistic Division Pakistan Bureau of Statistic.).

Due to insufficient knowledge among the growers of mango yield is 10.4 tones/hectare, whereas some of the other major mango producing countries of the world are having more per hectare average yield than Pakistan i.e. China (11.4 tones/hectare), Brazil (12.6 tones/hectare) (FAOSTAT, 2016FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION STATISTICS DIVISION – FAOSTAT, 2016 [viewed 27 March 2020]. Economic and social development department [online]. Rome: FAO, vol. 12. Available from: http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E...
). However, with the proper understanding of growth pattern of mango high yield and good quality of mango can be achieved. In fact, proper amount and type of fertilizers at proper time are indeed main reasons of success for the better outcomes.

Previously, limited work has been done regarding the fertilizer management on mango production in the world as well as in Pakistan. It has been reported that fertilization with horse, cow manure and synthetic fertilizer (NPK), increased the mango yield 395, 293 and 310 fruit per tree, respectively as compared to control (Singh, 1987SINGH, R.N., 1987. Mango. In: M.R. SETHURAG and A.S. RAGHAVENDRA, eds. Tree crop physiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 39-55.). NPK applied to young tree with different combinations and rates in a long-term trial. Lowest N rate (100 g N/tree) was found to effective for good vegetative growth and yield. While the P had no appreciable effect but K showed good results regarding the yield of mango (Kanwar et al., 1987KANWAR, J., NIJJAR, G. and KAHLON, G., 1987. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and productivity of Dashehari mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 411-422.).

Hasan et al. (2006)HASAN, M., SINGH, B., SARKAR, S., JHA, S. and RAY, S. 2006. Canopy management of unproductive mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. In: Proceedings of the VIII International Mango Symposium, 2006, Sun City, South Africa. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 339-346. argued that application of 800 g N, 300 g P2O5, 1000 g K2O and 50 kg of FYM together with pruning at 4-meter height produced the highest shoot length, shoot girth, number of leaves per shoot and tree spread.

Maximum flowering (63.60%) and fruiting (71.33%) found when NPK combine with Azospirillum and VAM fungus inoculation (Das et al., 2006DAS, A., MANDAL, K., HASAN, M., BHATTACHARYA, B., MAJUMDER, D. and BANDOPADHYAY, B., 2006. Effect of organic and inorganic nutrients on improving flowering. In: Proceedings of the VIII International Mango Symposium, 2006, Sun City, South Africa. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 371-380.).

Yeshitela et al. (2005)YESHITELA, T., ROBBERTSE, P. and STASSEN, P., 2005. Potassium nitrate and urea sprays affect flowering and yields of ‘Tommy Atkins’(Mangifera indica L.) mango in Ethiopia. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 28-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02571862.2005.10634676.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02571862.2005....
found that application of KNO3 particularly together with urea (5 L KNO3 (4%) + 0.5 g urea/tree and 5 L KNO3 (4%) + 1 g urea/tree) improved the reproductive and yield parameters. Khamis et al. (2017)KHAMIS, M.A., SHARAF, M.M., ABD-EL-LATIF, F.M., HABASHY, S.I. and KELANI, R.A., 2017. Impact of inorganic and bio-organic fertilization on growth, yield and fruit quality of young fruitful mango trees “Fajri Kalan cv. Middle East. Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 340-347. investigated that fertilization with compost at 100% level significantly enhanced fruiting aspects, physiochemical characteristics mango fruit of cv. Fajri Kalan. Meanwhile, the least effect observed with the with organic (compost) fertilizer applied at 100% level. At early stage of the panicle emergence, maximum hermaphrodite flowers opening was relatively higher that declines thereafter (Shu, 2006SHU, Z., 2006. Sex distribution, sex ratio and natural pollination percentage of mango (Mangifera indica L.). In: Proceedings of the VIII International Mango Symposium, 2006, Sun City, South Africa. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 205-212.). Feungchan et al. (1988)FEUNGCHAN, S., YIMSAWAT, T. and CHINDAPRASOET, S., 1988. Effect of fertilizer application intervals on mango. Warasan Witthayasat Kaset, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 406-413. investigated that NPK (15-15-15) increased the rate of flower bud differentiation in Cv. Khiewsa. Syamal and Mishra (1989)SYAMAL, M.M. and MISHRA, K., 1989. Effect of NPK on growth, flowering, fruiting and quality of mango. Acta Horticulturae, no. 231, pp. 276-281. stated that treatment of 17 years old Mango trees cv. Langra with NPK produced highest shoot growth, leaf and flower numbers, fruit set, fruit retention and fruit size.

NPK application resulted in the greatest shoot growth, leaf and flower number, fruit set, fruit retention and fruit size. In mango, by applying 0.5 kg N + 0.4 kg P + 1.5 kg K/tree produced highest yield (Bahadur et al., 1998BAHADUR, L., MALHI, C. and SINGH, Z., 1998. Effect of foliar and soil applications of zinc sulphate on zinc uptake, tree size, yield, and fruit quality of mango. Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 589-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169809365426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169809365...
; Suriyapananont, 1991SURIYAPANANONT, V., 1991. Fertilizer trials on mangos (Mangifera indica L.) var. Nam Dok Mai in Thailand. Frontier in Tropical Fruit Research, vol. 2, no. 321, pp. 529-534.). Fertigation with elevated level of potassium promoted the fruit color, acidity, size and yield in four cultivated varieties (Neilsen et al., 2008NEILSEN, G., NEILSEN, D., PERYEA, F., FALLAHI, E. and FALLAHI, B., 2008. Effects of mineral nutrition on fruit quality and nutritional disorders in apples. In: Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Crops, 2008, Faro, Portugal. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 49-60.). In Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ higher concentration of nitrogen and sulphur were recorded in those fruits treated with N (90 kg/ha) in comparison to those treated with dose of N (30 or 60 kg/ha) (Pacheco et al., 2008PACHECO, C., CALOURO, F., SANTOS, F., VIEIRA, S., NEVES, N., CURADO, F. and RODRIGUES, S., 2008. Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on mineral composition of kiwifruit. In: Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Crops, 2008, Faro, Portugal. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 319-326.).

Duarte et al. (2008)DUARTE, L., JORDÃO, P., CALOURO, F. and SOUSA, R., 2008. Management of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer inputs on fertigated pear orchards and its influence on yield and fruit quality. In: Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Crops, 2008, Faro, Portugal. Belgium: ISHS, pp. 307-312. reported application of N in split doses at bud sprout, after setting of fruit and before harvesting along with weekly application of potassium from bud stage to one week before harvesting increased the yield up to 33 kg/tree.

Therefore, it is necessary to apply a proper combination of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash in a judicious manner to achieve the optimum vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and quality of mango trees. This can only be possible if we thoroughly understand the modern nutritional requirements of mango. This study was performed to reveal the impact of different combination of N, P and K on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and quality of mango under the climatic condition of Faisalabad.

2. Materials and Method

2.1. Collection of fruit samples

The research work was conducted in the Experimental Fruit Garden Sq. No. 9, Institute of Horticultural Sciences (31°26’ North, 73°06’ East, Elevation 184.4m), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the month of February and August. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used for the application of fertilizer to the mango block. Experimental material used in fieldwork consisted of 24, twelve years old, healthy trees of mango cv. which were grafted on the local rootstock, and provided with the same cultural practices during the experiment. For data collection, three trees and ten branches on each side of the tree were selected in each treatment. During the trial, similar cultural practices such as irrigation, hoeing, weeding and protection measures were implemented for all experimental units. In this study, selective doses of fertilizers were applied to studies the effect of N, P and K on vegetative, reproductive growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dusehri. The fertilizer i.e. Urea, Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) TSP and Sulphate of Potash (SOP) were applied in this experiment. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) layout design with 8 treatments. N, P and K were applied 1000 g, 750 g and 750 g, respectively. Fertilizers were applied in February and August, and amount for each treatment was calculated according to the said quantity of each element.

Growth size (mm) of flushed were calculated after tagging the 10 branches at side of the tree. Total number of panicles were counted in each treatment during the flowering season. Total number of flowers were counted on five panicles per tree from all the treatments. Total number of fruit set was determined in percentage by dividing the number of fruits per panicle to perfect flowers. Fruit drop was determined at different stages of fruit growth, such as pea, marble and preharvest stage during the fruit development.

Five fruit from each experimental unit tree were collected from the Experimental Fruit Garden and immediately brought to Pomology Laboratory, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan for physical and biochemical analysis of fruit. Vernier calliper was used for the measuring of fruit length and width, and average was mentioned in centimeter (cm). Digital weight balance (Japan) was used for the measurement of fruit weight and expressed in gram (g). Peel and stone were extracted from fruit separately, and then pulp weight (g) was determined by subtracting the peel and stone weight from fruit weight. For chemical analysis, juice was extracted and passed through a clean muslin cloth. Total soluble solids (TSS) percentage was estimated by using digital refractometer (ATAGO, Japan). Total acidity was determined by using the method of Hortwitz (1960)HORTWITZ, W., 1960. Official and tentative methods of analysis. Washington: Association of the Official Agriculture Chemist, vol. 9, pp. 320-341.. Sugar acid ratio was estimated by dividing total soluble solids with acid. Vitamin C (mg/100 mL) and total sugars were determined according to the method of Helrich et al. (1994)HELRICH, K., HORWITZ, W. and WILLIAMS, S., 1994. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists: changes in official methods of analysis of AOAC International Suppl. to the 15. 5th ed. Rockville: AOAC..

All the collected data of this study was subjected to statistical techniques by using Statistix 8 (version 8.1) software for analysis of variance as explained by Steel and Torrie (1980)STEEL, R.G.D. and TORRIE, J.H. 1980. Multiple comparisons, principles and procedures of statistics. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., pp. 336-354 and means of data were compared using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at a level of 5% significance (P ≤ 0.05).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on growth physiology of mango cv. Dusehri

Results revealed that growth size of flushes affected with the application of different doses of fertilizers. Maximum size of flushes (177.51 mm) was found with the application of T8 (NPK), followed by the treatments T2 (N), T5(NP), T4(K) and T6 (NK), While minimum sizes of flushes were found in control as compared to other treatments (see Table 1). Our results showed that when fertilizers were applied in combine form maximum growth sizes of flushes were obtained while in the split application growth size of flushes was recorded minimum. Similar finding has been reported with the application of adequate nitrogen to induce early flush of vegetative growth and foliar application of 2 to 6% urea solutions increase the vegetative growth (El Kadi and Kamh, 2004EL KADI, M. and KAMH, R., 2004. Fertilization of fruit trees grown in newly reclaimed areas of egypt with potassium as SOP balanced with nitrogen and phosphorus. In: Proceedigns of the IPI Regional Workshop on Potassium and Fertigation development in West Asia and North Africa, 2004, Rabat, Morocco. Morocco: IPI, pp. 24-28.; Rajput and Tiwari, 1975RAJPUT, C. and TIWARI, J., 1975. Effect of foliar spray of urea on flowering and fruiting characters of three cultivars of mango. Bangladesh Horticulture, vol. 3, pp. 1-5.).

Table 1
Different fertilizer treatments for mango cv. Dusehri.

Highest numbers of panicles are the representation for the high yield from the plant. It was found that treatment T8 (NPK) showed maximum number of panicles per tree (845.00), which was significantly different from the T6(NK) and T3 (K) which had also high number of panicles than T5 (NP) and T7(PK) in Table 1. The lowest numbers of panicles were found in P (T3) and control. Singh and Tripathi (1978)SINGH, U. and TRIPATHI, J., 1978. Effect of foliar spray of KNO3 and sodium dihydrogen and the phosphorus on physioco-chemical quality of mango fruit. Punjab Horticultural Journal, vol. 18, pp. 39-40. recorded an increase in panicle emergence in cv. Baramasi and Langra as a result of spraying three times with KNO3 (3%) and NaH2PO4 (0.6%) solution.

The data regarding the total number of flowers per panicle showed obvious differences as affected by different doses of fertilizer and result was statistically significant. It is clear from the results that T8 (NPK) showed remarkably highest number of flowers per panicle (974.52) over all others fertilizer application followed by T6 (NK), T3 (K) and T5 (NP) treatments, while lowest numbers of flowers (543.21) were observed in control (see Table 2). Balance fertilizer application increased the emergence of panicles and total numbers of flowers on mango tree.

Table 2
Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on reproductive physiology of mango cv. Dusehri.

It is also important to note that combine application of T8 (NPK) increases the total number of flowers as compared to other treatments. Previously, it has been reported that highest flowering found with the combine spray of urea and double super-phosphate 2 to 4% in cv. Chaunsa (Singh, 1987SINGH, R.N., 1987. Mango. In: M.R. SETHURAG and A.S. RAGHAVENDRA, eds. Tree crop physiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 39-55.). However, total number of flowers were significantly reduced with application of 2,4-D, GA3 and NAA (Xiao et al., 2005XIAO, J.-X., PENG, S.-A., HE, H.-P. and LI, J.-H., 2005. Effects of calcium nitrate and IAA on calcium concentration and quality of Satsuma mandarin fruit. Guoshu Xuebao, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 211-215.).

3.2. Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on flowering characteristics of mango cv. Dusehri

The data regarding the fruit retention percentage per panicle was found statistically significant. The results showed that maximum fruit retention percentage were found in T8 (NPK), which significantly influenced the yield of tree over other treatments. It was found that T6 (NK) and T3 (P) alone seems to have more fruit retention percentage than T5 (PK) and T7 (NP) treatments than control (see Table 2). A high rate of fruit set and fruit retention is main concern to the growers as a prerequisite for high yield. Nevertheless, fruit set percentage was very low, 0.1% flowers mature (Hayes, 1945HAYES, W.B., 1945. Fruit growing in India. Allahabad: Kitabistan.) in mango cv. Bombay which sufficient average crop yield 200 fruit per tree. There are many factors such as high ratio of male flowers, pollination failure among the perfect the flowers, germination failure, poor pollen tube growth and unfavorable weather condition prevailing at anthesis which are responsible for low fruit retention. Percentage of perfect flowers directly linked to initial fruit set (Considine and Turner, 1991CONSIDINE, J. and TURNER, D., 1991. Seasonal effects on floral biology and fruit set of mangoes in a warm temperate region of Western Australia. Frontier in Tropical Fruit Research, vol. 321, pp. 626-635.; Iyer et al., 1989IYER, C., SUBBAIAH, M., SUBRAMANYAM, M. and RAO, G.P., 1989. Screening of germplasm and correlation among certain characters in mango. Acta Horticulturae, no. 231, pp. 83-88.). Singh (1960)SINGH, L.B., 1960. The mango. London: Leonard Hill Ltd. indicated that less than 0.1% of hermaphrodite flowers developed into mature fruit, while more than 99.5% of them dropped off, and sometime only 0.1% of set fruit reach maturity in mango orchards (Chacko, 1986CHACKO, E. 1986. Physiology of vegetative and reproductive growth in mango (Mangifera indica L.) trees. In: Proceedings of the First Australian Mango Research Workshop, 1986, Cairns, Queensland. Cairns: CSIRO, pp. 54-70.; Chadha et al., 1980CHADHA, K., SAMRA, J. and THAKUR, R., 1980. Standardization of leaf-sampling technique for mineral composition of leaves of mango cultivar ‘Chausa’. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 323-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(80)90090-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(80)9...
; Kanwar et al., 1987KANWAR, J., NIJJAR, G. and KAHLON, G., 1987. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and productivity of Dashehari mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Research, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 411-422.).

Data revealed that minimum fruit drop was found in T8 (NPK). With the split application of T2 (N), T3 (P) and T4 (K) fertilizer, non-significant results were observed among different fertilizer treatments. However, with interaction of fertilizers NP showed slightly high fruit drop while T7 (PK) and T6 (NK) which were at par statistically, respectively (see Table 2). It had shown from the analysis that after the fruit setting maximum fruit drop takes place in the mango. With the split and different combination of fertilizers fruit drop could not control. However, with the combine application fruit drop comparatively decreased. There are many environmental factors such as insufficient soil fertility, in adequate soil moisture, diseases, and low temperature at time of bloom may also favor the incidence of fruit drop (Singh, 1960SINGH, L.B., 1960. The mango. London: Leonard Hill Ltd.; Young and Koo, 1975YOUNG, T. and KOO, R., 1975. Increasing yield of Parvin’ and’ Kent ‘mangos on Lakewood sand by increased nitrogen and potassium fertilization. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting. Florida: Florida State Horticultural Society.). Fruit drop can be reduced with the proper amount fertilizer at suitable time, it provides proper nutrition to the developing fruit.

Sex ratios of flowers are very important aspect for the high yield. The data representing sex ratio (perfect flowers) indicated that the treatment effect on sex ratio was non-significant. However, highest sex ratio 69.10% was recorded with the T8 (NPK) treatment. Although, sex ratio percentage were found same in remaining treatments T6 (NK), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T7 (PK), T2 (N) and T3 (P), respectively, and lowest ratio was observed in control (T1) (see Table 2). Alone and interaction of different fertilizers did not show any significant results. India (1982)INDIA, 1982. Annual Research Report of Project on Mango cv. Malda, BCKV, Kalyani. India: FPI Puble. found that with the increase in nitrogen level from 0 to 300 g per plant number of perfect flowers increased. Similar observations were witnessed by Rajput and Tiwari (1975)RAJPUT, C. and TIWARI, J., 1975. Effect of foliar spray of urea on flowering and fruiting characters of three cultivars of mango. Bangladesh Horticulture, vol. 3, pp. 1-5. that 2%, 4% and 6% urea spray improved the perfect flowers percentage and fruit set ratio in mango. Ratio of perfect to staminate flowers greatly varies with the panicle, trees and among cultivars and found to be lower than 50% (Anila and Radha, 2006ANILA, R. and RADHA, T., 2006. Studies on fruit drop in mango varieties. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, vol. 41, pp. 30-32.; Baghel et al., 1988BAGHEL, B., SARNAIK, D. and NAIR, P., 1988. Flowering and fruiting behaviour of different varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) under Jabalpur conditions. PKV Research Journal, vol. 12, pp. 37-39.; El Nabawy et al., 1983EL NABAWY, S., EL HAMMADY, A., KHALIFA, S., RAWASH, A. and EL MASRY, H., 1983. Studies on floral induction, sex expression and fruit drop in relation to alternate bearing habit of Langra and Ewais mango cultivars [Egypt]. Annals of Agricultural Science, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 213-225.; Hussein et al., 1989HUSSEIN, M., MAHMOUD, H., AMEN, K.A. and ABO-EL-EZ, A.T., 1989. Comparitive studies on sex distribution of some mango varieties Mangifera indica L. under Assuit conditions. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 79-82.; Joubert et al., 1993JOUBERT, J., ROBBERTSE, P., COETZER, L. and WISHART, D., 1993. Inflorescence characteristics and flower sex ratio studies of container-grown mango trees. South African Mango Growers' Association, vol. 13, pp. 27-33.; Pimentel et al., 1984PIMENTEL, R.B., CORONEL, R.E. and ESPINO, R., 1984. Floral biology and fruit set in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars: “Carabao”, “Pico” and “Kancha Mitha”. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 47-51.). High percentage of perfect flowers found range from 25 to 36.6%, which is closely associated to high productivity in cv. Langra (Mukerjee, 1953MUKERJEE, S.K., 1953. Origin, distribution and phylogenetic affinity of the species of Mangifera L. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 55, no. 356, pp. 65-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1953.tb00004.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.19...
). There was no significant difference among the maturity time of different fruits and all the treatments reached to maturity stage during first week of June.

3.3. Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on yield parameters of mango cv. Dusehri

Data regarding the total number of fruits per tree as affected by different fertilizer treatments and result was statistically significant. Highest numbers of fruits 379.0 were recorded with the application of T8 (NPK), while in split application T4 (K) showed the highest number of fruit (278.3) followed by the T3 (P) and T2 (N) with the total number of fruits 241.4 and 213.3, respectively. On contrary, in combine fertilizer treatment T6 (NK) significantly showed high fruit numbers (320) followed by T3 (NP) and T7 (PK) with the fruit number 288.6 and 274.3, respectively (see Table 3). It was revealed form above data combined fertilizer dose yielded higher number of fruits per tree rather than split application.

Table 3
Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on physical characters of mango cv. Dusehri.

Results revealed that highest yield was obtained from T8 (NPK) as compared to all other treatments and T1 (control). In spilt application, T4 (K) showed the higher yield (55 kg) as compared to the T2 (N) and T3 (P) where the yield had 52 and 50 kg, respectively. While, in combine application yield was significantly higher in T6 (NK) followed by T5 (NP) T7 (PK) with the yield 66 kg, 57 kg and 54 kg, respectively. Rajput and Singh (1983)RAJPUT, C.B.S. and SINGH, J.N., 1983. Effects of urea and GA3 sprays on growth, flowering and fruiting characters of mango. Progressive Horticulture, vol. 15, pp. 174-177. reported that two foliar applications of urea (6%) and GA3 (30 ppm) on mango trees just before bloom, increased the length of terminal shoot, leaves per shoot, flowering and yield (Sarker and Rahim, 2012SARKER, B.C. and RAHIM, M., 2012. Effects of doses and splits of fertilizer application on harvesting time, yield and quality of mango cv. amrapali. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 279-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v37i2.11231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bjar.v37i2.112...
). Malhi et al. (1988)MALHI, C., SINGH, G., SINGH, R. and DAHILLON, W., 1988. Studies on the continous use of N, P and K fertilizer h dushehari cv. of mango. 1. Effect on tree growth, yield and fruit quality. Punjab Horticultural Journal, vol. 28, pp. 36-39. noted the significant increase in vegetative growth of mango (cv. Dusehri) with the application of with N, P and K fertilization. the greatest response was observed with N followed by P and K and treatment with 100 g N, 200 g P2O5 and 200 g K2O per tree per year of age showed the highest yield. Chadha et al. (1980)CHADHA, K., SAMRA, J. and THAKUR, R., 1980. Standardization of leaf-sampling technique for mineral composition of leaves of mango cultivar ‘Chausa’. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 323-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(80)90090-4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(80)9...
observed significant increase in the fruit yield of mango cv. Dusehri upon application of N (1 Kg/tree/year) (Reddy and Majmudar, 1983REDDY, S.E. and MAJMUDAR, A., 1983. Response of mango (Mangifera indica L) to foliar application of phosphorus. Fertilizer Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 281-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01049484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01049484...
). Reddy and Majmudar (1983)REDDY, S.E. and MAJMUDAR, A., 1983. Response of mango (Mangifera indica L) to foliar application of phosphorus. Fertilizer Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 281-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01049484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01049484...
found high yield about 88% compared to control by spraying orthophosphoric acid (0.5%) alone in combination with 2% urea three times during September, November and March. Yield increased up to 30% increase with the application of 80 Kg N per hectare (Avilan, 1974AVILAN, R.L., 1974. Sistema radicular del mango (Mangifera indica L.) en un regosol aluvial. Agronomia-Tropical, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 3-10.), and foliar application of 1 to 2% urea was found to increase the yield by about 8 times compared to control (Shawky et al., 1978SHAWKY, I., ZIDAN, Z., EL-TOMI, A. and DAHSHAN, D., 1978. Effect of urea sprays on time of blooming, flowering malformation and productivity of Taimour mango tree [Egypt]. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 133-142.; Xiuchong et al., 2001XIUCHONG, Z., GUOJIAN, L., JIANWU, Y., SHAOYING, A. and LIXIAN, Y., 2001. Balanced fertilization on mango in Southern China. Better Crops International, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 16-20.). Zhuang, (1987)ZHUANG, Y.M., 1987. A comparative study on the leaf macroelemental content of grafted and own-rooted trees of ‘Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Acta Horticulturae Sinica, vol. 14, pp. 239-44. found that both high and medium levels of fertilizer applications induced an increase of Ponkan fruit yield of 30.7% and 14.5% respectively, and as well as quality of fruits was improved.

3.4. Effect of different fertilizers combinations of N, P and K on fruit physical characteristics of mango cv. Dusehri

Data shows that fruit length was non-significantly affected by different fertilizers T3 (K), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T2 (P). However, maximum fruit length was achieved from T8 (NPK), and lowest fruit lengths was found in control (see Table 3). It was found that with proper combination and amount of fertilizer will increase the fruit length. Our results are in line with Ahmed et al. (2001)AHMED, S., JILANI, M., GHAFFOOR, A., WASEEM, K. and REHMAN, S., 2001. Effect of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.). The Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 256-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2001.256.258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2001.256.2...
who observed that fruit length increased with the proper fertilizer combination. Syamal and Mishra (1989)SYAMAL, M.M. and MISHRA, K., 1989. Effect of NPK on growth, flowering, fruiting and quality of mango. Acta Horticulturae, no. 231, pp. 276-281. showed that fertilizer application noticeably affected the fruit length in mango. Fruit size increase in tree receiving a combined spray of Urea and Super phosphate at 2-4% (Singh and Rajput, 1977SINGH, R.R. and RAJPUT, C.B.S., 1977. Effect of various concentrations of zinc on vegetative growth characters, flowering, fruiting and physico-chemical composition of fruits in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Chaunsa. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 10-14.). Singh and Tripathi (1978)SINGH, U. and TRIPATHI, J., 1978. Effect of foliar spray of KNO3 and sodium dihydrogen and the phosphorus on physioco-chemical quality of mango fruit. Punjab Horticultural Journal, vol. 18, pp. 39-40. found an increase in fruit size in cv. Baramasi and Langra with the foliar application of KNO3 (3%) and NaH2PO4 (0.6%) solution (Shaban and Ibrahim, 2009SHABAN, A. and IBRAHIM, A., 2009. Comparative study on normal and nubbin fruits of some mango cultivars. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2166-2175.).

Our results reveal highest pulp weight in the T8 (NPK) fertilizer treatment followed by T6 (NK), T5 (NP), and T7 (PK) (see Table 3). Application of individual fertilizers, T4 (K) showed the maximum pulp weight which closely followed by T3 (P) and T2 (N). Our results are in line with the Jagirdar and Sheikh (1970)JAGIRDAR, S.A.P. and SHEIKH, M.R., 1970. Effect of different fertilizers on yield and quality of mango cv. Bombay Alphanso. Agriculture Pakistan, vol. 20, pp. 175-184. who reported that mango cv. Bombay Alphanso when fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer showed improve fruit quality by increasing the pulp percentage of fruits. Results clearly indicate that mean stone fruit was greatly affected by various fertilizer combination used in this study. The highest stone weight was found form the T8 (NPK), while low stone weight was recorded in control (T1). In single fertilizer application, T3 (K) had the higher stone weight among the T3 (P) and T4 (N), respectively. These results are supported from Syamal and Mishra (1989)SYAMAL, M.M. and MISHRA, K., 1989. Effect of NPK on growth, flowering, fruiting and quality of mango. Acta Horticulturae, no. 231, pp. 276-281. that stone weight increase with the application of NPK fertilizer.

Mango peel play important role in improving the nutritional status of unconventional feed of animal. From all these combinations, a notably significantly higher peel weight was found form NPK application. Among the single fertilizer application T4 (K) was obtained the higher peel weight which closely followed by T3 (P), T4 (K) and control obtained the minimum peel weight from all the treatments. While form the combine fertilizer application T6 (NK) showed the higher peel weight which closely followed by T5 (NP) and T7 (PK). Results regarding the peel weight was found to be consistent with the finding of Jagirdar and Sheikh (1970)JAGIRDAR, S.A.P. and SHEIKH, M.R., 1970. Effect of different fertilizers on yield and quality of mango cv. Bombay Alphanso. Agriculture Pakistan, vol. 20, pp. 175-184. who reported that combined fertilizer application plays very role in high yield and high peel and flesh weight.

Fruit weight of the treated plant showed the significant results with the application of different combinations of fertilizer. The treatment T8 (NPK) showed the maximum fruit weight followed by T4 (K) and T6 (NK), while lowest fruit weight was found in T4 (P) and control (T1), respectively. Application of T7 (PK) and T1 (N) did not influence the fruit weight. Fruit weight was found to be maximum with combined use of NPK fertilizer (Ahmed et al., 2001AHMED, S., JILANI, M., GHAFFOOR, A., WASEEM, K. and REHMAN, S., 2001. Effect of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the yield and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.). The Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 256-258. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2001.256.258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2001.256.2...
). Syamal and Mishra (1989)SYAMAL, M.M. and MISHRA, K., 1989. Effect of NPK on growth, flowering, fruiting and quality of mango. Acta Horticulturae, no. 231, pp. 276-281. found maximum number of fruits (5.4 fruits/panicle) with the application of 1.0 Kg N, 2.0 Kg P2O5 and 1.0 Kg K2O per tree. Our results were similar to those reported by Singh et al. (1987)SINGH, Z., DHILLON, B.S. and SINGH, Z., 1987. Effect of foliar application of boron on vegetative and panicle growth, sex expression, fruit retention and physicochemical characters of fruits of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dusehri. Tropical Agriculturist, vol. 64, pp. 305-308. who observed higher fruit weight 173.9 g, from 15-years old mango cv. Dusehri by spraying aqueous solution of NPK (1.0%) twice in the month of September and April.

3.5. Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on chemical characteristic of mango cv. Dusehri

The on total soluble solids was indicates non-significant difference among the treatments (see Table 4). Maximum total soluble solids (24.53%) were present in T8 (NPK) which was statistically at par with the T6 (NK) (23.43%), while minimum total soluble solids were obtained from control (T1). Singh (1987)SINGH, R.N., 1987. Mango. In: M.R. SETHURAG and A.S. RAGHAVENDRA, eds. Tree crop physiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 39-55. reported that foliar application of boric acid (500 to 5000 ppm) at the late bud-swelling stage significantly increased vegetative growth, length and breadth of the panicle, fruit retention, total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/acid ratio and total sugars of fruit compared with the control.

Table 4
Effect of different fertilizer combinations of N, P and K on biochemical characteristics of mango cv. Dusehri.

The data on total acidity indicates non-significant differences among treatments (see Table 4). The highest acidity (0.52%) was found in T1 (control) followed by T2 (N), T3 (K) while T4 (NP) was statistically at par with T5 (NK), while lowest acidity percent (0.26%) was observed in T8 (NPK). Taha et al. (2014)TAHA, R.A., HASSAN, H. and SHAABAN, E., 2014. Effect of different potassium fertilizer forms on yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral content of Zebda Mango trees. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 123-129. reported that potassium fertilizer enhances the yield and increases the acidity percentage in Zebda mango fruit.

Obvious increment in the TSS/acid ratio was seen in treated plants (Table 4). Highest TSS/acid ratio (73.53) was obtained from T8 (NPK) followed by T7 (NPK), T6 (PK), T4 (K), and T5 (NP) which were not significantly different not from each other, while lowest TSS/Acid ratio (22.43) was obtained from T1 (control). Our results are in consistence with finding of Khamis et al. (2017)KHAMIS, M.A., SHARAF, M.M., ABD-EL-LATIF, F.M., HABASHY, S.I. and KELANI, R.A., 2017. Impact of inorganic and bio-organic fertilization on growth, yield and fruit quality of young fruitful mango trees “Fajri Kalan cv. Middle East. Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 340-347., which reported that high TSS/acid ratio with the application of NPK+ Compost on mango cv. Fajri Kalan.

Vitamin C is an important ingredient of human nutrition and act as powerful antioxidant. Amon the treatments, vitamin C contents did not vary significantly (see Table 4). However, data regarding the vitamin C was found to be affected by some treatment combinations. Maximum level of vitamin C (57.63 mg/100 mL) was obtained from T8 (NPK) and minimum (31.26 mg/100 mL) was obtained from the control treatment. Multiple factors could affect the vitamin C contents in fruit and vegetables such as climatic conditions, cultural practices, genotypic differences (Mozafar, 1993MOZAFAR, A., 1993. Nitrogen fertilizers and the amount of vitamins in plants: a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2479-2506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169309364698.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169309364...
; Taha et al., 2014TAHA, R.A., HASSAN, H. and SHAABAN, E., 2014. Effect of different potassium fertilizer forms on yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral content of Zebda Mango trees. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 123-129.; Weston and Barth, 1997WESTON, L. and BARTH, M., 1997. Preharvest factors affecting postharvest quality of vegetables. HortScience, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 812-816. http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.32.5.812.
http://dx.doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.32.5....
). It has many biological functions such as in reduction of cholesterol level; improve immunity, other free radicals’ production, maintenance of healthy body and prevention of many diseases (Khamis et al., 2017KHAMIS, M.A., SHARAF, M.M., ABD-EL-LATIF, F.M., HABASHY, S.I. and KELANI, R.A., 2017. Impact of inorganic and bio-organic fertilization on growth, yield and fruit quality of young fruitful mango trees “Fajri Kalan cv. Middle East. Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 340-347.). The data regarding the total sugar was non-significant regarding fertilizer treatments. Maximum total sugar (20.84%) was determined in the T8 (NPK) followed by T5 (NP), T4 (K), T3 (P), while minimum total sugar (13.5%) was observed in the control (T1) (see Table 4). Sugar is very important parameter for quality measurement in mango fruit and is chief source of energy in different pathways. Fruit quality and total sugar content improved with application of compost and foliar application of Kaolin (aluminum silicate) and silicon (potassium silicate) on four-year-old mango trees cv. Keitt (El-Deen et al., 2015EL-DEEN, E., ATTIA, M., LAILA, F., SHAHIN, M., GENAIDY, E. and MERWARD, M., 2015. Soil mulching and foliar anti-transpirations effect on soil, growth and nutrients status of young mango trees cultivated in Toshka. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1013-1032.). Moreover, it was found that foliar application of potassium silicate at 0.2% on mango fruit during development increased the fruit TSS, vitamin C and total sugar content (Abd El-Rahman, 2015ABD EL-RAHMAN, M., 2015. Relation of spraying silicon with fruiting of Keitte Mango trees growing under upper Egypt conditions. Stem Cell, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1-5.; Baiea et al., 2015BAIEA, M., EL-BADAWY, H. and EI-GIOUSHY, S., 2015. Effect of potassium, zinc and boron on growth, yield and fruit quality of Keitt mango trees. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 800-812.).

4. Conclusion

In this study results revealed that different fertilizer combinations showed different response during growth and production. However, fertilizer in combination was found more effective rather than individual application to mango trees. Application of mango trees with NPK (1000 g Urea + 750 g TSP + 750 g SOP) was found to be effective for most of the parameters during vegetative growth, flowering and yield parameters. Therefore, above mention fertilizer combination could be recommended for obtaining high yield with good quality production and improvement of mango orchards.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 Mar 2021
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    27 Mar 2020
  • Accepted
    07 July 2020
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