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Chemical and microbiological properties of Lake Aygır in Turkey and usage of drinking, fisheries, and irrigation

Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas do lago Aygır na Turquia e uso de bebidas, pescarias e irrigação

Abstract

Since water is one of the essentials for life, the presence and quality of water in the habitat is extremely important. Therefore, water quality change and management of Lake Aygır was investigated in this study. For this, water samples collected from the lake and the irrigation pool between May 2015 and May 2016 were analyzed monthly. Spectrophotometric, titrimetric and microbiological methods were used to determine the water quality. According to some water quality regulations, HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, fecal coliform and total suspended solid (TSS) values were found above the limit values. The other 29 parameters comply with Turkish national and international legislations. Lake Aygır was negatively affected by the surrounding settlements and agricultural activities. It is thought that the water resource should be monitored periodically and remedial studies should be done to prevent parameters exceeding the limits. However, Lake Aygır was generally suitable for drinking, use, fishing and irrigation.

Keywords:
heavy metal; lake Aygır; water quality; water pollution; water resources

Resumo

Como a água é um dos elementos essenciais para a vida, a presença e a qualidade da água no habitat são extremamente importantes. Portanto, a mudança da qualidade da água e a gestão do lago Aygır foram investigadas neste estudo. Para isso, amostras de água coletadas no lago e na piscina de irrigação entre maio de 2015 e maio de 2016 foram analisadas mensalmente. Métodos espectrofotométricos, titulométricos e microbiológicos foram usados para determinar a qualidade da água. De acordo com alguns regulamentos de qualidade da água, os valores de HCO3, NH4, Cu, Mo, Br, coliformes fecais e total sólido suspenso (TSS) foram encontrados acima dos valores limite. Os outros 29 parâmetros estão em conformidade com as legislações nacionais e internacionais turcas. O lago Aygır foi afetado negativamente pelos assentamentos e atividades agrícolas ao redor. Pensa-se que o recurso hídrico deve ser monitorado periodicamente e estudos corretivos devem ser feitos para evitar que os parâmetros ultrapassem os limites. No entanto, o lago Aygır era geralmente adequado para beber, usar, pescar e irrigar.

Palavras-chave:
metal pesado; lago Aygır; qualidade da água; poluição da água; recursos hídricos

1. Introduction

Water is a fundamental necessity and critical component for the socio-economic growth of any country. Because water is mainly used in drinking water, agricultural activities, fishing activities, energy production, tourism, navigation and recreation. However, the disproportionate amount of some water quality parameters and microorganisms can harm water quality as well as cause problems for the health of fauna, flora and human beings (Çeti̇nkaya, 2003ÇETİNKAYA, O., 2003. Water quality course notes. Van: Department of Fisheries, Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty, 76 p.; Achieng et al., 2014ACHIENG, A., RABURU, P.O., OKINYI, L. and WANJALA, S., 2014. Use of macrophytes in the bioassessment of the health of King’wal wetland, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 129-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2014.908020.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2014....
; Nagamani et al., 2015NAGAMANI, C.C., SARASWATHIDEVI, D. and SHALINI, A., 2015. Physico-chemical analysis of water samples. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2149-2158.). Besides, water scarcity has become an unpleasant reality in many parts of the world (Taloor et al., 2020TALOOR, A.K., PIR, R.A., ADIMALLA, N., ALI, S., MANHAS, D.S., ROY, S. and SINGH, A.K., 2020. Spring water quality and discharge assessment in the Basantar watershed of Jammu Himalaya using geographic information system (GIS) and water quality Index (WQI). Groundwater for Sustainable Development, vol. 10, 100364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100364.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100...
). In Turkey, annual per capita water amount is 1519 m3/year. It is estimated that water problems will be difficult to solve after 25-30 years if necessary measures are not taken such as preserving the current state of water resources, preventing their pollution and ensuring the best use of them (Akin and Akin, 2007AKIN, M. and AKIN, G., 2007. Importance of water, water potential in Turkey, water basins and water pollution. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 105-118.; Turkey, 2017TURKEY. Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs. General Directorate of Water Management, 2017. Göller ve Sulak Alanlar Eylem Planı 2017-2023. Ankara.; Birici et al., 2017BIRICI, N., KARAKAYA, G., ŞEKER, T., KÜÇÜKYILMAZ, M., BALCI, M., ÖZBEY, N. and GÜNEŞ, M., 2017 [viewed 11 October 2020]. Evaluation of Coruh River (Bayburt) water quality in accord with water pollution control regulation. International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences [online], vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 54-64. Available from: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijpas/issue/29969/305778
https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ijpas/is...
; Şen, 2017ŞEN, F., 2017. Türkiye’de Su Kaynakları Yönetimi, Söz Sahibi Kurumlar, Gıda, Tarım Ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı ve Su Ürünleri Uygulamaları. In: S. KIZILKAYA, H. ÖZTÜRK, F. DOĞAN, Ş. DEĞIRMEN and N. SÜNGÜ, eds. 2023-2071 Vizyonuyla Tarım. Ankara: Semih Sistem Ofset Basım Yayım, pp. 208-241.). Today, the world's waters are at risk of pollution and destruction. Domestic, agricultural, industrial and tourism wastes, climate changes resulting from global warming and drought trigger this result. As a result of these negative factors, clean water resources are rapidly decreasing (Küçük, 2007KÜÇÜK, S., 2007. Investigation of water quality parameters of the Büyük Menderes river for fisheries. Journal Of Adnan Menderes University Agricultural Faculty, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 7-13.). The rapid consumption of fresh water resources, the change of quality and the pollution have attracted attention to the water. In order to ensure a wide range of the usable of quality and clean water resources, the water resources should be managed very well (Girgin et al., 2004GIRGIN, S., AKYUREK, Z. and USUL, N., 2004. Development of GIS-based stream flow data analysis system for Turkey. In: Proceedings of 2004 ESRI International User Conference, 2004, Redlands, CA. Redlands: ESRI, pp. 9-13.). In order for a water resource to be used for its intended purposes, it should be monitored periodically. A monitoring program managed to fully evaluate the data provides very useful information for environmental management (Ünlü et al., 2008ÜNLÜ, A., ÇOBAN, F. and TUNÇ, M.S., 2008. Investigation of Lake Hazar water quality according to physical and inorganic chemical parameters. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 119-127.).

Lake Aygır is supplied to Aydınlar Town as drinking water, to farmer as aquaculture and irrigation water (Çavuş and Şen, 2020aÇAVUŞ, A. and ŞEN, F., 2020a. Assessment in situ measurements in monitoring water quality status of Lake Aygır, Bitlis. Journal of Agriculture, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19-27., bÇAVUŞ, A. and ŞEN, F., 2020b. Application of CCME WQI to assess drinking water quality under Turkish national legislations: lake Aygır. European Journal of Science and Technology, no. 19, pp. 836-842.). Furthermore, Lake Aygır is a natural beauty and touristic attraction center in itself (Köşker, 2001KÖŞKER, H., 2001. Tourism potential and the improvable types of tourism of Van. Istanbul: Institute of Social Sciences. Master Thesis in Istanbul University.). The lake is suitable for swimming, water sports, angling, camping and picnics (Köşker and Kahyaoğlu, 2015KÖŞKER, H. and KAHYAOĞLU, M., 2015. Profile of domestic tourist who visit Suphan. Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 75-92.). In this study, the water quality of Lake Aygır, which is used for drinking and utility water, animal drinking water, agricultural irrigation, fishing and recreation purposes, was investigated.

2. Material and Methods

Lake Aygır is a maar lake located on the southern slopes of Suphan Mountain, which is the third highest mountain in Anatolia. Lake Aygır, connected to Adilcevaz district of Bitlis, is at an altitude of 1938 m and has an area of 1.4 km2 (Özgülbaş, 2011ÖZGÜLBAŞ, O., 2011. Van Gölü’nün Kirpiği Süphan Dağı. Journal of Uçantürk, no. 531, pp. 14-21.; Çavuş, 2018ÇAVUŞ, A., 2018. An investigation on water quality and management of Aygır Lake. Van: Institute of Science. Doctoral Thesis in Van Yüzüncü Yıl University.). The sampling points in the Lake Aygır were shown in Figure 1 and Table 1.

Figure 1
Sample stations; I: Near trout cages, II: Across to village, III: Center of the lake, IV: Drainage of the lake, V: Irrigation pond.
Table 1
Sampling points information geographically.

Studies were carried out in monthly between May 2015 and May 2016. A boat and a gasoline engine were used in transportation to sampling points. Water samples were taken from the surface (0 m), 15 m depth and lake bottom with a Nansen bottle. The water in the Nansen bottle was filled and stored in sample bottles. The bottles were filled with sampling water several times and were tightly closed in an airtight manner. The bottles were brought in thermos containers in order not to break the cold chain. They were stored at +4 ° C refrigerator conditions in Van YYÜ Faculty of Fisheries Water Pollution and Quality Laboratory.

To determine the quality of water samples, Cl and salinity by Mohr-Knudsen method, Ca, Mg, total hardness by EDTA method, CO3, HCO3, total alkalinity by HCI titration method were analyzed with titrimetric analysis solutions (Greenberg et al., 1992GREENBERG, A.E., CLESCERI, L.S. and EATON, A.D., 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Washington: APHA, AWWA, WEF.). TSS, Al, Cr, CN, NH4, NH3, NH3–N, NO2, NO2–N, NO3, NO3–N, SO4, o-PO4, K, Zn, Cu, F, Mn, Ag, B, Ni, Co, Br, I, Mo, Fe, Si, SiO2, COD parameters were analyzed with a UV spectrophotometer. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) were analyzed for 5 days at 20 °C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using a thermoreactor and the UV spectrophotometer (HACH, 2010HACH. 2010. DR 5000 spektrofotometre: çalışma prosedürleri 2006. Germany.). The water was transferred to the ICP-OES spectrometer for As and Cd analysis; ICP-MS spectrometer for B analysis; AAS spectrometer for Na analysis (Morales-Rubio and De la Guardia, 1999MORALES-RUBIO, A. and DE LA GUARDIA, M., 1999. Applications in environmental analysis. Analytical Spectroscopy Library, vol. 9, pp. 309-341.; Hill et al., 1995HILL, S.J., BROWN, A., RIVAS, C., SPARKES, S. and EBDON, L., 1995. High performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for lead and tin speciation in environmental samples. Chapter 16. In: Ph. QUEVAUVILLER, E.A. MAIER, B. GRIEPINK, eds. Quality Assurance for Environmental Analysis, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 411-434.; Kmiecik et al., 2016KMIECIK, E., TOMASZEWSKA, B., WĄTOR, K. and BODZEK, M., 2016. Selected problems with boron determination in water treatment processes. Part I: comparison of the reference methods for ICP-MS and ICP-OES determinations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 11658-11667.; Thompson and Wood, 1982THOMPSON, M. and WOOD, S., 1982. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chapter 4a, In: E.J. CANTLE, ed. Water and effluents. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 67-94.). Fecal coliform were determined using a membrane filter set (TSE, 2014TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 2014. TS EN ISO 9308-1: water quality: enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria. Part 1: membrane filtration method for waters with low bacterial background flora. Ankara: TSE, 23 p.; Tekbaş and Oğur, 2005TEKBAŞ, F. and OĞUR, R., 2005. Temel Su Analiz Teknikleri. Ankara: GATA Halk Sağlığı AD Yayınları, pp. 19-27.; Sartonet, 2015SARTONET [online], 2015 [viewed 11 October 2020]. Available from: http://www.sartonet.com/labaratuvar/mikrobiyolojik_analiz/nks_besi
http://www.sartonet.com/labaratuvar/mikr...
).

The data obtained at the end of the study were compared with the regulations and standards as Greenberg et al. (1992)GREENBERG, A.E., CLESCERI, L.S. and EATON, A.D., 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Washington: APHA, AWWA, WEF., FR (Turkey, 1995TURKEY. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. 1995. Fisheries Regulation. Official Gazette, Ankara. 10 mar. no. 22223.), TS 266 (TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.), WHO, UK, EEC (Tebbutt, 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.), USEPA (1999)UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY – USEPA, 1999 [viewed 11 October 2020]. NCEA-F-0644: guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment review draft [online]. Washington. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/draft-guidelines-carcinogen-ra-1999.htm
http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/draf...
, Çeti̇nkaya (2003)ÇETİNKAYA, O., 2003. Water quality course notes. Van: Department of Fisheries, Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty, 76 p., WPCR (Turkey, 2004TURKEY. 2004. WPCR: Turkish water pollution control regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara, 31 dec. no. 25687.), WHCR (Turkey, 2005TURKEY. 2005. WHCR: Water Intended for Human Consumption Regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara.), Egemen (2006)EGEMEN, Ö., 2006. Su Kalitesi Ders Kitabı. VI. baski. Bornova, İzmir: E.Ü. Basım Evi, 150 p. E.Ü. Su Ürünleri Fak. Yay, no. 14., Emre and Kürüm (2007)EMRE, Y. and KÜRÜM, V., 2007. Havuz ve Kafeslerde Alabalık Yetiştiriciliği. İstanbul, Turkey: Posta Basım Evi, Seyrantepe, 272 p.. They were analyzed from the perspectives of fishing, drinking, use and irrigation. Mean values and standard errors were made using Microsoft Excel 2007 program (Yildiz et al., 2011YILDIZ, N., AKBULUT, Ö. and BİRCAN, H., 2011. İstatistiğe giriş, uygulamali temel bilgiler çözümlü ve cevapli sorular. İstanbul: Aktif Yayınevi, 326 p.).

Formulas of magnesium hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na%), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI) were also used in the evaluation of water quality (Eaton, 1950EATON, F.M., 1950. Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Science, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195002000-00004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-19500...
; Richards, 1954RICHARDS, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Soil Science, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195408000-00012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-19540...
; Prasanth et al., 2012PRASANTH, S.S., MAGESH, N.S., JITHESHLAL, K.V., CHANDRASEKAR, N. and GANGADHAR, K.J.A.W.S., 2012. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Applied Water Science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 165-175.; Domenico and Schwartz, 1990DOMENICO, P.A. and SCHWARTZ, F.W., 1990. Physical and chemical hydrology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 410-420.). For this Ca, Mg, CO3, HCO3, Na and K ion species were expressed in meq.L-1.

3. Results

The alkalinity of water is calculated by determining the amount of CO3, HCO3 and hydroxide anions (Çeti̇nkaya, 2003ÇETİNKAYA, O., 2003. Water quality course notes. Van: Department of Fisheries, Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty, 76 p.; Gray, 2015aGRAY, N.F., 2015a. Nitat ve Nitrit, 5. In: M. IŞIK, ed. İçme Suyu Kalitesi. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 519 p.). In the measurements made in Lake Aygır, the average CO3 value was 9.8 ± 0.9 mg.L-1, the HCO3 value was 256.9 ± 5.0 mg.L-1 and the total alkalinity value was 235.1 ± 2.9 mg.L-1 (Table 2).

Table 2
According to the sampling months, data from titrimetric and spektrophotometric laboratory analysis in Lake Aygır (mg.L-1).

NH3, which is formed by the degradation of organic substances by microbiological activities, enters the body of aquatic creatures and has a toxic effect (Çeti̇nkaya, 2003ÇETİNKAYA, O., 2003. Water quality course notes. Van: Department of Fisheries, Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty, 76 p.; Atabey, 2015ATABEY, E., 2015. Elementler ve Sağlığa Etkileri. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Mezotelyoma ve Medikal Jeoloji Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Yayınları, 619 p. Yayın, no. 1.). The values of NH4, NH3, and NH3-N were determined as 0.06 ± 0.00 mg.L-1, 0.52 ± 0.05 mg.L-1 and 0.44 ± 0.05 mg.L -1, respectively, in this study (Table 2).

Cu plays a role in immune system, red blood cell production, hair color gain, metabolic activities, and functions as a cofactor in many enzymes. Cu mixes with various water resources through agriculture and industry and poses a threat to the living creatures in these areas (Atabey, 2015ATABEY, E., 2015. Elementler ve Sağlığa Etkileri. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Mezotelyoma ve Medikal Jeoloji Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Yayınları, 619 p. Yayın, no. 1.). The average Cu value in Lake Aygır was determined as 3.72 ± 0.22 µg.L-1 (Table 2).

Mo, which is naturally found in nature and is one of the essential elements, creates toxic effects when 100 mg.kg-1 is taken into the body, and it can cause anemia, diarrhea and uric acid accumulation in the blood (Gray, 2015bGRAY, N.F., 2015b. Metaller, 9. In: M. IŞIK, ed. İçme Suyu Kalitesi. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 519 p.). The average Mo value in Lake Aygır was determined as 1.69 ± 0.04 mg.L-1 (Table 3).

Table 3
According to the sampling months, data from spektrophotometric and microbiological laboratory analysis in Lake Aygır.

Br has many side effects. These can be listed as psychiatric illnesses, difficulty speaking, feeling weak and over-sleeping (Atabey, 2018ATABEY, E., 2018. Suyun Hikayesi. 1. basim. İstanbul: Asi Kitap yayın evi, 456 p.). Br, which is present in trace amounts in natural waters, is found at higher levels in salty waters and thermal waters (Güneş, 2016GÜNEŞ, S., 2016. Determination of the water quality of Nazik lake. Tunceli: Institute of Science. Master Thesis in Tunceli Munzur University.). The average Br value of Lake Aygır was 97.2 µg.L-1 (Table 3).

Determining whether water resources are exposed to fecal contamination indicates whether the water is hygienically safe (Sartonet, 2015SARTONET [online], 2015 [viewed 11 October 2020]. Available from: http://www.sartonet.com/labaratuvar/mikrobiyolojik_analiz/nks_besi
http://www.sartonet.com/labaratuvar/mikr...
). The highest number of fecal coliforms belonging to Lake Aygır was 8 cfu.100 mL-1 in the IV. station were determined (Table 3).

TSS adversely affects the sensory organs of fish and damages the mucus layer. TSS causes the death of benthic creatures living in the bottom, the development of fish eggs and larvae, the reproduction of fish, and prevents the plants from performing photosynthesis by reducing their light transmittance (Göksu, 2003GÖKSU, M.Z.L., 2003. Su kirliliği. Adana, 232 p. Ç.Ü. Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Yayınları, no. 7.). The average TSS value in Lake Aygır had been determined as 3.8 ± 0.5 mg.L-1 (Table 3).

A magnesium ratio of more than 50 meq.L-1 is considered to be harmful; therefore, such waters are unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, MH ranged between 0.47 and 0.61. Water from sampling points had not MH values greater than 50 meq.L-1 therefore suitable for agricultural practices. Also, suitability for irrigation based on Na% had excellent with mean 16.77. Lake Aygır was included in C2-S1 class from the graph of irrigation water classification with SAR 0.5736 and electrical conductivity 353.1 μS/cm (Çavuş and Şen, 2020aÇAVUŞ, A. and ŞEN, F., 2020a. Assessment in situ measurements in monitoring water quality status of Lake Aygır, Bitlis. Journal of Agriculture, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 19-27.). Lake Aygır as an irrigation water was in the class of medium salty waters (C2), and in the class of waters with less sodium (S1) damages.

The RSC value is positive (+) means that there is still some carbonate + bicarbonate in the environment except (CO3=+HCO3-) which is combined with (Ca+2+Mg+2). These ions can combine with Na+ to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). In other words, there is a potential carbonate and bicarbonate ion in the environment that can cause sodium damage. If the equation is negative (-), it means that there is no possibility of sodium damage in the environment (Eaton, 1950EATON, F.M., 1950. Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Science, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195002000-00004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-19500...
; Richards, 1954RICHARDS, L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Soil Science, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195408000-00012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-19540...
). In this study, RSC values between -2.3 and -0.8 meq.L-1 show that the lake water is suitable for irrigation. Besides, the water of Lake Aygır were categorized as good (Class II) for irrigation with 45% permeability index (Doneen, 1964DONEEN, L.D., 1964. Notes on water quality in agriculture. Davis: Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California.).

4. Discussion

HCO3 value was found above the value recommended in WHO (Tebbutt, 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.). While the alkalinity, which has a buffering effect in the waters, was required to be between 10-400 mg.L-1 in trout farming, it was below the limit value in our study (Table 2; TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.; Emre and Kürüm, 2007EMRE, Y. and KÜRÜM, V., 2007. Havuz ve Kafeslerde Alabalık Yetiştiriciliği. İstanbul, Turkey: Posta Basım Evi, Seyrantepe, 272 p.). The HCO3 values in the studies carried out in the Lake Van basin and other basins is given in Table 4.

Table 4
Similar studies in the Lake Van Basin and others about some of the criteries.

According to Turkish standards and WHO standards, NH4 values are suitable. While the water samples were in A2 class according to EEC in terms of average NH4, they were slightly above the limit value given in UK (0.5 mg.L -1) (Turkey, 2004TURKEY. 2004. WPCR: Turkish water pollution control regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara, 31 dec. no. 25687., 2005TURKEY. 2005. WHCR: Water Intended for Human Consumption Regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara.; TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.; Tebbutt 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.; Emre and Kürüm, 2007EMRE, Y. and KÜRÜM, V., 2007. Havuz ve Kafeslerde Alabalık Yetiştiriciliği. İstanbul, Turkey: Posta Basım Evi, Seyrantepe, 272 p.). The NH4 values in the studies carried out in the Lake Van basin and other basins is given in Table 4.

Cu values comply with both Turkish and international standards. Only according to WHCR, it was above the limit value (TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.; Turkey, 2004TURKEY. 2004. WPCR: Turkish water pollution control regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara, 31 dec. no. 25687., 2005TURKEY. 2005. WHCR: Water Intended for Human Consumption Regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara.; Tebbutt 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.).

According to WHO, Mo and Br exceeded the limit value (Tebbutt 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.). The Mo values in the studies carried out in the Lake Van basin and other basins is given in Table 4. The Br values were parallel to a study conducted in Lake Nazik (Güneş, 2016GÜNEŞ, S., 2016. Determination of the water quality of Nazik lake. Tunceli: Institute of Science. Master Thesis in Tunceli Munzur University.).

Lake Aygır water samples are in the I. water quality class in WPCR in point of FC (Turkey, 2004TURKEY. 2004. WPCR: Turkish water pollution control regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara, 31 dec. no. 25687.). WHCR was slightly above the limit values given in WHO and UK (0 cfu.100 mL-1) (Tebbutt, 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.; Turkey, 2005TURKEY. 2005. WHCR: Water Intended for Human Consumption Regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara.). It is thought that the surrounding settlements or herds of animals grazing around the lake are effective in finding fecal coliforms. The fecal coliform numbers in the studies carried out in the Lake Van basin and other basins is given in Table 4.

TSS was suitable according to TS 266 (TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.). TSS value has been found to comply with the standards in A3 class according to EEC (Tebbutt, 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.). Bayram (2011)BAYRAM, A., 2011. A study on seasonal variation of the stream Harsit water quality and estimation of the suspended sediment concentration using artificial neural networks. Trabzon: Institute of Science. Doktoral Thesis in Karadeniz Technical University. stated that the TSS limit values for natural protection areas and recreation and various uses are 5 and 15 mg.L-1, Birtwell (1999)BIRTWELL, I. K., 1999. The effects of sediment on fish and their habitat. Ottawa: Canadian Stock Assessment Secretariat. Research Document, no. 99/139. stated that very low risk occurs at TSS levels below 25 mg.L-1 for aquatic organisms, 25-100 mg.L-1 SSM low risk, 100-200 mg.L-1 TSS acceptable risk, 200-400 mg.L-1 SSM high risk and 400 mg.L-1 ' reported that there is an unacceptable risk in TSS above. The TSS values in the studies carried out in the Lake Van basin and other basins is given in Table 4.

The average MEI value, lake fishing yield, was 10.3 ± 0.2 mg/L/m (Table 3). Acara (1992)ACARA, H.A., 1992. Fresh water production ecology. Ankara: Tübitak Yay. Dağ. Dai. Bşk. measured the MEI values as 0.77, 1.08, 8.20, and 1.02 mg/L/m in the north, south, west and whole of the Kootenay Lake (Canada), respectively. MEI was reported in Şen (2001)ŞEN, F., 2001. A study on the carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) population of the lake Nazik (Ahlat-Bitlis-Türkiye). Van: Institute of Science. Master Thesis in Yüzüncü Yıl University. as 16.92 mg/L/m, in Çevlik (2013) as 38, 49, 70 and 2.25 mg/L/m (in different dams). According to these results, Aygır Lake is similar to Kootnay Lake and Nazik Lake in terms of fishing efficiency.

Cl, Ca, Mg, total hardness, CO3, HCO3, Al, Cr, CN, NO2, NO2 – N, NO3, NO3 – N, SO4, o-PO4, K, Zn, F, Mn, Ag, B, Ni, Co, I, Fe, Si, SiO2, COD, BOD, As, Cd, B, Na, were found suitable for Turkey, EU, WHO legislations and some literatures (TSE, 1997TURKISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE – TSE, 1997. TS 266: Turkish drinking water standards. Ankara: TSE.; Turkey, 1995TURKEY. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. 1995. Fisheries Regulation. Official Gazette, Ankara. 10 mar. no. 22223., 2004TURKEY. 2004. WPCR: Turkish water pollution control regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara, 31 dec. no. 25687., 2005TURKEY. 2005. WHCR: Water Intended for Human Consumption Regulation. Turkish Official Gazette, Ankara.; Tebbutt, 1998TEBBUTT, T.H.Y., 1998. Principles of water quality control. 5th ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann,.; Türkman et al., 1999TÜRKMAN, A., TOKGÖZ, S. and SARPTAS, H., 1999. Drinking water standards and reliable drinking water. In: Proceedings of the 3rd National Congress on Environmental Engineering, 1999, İzmir, Turkey. İzmir, pp. 1-9.; USEPA, 1999UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY – USEPA, 1999 [viewed 11 October 2020]. NCEA-F-0644: guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment review draft [online]. Washington. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/draft-guidelines-carcinogen-ra-1999.htm
http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/draf...
; Emre and Kürüm, 2007EMRE, Y. and KÜRÜM, V., 2007. Havuz ve Kafeslerde Alabalık Yetiştiriciliği. İstanbul, Turkey: Posta Basım Evi, Seyrantepe, 272 p.). At the same time, Çavuş and Şen (2020b)ÇAVUŞ, A. and ŞEN, F., 2020b. Application of CCME WQI to assess drinking water quality under Turkish national legislations: lake Aygır. European Journal of Science and Technology, no. 19, pp. 836-842. applied to CCME-WQI to this data set because of assessing drinking water quality. Under Turkish national legislations CCME-WQI values were good quality with 83.30 points. They stated that the lake could not reach the excellent quality due to its geological structure, a village on the shore, cage fishing.

Based on the results of this study, the quality of the lake is generally suitable for drinking, utility, fisheries and irrigation water. As drinking water with a small-scale treatment system; It can continue to be used as agricultural irrigation water without treatment. There is no information about the organic pollution load that trout cages release into the lake. Organic accumulation resulting from mesh cages can be simulated using various computer programs. As a result, the priority order should be determined while benefiting from Lake Aygır as a water resource. Right to benefit and use water resources; It should be established by considering the quantity, quality of the water, the characteristics of its location, essential needs and conditions.

Acknowledgement

This study was produced from the data of doctoral thesis conducted by Dr. Asude ÇAVUŞ in the management of Professor Dr. Fazıl ŞEN. The thesis was supported by Van YYÜ Scientific Research Projects Directorate as the project numbered 2015-FBE-D185.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    06 Aug 2021
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    11 Oct 2020
  • Accepted
    05 Jan 2021
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