New record of four sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Rondônia State, Western Amazon, Brazil

A. M. Pereira Júnior F. Resadore A. N. Rodrigues G. E. M. Ferreira G. R. Julião J. F. Medeiros About the authors

Sand flies are insects of medical importance that are present in high diversity in the Neotropical region. In Brazil, approximately 280 species have been recorded ( Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ) and 13 of these species are proven vectors of Leishmania spp. ( Rangel et al., 2018 RANGEL, E.F., LAINSON, R., CARVALHO, B.M., COSTA, S.M. and SHAW, J.J. 2018. Sand fly Vectors of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control. Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 341-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75544-1_7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-755...
). Prior to this study, 131 species had been recorded in Rondônia State ( Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ).

This study presents new records of four sand fly species found in Rondônia State. These records are of male specimens collected between 2016 and 2017 using HP light traps. Collections were made in three protected areas that are characterized by dense ombrophylous forest: 1- Jamari National Forest, Itapuã do Oeste municipality, 2- Jaru Biological Reserve, Vale do Anari and Ji-Paraná municipalities, 3- Guajará-Mirim State Park, Nova Mamoré municipality. Collections were also made in forest fragments near dwellings in periurban areas located in the municipalities of Cacoal and Monte Negro ( Figure 1 ).

Figure 1
Collection points of the new sand fly records to Rondônia State, Brazil. In the map (A) are indicated with the green color the municipalities and with yellow circles are highlighted the collection points of sand flies. In the map (B) is highlighted the Rondônia State territory in Brazil.

A total of 9,415 sand flies of the genera Bichromomyia, Brumptomyia , Evandromyia, Lutzomyia, Martinsmyia , Micropygomyia, Migonemyia, Nyssomyia , Pintomyia, Pressatia, Psathyromyia , Psychodopygus, Sciopemyia, Trichophoromyia , Trichopygomyia and Viannamyia were slide-mounted and species identification was performed using the identification keys proposed by Galati (2018) GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. . The new records were deposited in the Entomology Laboratory of Fiocruz Rondônia and include the following species:

Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock, 1962 (1 ♂, Figures 2 A, B), collected in Guajará-Mirim State Park, Nova Mamoré municipality, in a forest environment on the Cachoeira track (64°33’10”W, 10°18’57”S). This is the first record of B. mesai in an ombrophylous forest in the North Region of Brazil. This species was previously discovered in an armadillo’s hole and in a forest environment in the Colombian Amazon ( Sherlock, 1962 SHERLOCK, I.A., 1962. Sôbre alguns Phlebotomus e Brumptomyia da Colômbia (Diptera, Psychodidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 321-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761962000300004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-0276196...
; Bejarano et al., 2007 BEJARANO, E.E., CASTRO, M., PÉREZ-DORIA, A., HERNÁNDEZ-OVIEDO, E., VÉLEZ, A. and VÉLEZ, I.D., 2007. Primer informe de Lutzomyia França en el departamento de Guainía, Amazonia Colombiana, y de Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock (Diptera: Psychodidae) en el Litoral Caribe Colombiano. Neotropical Entomology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 990-993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600027. PMid:18246280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X200...
). This species is distributed among the Central American countries of Belize, Honduras, Mexico, and in the Trans-Andean region of the Chocó, Sucre and Santander Departments of Colombia ( Sherlock, 1962 SHERLOCK, I.A., 1962. Sôbre alguns Phlebotomus e Brumptomyia da Colômbia (Diptera, Psychodidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 321-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761962000300004.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-0276196...
; Bejarano et al., 2007 BEJARANO, E.E., CASTRO, M., PÉREZ-DORIA, A., HERNÁNDEZ-OVIEDO, E., VÉLEZ, A. and VÉLEZ, I.D., 2007. Primer informe de Lutzomyia França en el departamento de Guainía, Amazonia Colombiana, y de Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock (Diptera: Psychodidae) en el Litoral Caribe Colombiano. Neotropical Entomology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 990-993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600027. PMid:18246280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X200...
; Vivero Gomez et al., 2011 VIVERO GOMEZ, R.F., MUSKUS LOPES, C.E. and TORRES GUTIERREZ, C., 2011 [viewed 25 January 2019]. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) en Acandí (Chocó). Acta Biologica Colombiana [online], vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 209-218. Available from: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/actabiol/article/view/15922/28149
https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/...
; Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ). In Brazil, B. mesai has been recorded in Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, São Paulo and now in Rondônia State ( Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ).

Figure 2
Male genitalia from the new sand fly records for Rondônia State. The identification of Brumptomyia mesai is based on its gonocoxite which bears a basal tuft of setae (A), and five to six setae in the apex region of this structure (B). Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae is characterized by epandrial lobes 1.2 times longer than the gonocoxite; parameres simple with dorsal margin presenting slight curvature preceding apex, edeagal ducts length 1.9 times longer than genital pump and gonostyle with four well developed spines (C). Nyssomyia delsionatali is differentiated by parameres with apex slightly curved (D) and gonocoxite bearing a group of less than 25 setae (E). Trichopygomyia wagleyi is identified by a paramere format in which the dorsal part is more dilated than the base (F).

Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae Brilhante, Sábio & Galati, 2017 (1 ♂, Figure 2 C) was found in a small ombrophylous forest fragment (63°19’52.5”W, 10°15’37.8”S) in Monte Negro municipality. Records of this species have been made in other regions of the Amazon basin, primarily in forest and peridomicile environments in Xapuri municipality, Acre State ( Brilhante et al., 2017 BRILHANTE, A.F., SÁBIO, P.B. and GALATI, E.A.B., 2017. A new species of Sand Fly, Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), from Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 76-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw150. PMid:28082633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw150 ...
).

Nyssomyia delsionatali Galati & Galvis, 2012 (2 ♂, Figures 2 D, E) was found in a peridomicile environment in Cacoal municipality (61°22’05”W, 11°29’11”S), and in dense ombrophylous forest on the Jaru Biological Reserve (61°39’48”W, 9°38’50”S). This species was first recorded in Mato Grosso State, and was subsequently recorded in Espírito Santo ( FIOCRUZ, 2019 FUNDAÇÃO OSWALDO CRUZ – FIOCRUZ, 2019 [viewed 25 January 2019]. Coleção de Flebotomíneos: COLFLEB [online]. Available from: http://www.splink.org.br/index?lang=pt
http://www.splink.org.br/index?lang=pt ...
); both findings were made in forest environments. Rondônia is the third state to record the presence of N. delsionatali ( Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ).

Trichopygomyia wagleyi (Causey & Damasceno, 1945) (2 ♂, Figure 2 F) has been recorded in Amazonas State, primarily in forest fragments ( Pereira Júnior et al., 2015 PEREIRA JÚNIOR, A.M., TELES, C.B.G., SANTOS, A.P.A., RODRIGUES, M.S., MARIALVA, E.F., PESSOA, F.A.C. and MEDEIROS, J.F., 2015. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil. Parasites & Vectors , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0789-2. PMid:25889808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-07...
). In a recent survey of the road that connects Amazonas and Rondônia states, this species was found in a forest edge near peridomiciles ( Julião et al., 2019 JULIÃO, G.R., NOVO, S.P.C., RÍOS-VELÁSQUEZ, C.M., DESMOULIÈRE, S.J.M., LUZ, S.L.B. and PESSOA, F.A.C., 2019. Sand fly fauna associated with dwellings and forest habitats along the BR-319 highway, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 540-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy179. PMid:30304536.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy179 ...
) and in upland forest areas near small farms in a municipality along the middle Solimões River ( Pereira Júnior et al., 2015 PEREIRA JÚNIOR, A.M., TELES, C.B.G., SANTOS, A.P.A., RODRIGUES, M.S., MARIALVA, E.F., PESSOA, F.A.C. and MEDEIROS, J.F., 2015. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil. Parasites & Vectors , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0789-2. PMid:25889808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-07...
). This species has also been recorded in tropical rain forests in Venezuela, Colombia and Bolivia ( Galati, 2018 GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212. ). In our study, this species was found in the National Forest of Jamari (62°54’48.30”W, 9°15’36.10”S), a conservation unit characterized by dense ombrophylous forest.

This study increases the number of species recorded in Rondônia to 135, an increase of nearly 4%, and it updates the number of species from genera found in Rondônia to: Brumptomyia (6), Nyssomyia (9), Psathyromyia (31) and Trichopygomyia (6).

  • (With 2 figures)

References

  • BEJARANO, E.E., CASTRO, M., PÉREZ-DORIA, A., HERNÁNDEZ-OVIEDO, E., VÉLEZ, A. and VÉLEZ, I.D., 2007. Primer informe de Lutzomyia França en el departamento de Guainía, Amazonia Colombiana, y de Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock (Diptera: Psychodidae) en el Litoral Caribe Colombiano. Neotropical Entomology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 990-993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600027. PMid:18246280.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600027
  • BRILHANTE, A.F., SÁBIO, P.B. and GALATI, E.A.B., 2017. A new species of Sand Fly, Psathyromyia elizabethdorvalae sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), from Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 76-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw150. PMid:28082633.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjw150
  • FUNDAÇÃO OSWALDO CRUZ – FIOCRUZ, 2019 [viewed 25 January 2019]. Coleção de Flebotomíneos: COLFLEB [online]. Available from: http://www.splink.org.br/index?lang=pt
    » http://www.splink.org.br/index?lang=pt
  • GALATI, E.A.B., 2018. Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae): classification, morphology and terminology of adults and identification of american taxa. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control . Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 9-212.
  • JULIÃO, G.R., NOVO, S.P.C., RÍOS-VELÁSQUEZ, C.M., DESMOULIÈRE, S.J.M., LUZ, S.L.B. and PESSOA, F.A.C., 2019. Sand fly fauna associated with dwellings and forest habitats along the BR-319 highway, Amazonas, Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 540-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy179. PMid:30304536.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy179
  • PEREIRA JÚNIOR, A.M., TELES, C.B.G., SANTOS, A.P.A., RODRIGUES, M.S., MARIALVA, E.F., PESSOA, F.A.C. and MEDEIROS, J.F., 2015. Ecological aspects and molecular detection of Leishmania DNA Ross (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in terra firme and várzea environments in the Middle Solimões Region, Amazonas State, Brazil. Parasites & Vectors , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0789-2. PMid:25889808.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0789-2
  • RANGEL, E.F., LAINSON, R., CARVALHO, B.M., COSTA, S.M. and SHAW, J.J. 2018. Sand fly Vectors of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil. In: E.F. RANGEL and J.J. SHAW, eds. Brazilian sand flies: biology, taxonomy, medical importance and control Gewerbestrasse: Springer, pp. 341-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75544-1_7.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75544-1_7
  • SHERLOCK, I.A., 1962. Sôbre alguns Phlebotomus e Brumptomyia da Colômbia (Diptera, Psychodidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 321-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761962000300004.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02761962000300004
  • VIVERO GOMEZ, R.F., MUSKUS LOPES, C.E. and TORRES GUTIERREZ, C., 2011 [viewed 25 January 2019]. Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) en Acandí (Chocó). Acta Biologica Colombiana [online], vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 209-218. Available from: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/actabiol/article/view/15922/28149
    » https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/actabiol/article/view/15922/28149

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    02 May 2019
  • Date of issue
    Jan-Feb 2020

History

  • Received
    12 Dec 2018
  • Accepted
    14 Feb 2019
Instituto Internacional de Ecologia R. Bento Carlos, 750, 13560-660 São Carlos SP - Brasil, Tel. e Fax: (55 16) 3362-5400 - São Carlos - SP - Brazil
E-mail: bjb@bjb.com.br