First record of sea lice Lepeophtheirus curtus (Copepoda, Caligidae) in sea-farmed Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae) in Brazil

E. G. Sanches C. E. Kerber F. Paschoal J. L. Luque About the authors

The family Caligidae, mainly Caligus and Lepeophtheirus species are widespread sea lice copepods that parasitize body surface, cavity of the mouth, the gills, and the operculum of teleosts and elasmobranchs (Ho et al., 2001Ho, J.S., Gómez, S. and Fajer-Avila, E., 2001. sp. n., a caligid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on “botete” (bullseye puffer, . Lepeophtheirus simplexSphoeroides annulatus) in Sinaloa, MexicoFolia Parasitologica, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 240-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2001.040. PMid:11699661.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2001.040...
). These parasites erode fishes epithelium leading secondary bacterial infections (Sanches et al., 2012Sanches, E.G., Kerber, C.E., Paschoal, F. and Luque, J.L., 2012. First record of (Copepoda: Caligidae) in sea-farmed . Caligus mutabilisMycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae) in BrazilRevista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 330-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012000300031. PMid:23070453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012...
). The sea lice of the family Caligidae are one of the most major health pathogens for farmed fish. In the Northern Hemisphere the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) alone is responsible for commercial losses in excess of € 180 million in salmonid aquaculture (Costello, 2009Costello, M.J., 2009. The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry. Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 115-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.01011.x. PMid:19245636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.20...
).

The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) (Lowe, 1834) is a Serranidae protogynous hermaphrodite species with great ecological importance. It is being commercially cultured because the high market demand has led to indiscriminate fishing resulting in the depletion of the natural stocks to an alarming level (Sanches et al., 2009Sanches, E.G., Oliveira, I.R. and Serralheiro, P.C.S., 2009. Crioconservação do sêmen da garoupa-verdadeira (Lowe, 1834) (Teleostei, Serranidae). Epinephelus marginatusBoletim do Instituto de Pesca, vol. 35, pp. 389-399.). Despite the considerable progress in fish parasitology in recent decades, there are still major gaps in knowledge of taxonomy, biology, epizootiology and parasites control (Roumbedakis et al., 2013Roumbedakis, K., Marchiori, N.C., Paseto, Á., Gonçalves, E.L.T., Luque, J.L., Cepeda, P.B., Sanches, E.G. and Martins, M.L., 2013. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper . Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, Southeastern BrazilBrazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 871-878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842013000400025. PMid:24789405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842013...
). This study record the first occurrence of Lepeophtheirus curtus in dusky grouper farmed in Brazil.

Specimens of copepods were collected from twelve farmed Ephinephelus marginatus (wet weight 6.2 ± 0.2 kg) that were kept in concrete tanks, capacity 80 m3, in a marine fish center, from Ilhabela, State of São Paulo, Brazil. After collection, the copepods were fixed and preserved in ethanol (70% GL), after were clarified with lactic acid for identification. The taxonomic determination of the parasites was in accordance with the diagnosis proposed by Wilson (1913)Wilson, C.B., 1913. Crustacean parasites of West Indian fishes and land crabs, with desc riptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 44, no. 1950, pp. 189-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.44-1950.189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.44...
and Lewis (1964)Lewis, A.G., 1964. The Caligid Copepod Genus (Crustacea: Caligoida). DentigrypsProceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 115, no. 3487, pp. 347-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.115-3487.347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.11...
. Photographs were made with the use of the differential interference contrast microscope (DIC) Olympus® BX 51 coupled with a digital camera Olympus® UC 30 (Olympus, Center Valley, Pennsylvania). Measurements were made in millimeters (mm) and mean values are followed by range in parentheses. Voucher specimens of L. curtus Wilson, 1913 (two females) were deposited in the Carcinological Collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ-24732).

The following measurements were made on the specimens of L. curtus, collected from E. marginatus: Female (based on six specimens) (Figure 1) Total length (including caudal rami), 4.06(3.96-4.12) mm. Cephalothorax, 2.54 (2.49-2.57) mm long, 2.52 (2.48-2.58) mm wide. Genital complex with lobate projections of posterior lateral faces, 0.68 (0.68-0.71) mm long, 1.32 (1.29-1.34) mm wide. Abdomen, 0.49 (0.48-0.51) mm long, 0.23 (0.22-0.23) mm wide. Caudal rami with longest seta measuring 0.29 (0.28-0.32) mm. Frontal lunulae absent. Male not collected. In relation of the identification of L. curtus, the presence of spines on the middle seta in the distal party of fourth leg can separate this species from the others of the genus (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Lepeophtheirus curtus female. (a) Habitus: dorsal view; (b) Anterior part showing the absent of frontal lunulae; (c) Antenna; (d) Furca; (e) First leg: detail of distal segment; (f) Second leg; (g) Fourth leg: detail of spines in the middle seta of distal segment; (h) Detail of abdomen and caudal rami. Scale bars of Figure 1 (a), is 500 µm; all others are in 100µm.

On the coast of Brazil, L. curtus has previously been recorded in another serranid fish: Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860) in the littoral of Bahia and Espírito Santo (Luque et al., 1998Luque, J.L., Chaves, N.D. and Cezar, A.D., 1998. Novos registros de copépodes caligóideos parasitos de peixes marinhos do Brasil. Náuplius, vol. 6, pp. 9-16.), demonstrating the specificity of this sea lice for the fishes of the family Serranidae in the Atlantic Ocean. Recent discoveries of new species and genotypes emphasize the need for more basic research on louse taxonomy and host preferences (Costello, 2006Costello, M.J., 2006. Ecology of sea lice parasitic on farmed and wild fish. Trends in Parasitology, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 475-483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2006.08.006. PMid:16920027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2006.08.0...
).

  • (With 1 figure)

References

  • Costello, M.J., 2006. Ecology of sea lice parasitic on farmed and wild fish. Trends in Parasitology, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 475-483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2006.08.006 PMid:16920027.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2006.08.006
  • Costello, M.J., 2009. The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry. Journal of Fish Diseases, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 115-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.01011.x PMid:19245636.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2008.01011.x
  • Ho, J.S., Gómez, S. and Fajer-Avila, E., 2001. sp. n., a caligid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on “botete” (bullseye puffer, . Lepeophtheirus simplexSphoeroides annulatus) in Sinaloa, MexicoFolia Parasitologica, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 240-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2001.040 PMid:11699661.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2001.040
  • Lewis, A.G., 1964. The Caligid Copepod Genus (Crustacea: Caligoida). DentigrypsProceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 115, no. 3487, pp. 347-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.115-3487.347
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.115-3487.347
  • Luque, J.L., Chaves, N.D. and Cezar, A.D., 1998. Novos registros de copépodes caligóideos parasitos de peixes marinhos do Brasil. Náuplius, vol. 6, pp. 9-16.
  • Roumbedakis, K., Marchiori, N.C., Paseto, Á., Gonçalves, E.L.T., Luque, J.L., Cepeda, P.B., Sanches, E.G. and Martins, M.L., 2013. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper . Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, Southeastern BrazilBrazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 871-878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842013000400025 PMid:24789405.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842013000400025
  • Sanches, E.G., Kerber, C.E., Paschoal, F. and Luque, J.L., 2012. First record of (Copepoda: Caligidae) in sea-farmed . Caligus mutabilisMycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae) in BrazilRevista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 330-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012000300031 PMid:23070453.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612012000300031
  • Sanches, E.G., Oliveira, I.R. and Serralheiro, P.C.S., 2009. Crioconservação do sêmen da garoupa-verdadeira (Lowe, 1834) (Teleostei, Serranidae). Epinephelus marginatusBoletim do Instituto de Pesca, vol. 35, pp. 389-399.
  • Wilson, C.B., 1913. Crustacean parasites of West Indian fishes and land crabs, with desc riptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. 44, no. 1950, pp. 189-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.44-1950.189
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.44-1950.189

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    08 Mar 2016
  • Date of issue
    Apr-Jun 2016

History

  • Received
    19 Aug 2014
  • Accepted
    15 Jan 2015
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