New records of Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 (Carnivora: Canidae) in the state of Pará, Brazil

VY. Guimarães LCC. Cesca DF. Trombin L. Pinder About the authors

The Bush dog (Speothos venaticus, Lund, 1842) is the smallest Brazilian canid. The species lives in groups of two to twelve individuals and is considered the most social of the neotropical canids (Burton et al., 1988Burton, JA., Pearson, B. and Scott, P., 1988. The Collins guide to the rare mammals of the World. New York: The Stephen Greene Press. 240 p.). Individuals are capable of swimming and diving while foraging and usually can be found near streams. For resting, bush dogs look for shelter in armadillo burrows and hollow tree trunks.

Over the years, the bush dog population has declined due to habitat loss (Emmons and Feer, 1990Emmons, LH. and Feer, F., 1990. Neotropical rainforest mammals: a field guide. Chicago: University Chicago Press. 281 p.; MacDonald, 1996Macdonald, DW., 1996. Social behaviour of captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus). Journal of Zoology, vol. 239, no. 3, p. 525-543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05941.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.19...
; Beisiegel and Zuercher, 2005Beisiegel, BM. and Zuercher, GL., 2005. Speothos venaticus. Mammalian Species, vol. 783, p. 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/783.1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/783.1...
; Zuercher et al., 2005Zuercher, GL., Gipson, PL. and Carrillo, O., 2005. Diet and habitat associations of bush dogs in the Interior Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraguay. Speothos venaticusOryx, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 86-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305000153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305000...
; Michalski, 2010MICHALSKI, F., 2010. The bush dog and short-eared dog in a fragmented landscape in Southern Amazonia. Speothos venaticusAtelocynus microtisOryx, vol. 44, no. 2, p. 300-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309990871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309990...
). However, Oliveira (2009)Oliveira, T., 2009. Distribution, Habitat Utilization and Conservation of the Vulnerable bush dog in Northern Brazil. Speothos venaticusOryx, vol. 43, no. 2, p. 247-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307002347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307002...
refutes the hypothesis that the species is sensitive to habitat disturbance as 43% of total records for the species occurred in areas with high levels of natural habitat fragmentation.

Until 2004, the species was listed as Vulnerable according to the criteria of the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (DeMatteo and Loiselle, 2008Dematteo, KE. and Loiselle, BA., 2008. New data on the status and distribution of the bush dog (. Speothos venaticus): evaluating its quality of protection and directing research effortsBiological Conservation, vol. 141, no. 10, p. 2494-2505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.07.010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008....
) and in the Appendice I of CITES (Convention on International Trade and Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), but actually it is in the category “Near Threatened” on a global scale (DeMatteo et al., 2011Dematteo, KE., Michalski, F. and Leite-Pitman, MRP., 2011. . In Speothos venaticusIUCN Global Species Programme Red List Unit. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. Cambridge. Available from: <www.iucnredlist.org>. Access in: 15 Apr. 2014.).

In Brazil, the species is stated as “Vulnerable” according to the official list of threatened species, occurs in different biomes such as Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon, where is classified as “Vulnerable” (Jorge et al., 2013Jorge, RPS., Beisiegel, BM., Lima, ES., Jorge, MLPS., LEITE-PITMAN, MRP. and PAULA, RC., 2013. Avaliação do Estado de Conservação do Cachorro-Vinagre . Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) no BrasilBiodiversidade Brasileira, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 179-190.).

The new records of bush dog presented in this article were obtained during the wildlife rescue and monitoring operations of the Belo Monte’s Hydroelectric Power Plant Basic Environmental Plan. Data were collected from June 2011 to March 2014 (Table 1), in the region known as “Volta Grande do Xingu”, located in the lower Xingu River region between the cities of Altamira and Vitoria do Xingu, PA (Figure 1).

Table 1
Records of specimens Bush Dogs in state of Pará, Brazil.
Figure 1
Bush dog distribution in the state of Pará, Brazil.

Further analysis of habitat quality and connectivity will help not only to better understand the ecology of the species, but also to promote its conservation by habitat protection and restoration in the area.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Norte Energia, Biota Projetos e Consultoria Ambiental for logistical support during field activities and all biologists that contributed in some way towards this study.

  • (With 1 figure)

References

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/783.1
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  • Dematteo, KE. and Loiselle, BA., 2008. New data on the status and distribution of the bush dog (. Speothos venaticus): evaluating its quality of protection and directing research effortsBiological Conservation, vol. 141, no. 10, p. 2494-2505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.07.010
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.07.010
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309990871
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605305000153
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Aug 2015

History

  • Received
    02 May 2014
  • Accepted
    14 July 2014
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