First record of Nais schubarti Marcus, 1944 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) in the State of São Paulo

D. A. Girolli G. R. Gorni V. Colombo-Corbi J. J. Corbi About the authors

The Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) is known to have important participation in the aquatic macroinvertebrates fauna, mainly due to its active participation in the organic matter decomposition ( Esteves et al., 2011 ESTEVES, F.A., LEAL, J.J.F. and CALLISTO, M., 2011. Comunidade bentônica. In: F.A. ESTEVES, ed. Fundamentos de limnologia. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Interciência, 790 p. ). Despite its ecological importance, the knowledge about this taxon is still incipient ( Timm et al., 2001 TIMM, T., SEIRE, A. and PALL, P., 2001. Half a century of oligochaete research in Estonian running waters. Hydrobiologia, vol. 463, no. 1-3, pp. 223-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013176229631.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:10131762296...
; Gorni et al., 2015 GORNI, G.R., PEIRÓ, D.F. and SANCHES, N., 2015. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) from State of São Paulo, Brazil: Diversity and Ocurrence review. Biota Neotropica , vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032015006314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032015...
).

According to Alves et al. (2008) ALVES, R.G., MARCHESE, M.R. and MARTINS, R.T., 2008. Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) of lotic environments at Parque Estadual Intervales (São Paulo, Brasil). Biota Neotropica, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032008000100009.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603200...
, Petsch et al. (2015) PETSCH, D.K., RAGONHA, F.H., GIMENEZ, B.C.G., BARBOZA, L.G.A. and TAKEDA, A.M., 2015. Beta diversity partitioning of aquatic Oligochaeta in different environments of a neotropical floodplain. Acta Scientiarum, vol. 37, pp. 41-49. , Maroneze et al. (2011) MARONEZE, D.M., TUPINAMBÁS, T.H., FRANÇA, J.S. and CALLISTO, M., 2011. Effects of flow reduction and spillways on the composition and structure of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in a Brazilian river reach. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 639-651. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842011000400008. PMid:21881787.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984201...
and Ragonha et al. (2014) RAGONHA, F.H., PETSCH, D.K., ALVES, G.H.Z., SANTANA, H.S., MICHELAN, T.S. and TAKEDA, A.M., 2014. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida) of Neotropical dammed river. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia , vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 861-869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.05613. PMid:25627596.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.056...
, these organisms can be found living on sandy substrates or in organic matter enriched environments ( Behrend et al., 2012 BEHREND, R.D.L., TAKEDA, A.M., GOMES, L.C. and FERNANDES, S.E.P., 2012. Using Oligochaeta assemblages as an indicator of environmental changes. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 873-884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842012000500014. PMid:23295517.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984201...
). In addition, these organisms are also recorded associated with aquatic macrophytes and leaf litter ( Trivinho-Strixino et al., 2000 TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S., CORREIA, L.C.S. and SONODA, K., 2000. Phytophilous Chironomidae (Diptera) and other macroinvertebrates in the ox-bow Infernão lake (Jataí Ecological Station, Luiz Antônio, SP, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 527-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-71082000000300018. PMid:11188879.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7108200...
; Alves and Gorni, 2007 ALVES, R.G. and GORNI, G.R., 2007. Naididae species (Oligochaeta) associated with submersed aquatic macrophytes in two reservoirs (São Paulo, Brazil). Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 407-413. ; Gorni and Alves, 2007 GORNI, G.R. and ALVES, R.G., 2007. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 518-519. ; Oliveira et al., 2014 OLIVEIRA, V.C., GONÇALVES, E.A. and ALVES, R.G., 2014. Colonisation of leaf litter by aquatic invertebrates in an Atlantic Forest stream. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 267-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.10512. PMid:25166310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.105...
) with sponges ( Gorni and Alves, 2008 GORNI, G.R. and ALVES, R.G., 2008. Naididae species (Annelida: Oligochaeta) associated with the sponge Metania spinata (Carter, 1881) (Porifera: Metaniidae) from a southeastern reservoir. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 261-263. ) gastropods ( Gorni and Alves, 2006 GORNI, G.R. and ALVES, R.G., 2006. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve) (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae). Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1059-1061. ), insect larvae ( Corbi et al., 2004 CORBI, J.J., JANCSO, M.A., STRIXINO, S.T. and FRAGOSO, E.N., 2004. Occurence of Oligochaeta living on larvae of Odonata from Ipeúna (São Paulo state, Brazil). Biota Neotropica, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032004000200017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-0603200...
) and amphibians ( Oda et al., 2015 ODA, F.H., PETSCH, D.K., RAGONHA, F.H., BATISTA, V.G., TAKEDA, A.M. and TAKEMOTO, R.M., 2015. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 86-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.07613. PMid:25945624.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.076...
). Recent studies ( Gorni et al., 2015 GORNI, G.R., PEIRÓ, D.F. and SANCHES, N., 2015. Aquatic Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) from State of São Paulo, Brazil: Diversity and Ocurrence review. Biota Neotropica , vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032015006314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1676-06032015...
) recorded 75 species of aquatic oligochaetes in the State of São Paulo, in which 64 species (85%) belong to the Naididae family. This family stands out as diverse and abundant, being composed of eight subfamilies totalizing about 50% of the oligofauna described on the Earth. ( Rodriguez and Reynoldson, 2011 RODRIGUEZ, P. and REYNOLDSON, T.B., 2011. The pollution biology of aquatic oligochaetes . Dordrecht: Springer Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1718-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-17...
). In this article, we report the first record of Nais schubarti Marcus 1944 for the State of São Paulo ( Figure 1 ). Sediment samples were collected by the Water Communities Sector (ELHC) of CETESB, and are part of the Sediment Quality Monitoring Network Project.

Figure 1
Nais schubarti. (A) Prostomium and anterior ventral chaetae (detail); (B) Posterior ventral chaetae; and (C) Dorsal chaetae (detail). Scale bars: (A) and (B) 50 μm; (C) 10 μm.

The specimens were collected in the Paiva Castro reservoir, in the municipality of Franco da Rocha / SP (23°21’13”S and 46°39’56”O). The procedures for sampling, fixation and preparation of the samples followed the Technical Standard CETESB L5.309 ( CETESB, 2003 COMPANHIA AMBIENTAL DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO – CETESB, 2003 [viewed 27 September 2017]. CETESB L5.309: determinação de bentos de água doce: macroinvertebrados: métodos qualitativo e quantitativo [online]. São Paulo: CETESB, 16 p. Available from: http://cetesb.sp.gov.br/normas-tecnicas-cetesb/normas-tecnicas-vigentes/
http://cetesb.sp.gov.br/normas-tecnicas...
). The species was identified using the taxonomic criteria adopted by Brinkhurst and Jamieson (1971) BRINKHURST, R.O. and JAMIESON, B.G.M., 1971. Aquatic Oligochaeta of the world . Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 860 p. , Righi (1984) RIGHI, G., 1984. Manual de identificação de invertebrados límnicos do Brasil. Brasília: CNPQ/Coordenação Editorial. and Brinkhurst and Marchese (1989) BRINKHURST, R.O. and MARCHESE, M.R., 1989. Guia para la identificación de oligoquetos acuáticos continentales de Sud y Centroamerica. Santa Fé: Asociación de Ciencias Naturales del Litoral, vol. 6, 179 p. . According to the authors, N. schubarti is described with the following characteristics: length 2.5 mm, diameter of 150 μm with twenty-five segments. The species has ventral setae of II-V, 3-5 per tuft, proximal nodule, distal tooth 2 times longer than proximal; in the following three segments by tuft, distal nodule, teeth of similar length. Dorsal bristles, 1 capillary and 1 acicular spatuliform in the distal third. Bulbiform stomach in VIII segment. Intestine dilated in the X segment.

In the present literature, N. schubarti occurrence records in Brazil were limited to two Brazilian states: Pernambuco ( Marcus, 1944 MARCUS, E., 1944. Sobre Oligochaeta límnicos do Brasil. Boletim de Zoologia , vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 5-135. ; Righi, 1984 RIGHI, G., 1984. Manual de identificação de invertebrados límnicos do Brasil. Brasília: CNPQ/Coordenação Editorial. ; Christoffersen, 2007 CHRISTOFFERSEN, M.L., 2007. A catalogue of aquatic microdrile oligochaetes (Annelida: Clitellata) from South America. Shui Sheng Sheng Wu Hsueh Bao, vol. 31, pp. 59-86. ), and Paraná ( Montanholi-Martins and Takeda, 2001 MONTANHOLI-MARTINS, M.C. and TAKEDA, A.M., 2001. Spatial and temporal variations of oligochaetes of the Ivinhema River and Patos Lake in the Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil. Hydrobiologia, vol. 463, no. 1-3, pp. 197-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013163927814.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:10131639278...
; Christoffersen, 2007 CHRISTOFFERSEN, M.L., 2007. A catalogue of aquatic microdrile oligochaetes (Annelida: Clitellata) from South America. Shui Sheng Sheng Wu Hsueh Bao, vol. 31, pp. 59-86. ); being recognized as an endemic species of South America ( Christoffersen, 2007 CHRISTOFFERSEN, M.L., 2007. A catalogue of aquatic microdrile oligochaetes (Annelida: Clitellata) from South America. Shui Sheng Sheng Wu Hsueh Bao, vol. 31, pp. 59-86. ). However, it is probable that N. schubarti occurs in other Brazilian aquatic ecosystems, due to the scarcity of studies that aim at the survey of oligochaete species in Brazilian aquatic ecosystems, as well as the lack of specialists in the taxonomic identification of these worms.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Water Communities Sector (ELHC) of the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo - CETESB, especially to the biologists Monica Luisa Kuhlmann and Hélio Rubens Victorino Imbimbo. The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for financial support.

  • (With 1 figure)

References

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032008000100009
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-06032004000200017
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  • GORNI, G.R. and ALVES, R.G., 2007. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 518-519.
  • GORNI, G.R. and ALVES, R.G., 2008. Naididae species (Annelida: Oligochaeta) associated with the sponge Metania spinata (Carter, 1881) (Porifera: Metaniidae) from a southeastern reservoir. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 261-263.
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013163927814
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.07613
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.10512
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  • RAGONHA, F.H., PETSCH, D.K., ALVES, G.H.Z., SANTANA, H.S., MICHELAN, T.S. and TAKEDA, A.M., 2014. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida) of Neotropical dammed river. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia , vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 861-869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.05613. PMid:25627596.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.05613
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1718-3
  • TIMM, T., SEIRE, A. and PALL, P., 2001. Half a century of oligochaete research in Estonian running waters. Hydrobiologia, vol. 463, no. 1-3, pp. 223-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013176229631.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013176229631
  • TRIVINHO-STRIXINO, S., CORREIA, L.C.S. and SONODA, K., 2000. Phytophilous Chironomidae (Diptera) and other macroinvertebrates in the ox-bow Infernão lake (Jataí Ecological Station, Luiz Antônio, SP, Brazil). Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 527-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-71082000000300018. PMid:11188879.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-71082000000300018

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    04 Oct 2018
  • Date of issue
    Jul-Sep 2019

History

  • Received
    13 Dec 2017
  • Accepted
    03 May 2018
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