Population distribution and habitat analysis of Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) in Abbottabad, Pakistan

Distribuição da população e análise de habitat de Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) em Abbottabad, Paquistão

R. A. Khan Z. Ullah I. Uz Zaman M. S. Khan S. Mahmood N. Akhtar M. F. Khan S. Yasmin M. Saqlain A. Ur Rehman N. Aksar S. N. Khan S. S. Hussain About the authors

Abstract

The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). “The ‘’Point count Method” was used for population estimation and ‘’Quadrates Method” for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.

Keywords:
population; quadrate method; habitat analysis; Abbottabad; Dendrocitta vagabunda

Resumo

A trepadeira Rufous (Dendrocitta vagabunda) pertence à família corvidae, ordem Passeriformes que inclui cerca de 100 espécies. O estudo atual foi realizado para reunir informações sobre a distribuição da população e análise do habitat de D. vagabunda no distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados mensalmente pela manhã e à noite (2018-2019). O “método de contagem de pontos” foi usado para estimativa da população e o “método dos quadrados” para análise de habitat da área de estudo. O resultado mostra que uma densidade populacional média mensal de D. vagabunda foi máxima em Jhangra 0,14 ± 0,039 / ha, enquanto a mínima em Havelian 0,11 ± 0,022/ha. Não houve diferença significativa (p> 0,05) entre as densidades populacionais mensais de D. vagabunda, entretanto foi encontrada diferença significativa (p <0,05) entre os períodos matutino e noturno da população da espécie. O presente estudo revelou que o índice de valor de importância (IVI) das espécies de plantas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 59,6 ± 12,6, 50,1 ± 6,9, 53,4 ± 6,3, 66,8 ± 10 e 60,1 ± 7,7. Da mesma forma, a frequência de arbustos em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi de: 33,3 ± 4,2, 45 ± 9,4, 46,7 ± 8,2, 55,6 ± 22,2 e 37,5 ± 8,5. Da mesma forma, a frequência de ervas em Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra e Jhangra foi: 40,4 ± 6,0, 37,5 ± 5,6, 53,3 ± 7,4, 48,5 ± 5,2 e 46,9 ± 7,4, respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostram a área de estudo como habitat adequado para D. vagabunda.

Palavras-chave:
população; método dos quadrados; análise de habitat; Abbottabad; Dendrocitta vagabunda

1. Introduction

Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions (Sekercioglu, 2006SEKERCIOGLU, C.H., 2006. Increasing awareness of avian ecological function. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 464-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.05.007. PMid:16762448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.05...
; Mirza and Wasiq, 2012MIRZA, Z. B. and WASIQ, H., 2012. Handbook of birds of Pakistan: a field guide. Pakistan: WWF Pakistan for the Conservation of Birds, 305 p.). Globally, Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) is distributed in Burma, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan (BirdLife International, 2013BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL, 2013. Species fact sheet: Dendrocitta vagabunda. Cambridge.). The specie is widely distributed in whole of Punjab, Sindh, in South-eastern corner of Baluchistan including low hills of Azad Kashmir, Kohat and Peshawar valley and common in Islamabad, Margalla hills and Punjab and further spread towards Hazara (KP) (Mirza and Wasiq, 2012MIRZA, Z. B. and WASIQ, H., 2012. Handbook of birds of Pakistan: a field guide. Pakistan: WWF Pakistan for the Conservation of Birds, 305 p.; Hornman, 2007HORNMAN, M., 2007. Northern & central Pakistan. Surfbirds.; Jadoon et al., 2019JADOON, A., BIBI, S. and REHMAN, A., 2019. Birds population in district Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of Wildlife and Ecology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 18-25.; Ullah et al., 2020ULLAH, Z., ULLAH, I., ULLAH, I., MAHMOOD, S. and IQBAL, Z., 2020. Poaching of Asiatic black bear: evidence from Siran and Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Global Ecology and Conservation, vol. 24, pp. e01351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e...
).

Density and abundance are the essential ecological information required for population ecology and scope of ecology covers distribution of organism and its abundance (Buckland et al., 2001BUCKLAND, S.T., ANDERSON, D.R., BURNHAM, K.P., LAAKE, J.L., BORCHERS, D.L. and THOMAS, L., 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.; Stephens et al., 2019STEPHENS, P.A., VIEIRA, M.V., WILLIS, S.G. and CARBONE, C., 2019. The limits to population density in birds and mammals. Ecology Letters, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 654-663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13227. PMid:30724435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13227...
). D. vagabunda is fairly wide spreads throughout Indus plains and foot hills up to 2300m and prefers tree or bush cover and occupies altitudinal range of 1450-1700m in Bhowali, while its altitudinal range lies between 350-500m in Haldwani along with its status is recorded as residential species in Nainital district under conservation status of Indian wildlife protection Act (Grimmett et al., 2008GRIMMETT, R., ROBERTS, T.J., INSKIPP, T. and BYERS, C., 2008. Birds of Pakistan. London: A&C Black.; Joshi et al., 2012JOSHI, K.K., BHATT, D. and THAPLIYAL, A., 2012. Avian diversity and its association with vegetation structure in different elevational zones of Nainital district (Western Himalayan) of Uttarakhand. International Journal of Biodeversity and Conservation, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 364-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC11.243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/IJBC11.243...
).

The D. vagabunda is arboreal bird of the teak forests, but seems at homes, in open scrub jungle, gardens, cultivated trees and scrub forest areas, not in desert without trees and prefers shrubby habitat (Sidhu et al., 2010SIDHU, S., SHANKAR RAMAN, T.R. and GOODALE, E., 2010. Effects of plantations and home-gardens on tropical forest bird communities and mixed-species bird flocks in the southern Western Ghats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 91.; Mirza and Wasiq, 2012MIRZA, Z. B. and WASIQ, H., 2012. Handbook of birds of Pakistan: a field guide. Pakistan: WWF Pakistan for the Conservation of Birds, 305 p.). The D. vagabunda occupied in whole of sub-tropical forest and tropical evergreen forest, and found abundant in all habitats, as a residential and winter visitor spp in Muzaffrabad city in Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan, also found in coniferous forest, mixed deciduous forests of scrubby areas in Chenani in lesser Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, India (Shahabuddin et al., 2006SHAHABUDDIN, G., KUMAR, R. and VERMA, A., 2006. Annotated checklist of the birds of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. Indian Birds, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 71-76.; Thakur et al., 2010THAKUR, M.L., MATTU, V.K., MATTU, N., SHARMA, V.N., BHARDWAJ, R. and THAKUR, V., 2010. Bird Diversity in Sarkaghat Valley, Mandi (Himachal Pradesh), India. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 940-950.; Singh et al., 2013SINGH, R., KOUR, D.N., AHMAD, F. and SAHI, D.N., 2013. Species diversity, relative abundance and habitat use of the bird communities of Tehsil Chenani, District Udhampur, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Indian Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81.).

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study area

The present study was conducted in District Abbottabad, positioned at an altitude of 1,225 meter, lies between 33° 50’ and 34° 23' North latitude and 73° 35’ and 73° 31’ East longitude (Figure 1) with 1,967 km2 area (Ali et al., 2017ALI, S., RAHMAN, Z., KHAN, S., KHAN, T., ALI, W. and IQBAL, A., 2017. Assessment of land use pattern in district Abbottabad through geographic information system and remote sensing. Biologia, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 87-96.). Most of the area of District is comprised of mountainous topography and the average elevation of mountains ranges from 2500m to 2700m (IUCN Pakistan, 2004IUCN PAKISTAN, 2004. Abbottabad: state of the environment and development. Karachi, Pakistan: IUCN Pakistan and NWFP, 136 p.; Ullah et al., 2020ULLAH, Z., ULLAH, I., ULLAH, I., MAHMOOD, S. and IQBAL, Z., 2020. Poaching of Asiatic black bear: evidence from Siran and Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Global Ecology and Conservation, vol. 24, pp. e01351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e...
). The aim of study was to determine the population density, distribution and habitat preference of D. vagabunda including Sherwan and Bakot (hilly areas), Havelian, Jhangra and Langra (plane areas) with the total area of 6942 hectares.

Figure 1
Map of the study area indicate District Abbottabad.

2.2. Methods

2.2.1. Population estimation

Field surveys were conducted (2018-2019). The “Point Count Method” was used in hilly area (Sherwan and Bakot) and plane area (Havelian, Langra and Jhangra). Preliminary surveys were conducted to allow covering a wider range of the potential habitats of D. vagabunda. In point count method “Vantage points” were selected of fixed radius (50 m2) and duration of time (15 minutes) for population estimation both at morning and evening time (Rolando et al., 2007ROLANDO, A., CAPRIO, E., RINALDI, E. and ELLENA, I., 2007. The impact of high‐altitude ski‐runs on alpine grassland bird communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 210-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01253.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.20...
).

2.2.2. Estimation of population density

Population density estimation was carried through sighting observations to assess the accuracy of perpendicular measurement by Visual Encounter Method (VEM) (Ralph et al., 1995RALPH, C.J., SAUER, J.R. and DROEGE, S., 1995. Monitoring bird populations by point counts. Albany: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 191 p.). Data recording was done by thoroughly surveys on monthly basis for the whole study period. The measurements were recorded on flushing the bird (Buckland et al., 2008BUCKLAND, S.T., MARSDEN, S.J. and GREEN, R.E., 2008. Estimating bird abundance: making methods work. Bird Conservation International, vol. 18, no. S1, pp. S91-S108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908000294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270908000...
).

Population density of D. vagabunda is represented by Formula 1.

Formula (1)

D e n s i t y = Number of birds π r ² (1)

where, r = radius of circle = 50 m2.

Formula (2)

T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n = N o o f D . v a g a b u n d a i n a l l s i t e s × T o t a l a r e a o f s t u d y s i t e s

2.3. Habitat analysis

In order to analyze the preferred habitat used by D. vagabunda, all major plant species were collected, identified and preserved in the form of herbarium sheets. Vegetation sampling was carried out by using “Quadrates Method” as described by (Sigdel, 2008SIGDEL, S.R., 2008. Altitudinally coordinated pattern of plant community structure in the Shivapuri National Park, Nepal. Banko Janakari, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 11-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/banko.v18i1.2161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/banko.v18i1.21...
). Among the vegetation, trees were examined by using quadrates of (10 × 10m), shrubs (5 × 5m) and herbs (1 × 1m) (Ali et al., 2018ALI, A., BADSHAH, L. and HUSSAIN, F., 2018. Vegetation structure and threats to Montane Temperate ecosystems in Hindukush Range, Swat, Pakistan. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 4789-4811. http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1604_47894811.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1604_478...
).

2.3.1. Vegetation analysis

The collected data were used to calculate species richness, density, relative density, frequency and relative frequency of trees, shrubs and herbs in the study area by using the following Formulas 3 to 7.

Density of species = Total number of individuals of species A Total number of areas surveyed × Area of plot (3)
Relative density of species = Total number of individuals of species A Total number of individuals of all species (4)
Frequency of species = Number of plots in which species A occurs × 100 Total number of plot samples (5)
Relative Frequency of species = Frequency value of species A × 100 Total frequency value of all species (6)
Relative dominance of species = Total basal area of species A × 100 Total basal area of all species (7)

Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated as Formula 8 (Aryal et al., 2010ARYAL, A., RAUBENHEIMER, D., SUBEDI, S. and KATTEL, B., 2010. Spatial Habitat Overlap and Habitat Preference of Himalayan Musk Deer (“ Moschus chrysogaster”) in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 217-225.):

I V I = R e l a t i v e d e n s i t y + R e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y + R e l a t i v e d o m i n a n c e (8)

2.4. Statistical analysis

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data regarding in different habitats for month-wise population densities of D. vagabunda. Student’s paired “t-test” was applied for comparison between morning and evening time’s population densities.

3. Results

3.1. Month-wise population estimation

Month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was estimated at five sites of the study area. Average month-wise population density of the D. vagabunda was maximum in Jhangra (0.14±0.039/ha) while minimum in Havelian (0.11±0.022/ha) (Table 1) (Figure 2).

Table 1
Total month-wise Population density of D. vagabunda in selected sites of district Abbottabad.
Figure 2
Overall month-wise population densities of D. vagabunda from five selected sites during the study period.

3.2. Fluctuation of D. vagabunda population

The morning and evening population density of D. vagabunda was considerably higher during morning as compared to that in evening time and this trend was consistently observed during the entire study period. Population density of D. vagabunda during morning was greater 0.038±0.0039/ha, than that of evening time (0.032±0.0019/ha) in Sherwan. Similarly, its population density was maximum (0.031±0.0032/ha), at morning and minimum (0.028±0.0032/ha) at evening time in Bakot. The population density at morning and evening was 0.037±0.0042/ha and 0.036±0.0025/ha, in Havelian respectively. In Langra, the maximum population density was 0.042±0.0047/ha, at morning and higher 0.033±0.0054/ha, at evening time (Figure 3). The population density was found 0.037±0.0038/ha, during morning and (0.035±0.0026/ha) at evening in Jhangra (Table 2) (Figure 4).

Figure 3
Snapshots of D. vagabunda captured during field survey of population estimation.
Table 2
Average Population Density of D. vagabunda at selected study sites at morning and evening time in District Abbottabad.
Figure 4
Overall morning and evening population densities/ha of Dendrocitta vagabunda during the study period in all selected study sites.

3.3. Habitat analysis

The presence of abundant trees, shrubs and herbs are essential for the survival of D. vagabunda at any area. The importance value index for trees, frequencies of shrubs and herbs indicates the relative population of D. vagabunda might survive in this area.

The major tree species for D. vagabunda at Sherwan site having dominant IVI 95.14 of Zanthoxylum armatum with co-dominant IVI 126.85 was recorded for Grewia optiva, whereas minimum IVI was observed for Melia azedarach and Morus alba 31.68. Similarly, the frequency of shrubs 33.3±4.2 and herbs was 40.4±6.0 (Table 3, 4 and 5).

Table 3
Density, frequency and IVI of Trees species at Sherwan site in district Abbottabad.
Table 4
Density and frequency of Shrubs species at Sherwan site in district Abbottabad.
Table 5
Density and frequency of Herbs species at Sherwan site in district Abbottabad.

At Bakot, the dominant tree species having IVI 62.77 of Ailanthus altissima with co-dominant IVI was recorded for Acacia modesta 93.87, and minimum IVI was observed for Melia azedarach 31.26. Therefore the frequency of shrubs and herbs at this site was 45±9.4 and 37.5±5.6 respectively (Table 6, 7 and 8).

Table 6
Density, frequency and IVI of Trees species at Bakot site in district Abbottabad.
Table 7
Density and frequency of Shrubs species at Bakot site in district Abbottabad.
Table 8
Density and frequency of Herbs species at Bakot site in district Abbottabad.

The dominant tree species at Havelian having IVI 82.17 of Dalbergia sissoo and co-dominant IVI was observed for Broussonetia papyrifera 82.29, while minimum IVI was recorded for Melia azedarach 41.04. Similarly, the frequency of shrubs 46.7±8.2 and ground cover was 53.3±7.4 (Table 9, 10 and 11).

Table 9
Density, frequency and IVI of Trees species at Havelian site in district Abbottabad.
Table 10
Density and frequency of Shrubs species at Havelian site in district Abbottabad.
Table 11
Density and frequency of Herbs species at Havelian site in district Abbottabad.

At Langra, among tree species the dominant IVI 89.06 of Ficus palmata with co-dominant IVI was recorded for Broussonetia papyrifera 89.44, and minimum IVI was observed for Morus alba and Eucalyptus camaldulensis 44.46. The frequency of shrubs and herbs at this site was 55.6±22.2 and 48.5±5.2 (Table 12, 13 and 14).

Table 12
Density, frequency and IVI of Trees species at Langra site in district Abbottabad.
Table 13
Density and frequency of Shrubs species at Langra site in district Abbottabad.
Table 14
Density and frequency of Herbs species at Langra site in district Abbottabad.

The major tree species having dominant IVI 90.16 of Olea ferruginea Royle with co-dominant IVI was recorded for Broussonetia papyrifera 90.34, whereas minimum IVI was observed for Ficus palmata 30.04 in Jhangra. Similarly frequency of shrubs 37.5±8.5 and herbs was 46.9±7.4 respectively (Table 15, 16 and 17).

Table 15
Density, frequency and IVI of Trees species at Jhangra site in district Abbottabad.
Table 16
Density and frequency of Shrubs species at Jhangra site in district Abbottabad.
Table 17
Density and frequency of Herbs species at Jhangra site in district Abbottabad.

4. Discussion

The previous published literature shows that D. vagabunda is commonly found abundant in vegetation in sub-tropical forest and scrub areas in India as mentioned by Thakur et al. (2010THAKUR, M.L., MATTU, V.K., MATTU, N., SHARMA, V.N., BHARDWAJ, R. and THAKUR, V., 2010. Bird Diversity in Sarkaghat Valley, Mandi (Himachal Pradesh), India. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 940-950.), whereas Jayson and Mathew (2000JAYSON, E.A. and MATHEW, D.N., 2000. Diversity and species-abundance distribution of birds in the tropical forests of Silent Valley, Kerala. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 390-399.) reported its abundance found in tropical evergreen forest in Kerala. Moreover, Mirza and Wasiq (2012MIRZA, Z. B. and WASIQ, H., 2012. Handbook of birds of Pakistan: a field guide. Pakistan: WWF Pakistan for the Conservation of Birds, 305 p.) revealed habitat utilization of D. vagabunda in cultivated trees and scrub forest areas, not in desert without trees.

The present study investigated the population density of D. vagabunda from October 2018 to June 2019 at five study sites of the district Abbottabad. Our study agrees with Bashir et al. (2012BASHIR, T., BEHERA, S.K., KHAN, A. and GAUTAM, P., 2012. An inventory of mammals, birds and reptiles along a section of the river and banks of upper Ganges, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 2900-2910. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2692.2900-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2692.29...
), who reported the estimated population density of D. vagabunda (0.045±0.015) during bank searches of avian species in upper Ganges in India. Moreover, Palita et al. (2011PALITA, S.K., PONKSHE, A.V. and DHAR, U., 2011. Habitat enrichment and its impact on avian diversity: a study at GBPIHED, Kosi-Katarmal, Uttarakhand, India. Current Science, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1681-1689.) documented population density abundance of D. vagabunda (0.73 ± 0.96) at Morus alba, (0.53 ± 0.35) in Ficus palmata, (0.2 ± 0.41) in Buddleja asiatica, (0.13 ± 0.35) in Phacelia crenulata, (0.26 ± 0.45) in Rubus ellipticus and (0.9 ± 0.99) in Pyrus communis on fruit plants in summer fruiting season in Uttarakhand in India.

Similar results were reported earlier on by Saikia et al. (2014SAIKIA, M.K., SAIKIA, P.K. and BHATTA, R., 2014. Management perspectives for avian population conservation and enrichmentn in deepor beel Ramsar site, North-East India. Journal of Global Biosciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 428-451.) for D. vagabunda 0.57 in dry season and 0.43 in wet season in North-East India, because the area is large as compared to our study area. However, Awan et al. (2009) also reported relative abundance of 0.010 D. vagabunda in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Chatterjee et al. (2014)CHATTERJEE, A., ADHIKARI, S., BARIK, A. and MUKHOPADHYAY, S.K., 2014. The mid-winter assemblage and diversity of bird populations at Patlakhawa Protected Forest, Coochbehar, West Bengal, India. The Ring, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ring-2013-0002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ring-2013-0002...
reported density of D. vagabunda in Grasslands (0.00/ha), Swamp forests (0.00/ha), Riverine forests (1.04/ha), Miscellaneous plantations (1.56/ha), Forest edges (2.60/ha) and Wetlands (0.00/ha) in west Bengal India, because the area is large as compared to our study area. Whereas, Roy et al. (2012)ROY, U.S., BANERJEE, P. and MUKHOPADHYAY, S.K., 2012. Study on avifaunal diversity from three different regions of North Bengal, India. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 120-129. reported the estimated population density of D. vagabunda in Gorumara National Park (4.9/ha), in Buxa Tiger Reserve (0.0/ha), and in Rasik Beel Wetland Complex (3.9/ha) in three different regions of North Bengal in India, because the area is too large as compared to our study area.

The present study is supported by Trivedi (2006TRIVEDI, P.G., 2006. Ecology and conservation of avifauna of some forested areas in Gujarat, India. Rajkot: Saurashtra University. Doctoral dissertation in Philosophy in Wildlife Science.), who reported the population density of D. vagabunda (1.93±0.86) in Gujarat in India. Similar results to the present study were obtained by Sidhu et al. (2010SIDHU, S., SHANKAR RAMAN, T.R. and GOODALE, E., 2010. Effects of plantations and home-gardens on tropical forest bird communities and mixed-species bird flocks in the southern Western Ghats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 91.), where they also described average relative abundance of D. vagabunda in Forest (1.00), in Buffer (4.56) and in village (3.75) in Thattekad and in Forest (0.00), in Buffer (0.00) and in village (0.00) in Anamalai Hills in the Southern Western Ghats in India, because the area is large as compared to our study area.

No significant difference (p>0.05) was found among monthly D. vagabunda population densities/ha in hilly and plane areas through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) (Table 1). However, Statistical analysis (t-test) indicates a significant difference (p<0.05) among population densities/ha between morning and evening time population.

5. Conclusion

The results of current study explain the wide distribution of Rufous treepie in District Abbottabad. At all selected sites the specie was not affected by the human population disturbance of nearby areas during study period, most probably because this bird belongs to family corvidae and is not hunted by locals, hence population is stable. Although habitat destruction is a major threat to population decline, however variety of vegetation is available for this bird species at all selected study sites, and as a result it prefers dominant IVI of trees 66.8±10 having population density 0.11±0.033 at Langra, whereas, minimum IVI of trees 50.1±6.9 with population density 0.13±0.029 at Bakot. Our results confirm that all selected hilly and plane study sites of Abbottabad were suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    20 Aug 2021
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    27 Dec 2020
  • Accepted
    10 Feb 2021
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