Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for various diseases in the remote areas of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan

Usos etnomedicinais de plantas para várias doenças nas áreas remotas da Floresta Changa Manga, Paquistão

A. Sharif N. A. Shah A. Rauf N. Hadayat A. Gul G. Nawaz S. Sakhi M. Iqbal M. R. Khan A. A. Shah N. Azam H. Iftikhar S. A. Shah S. Bahadur F. Hussain M. Shuaib About the authors

Abstract

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World’s largest artificial planted forest “Changa Manga”, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.

Keywords:
use value; ethnobotanical; local healthcare system; indigenous knowledge; ethnopharmacology; Changa Manga

Resumo

Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.

Palavras-chave:
valor de uso; etnobotânica; sistema local de saúde; conhecimento indígena; etnofarmacologia; Changa Manga

1. Introduction

Human beings are the only species in the world using various ingredients including plants, animals, insects and other compounds for the cure of various diseases. Usage of plants as medicine dates back to 5,000 years (Sofowora, 1982SOFOWORA, A., 1982. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.). Ethnobotany plays a key role to unravel the link between biological diversity, social and cultural dynamics (Husain et al., 2008HUSAIN, S.Z., MALIK, R.N., JAVAID, M. and BIBI, S., 2008. Ethonobotanical properties and uses of medicinal plants of Morgah biodiversity park, Rawalpindi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 40, pp. 1897-1911.). Medicinal plants have an important role in traditional medicinal systems of many countries and rural communities gain much benefit from these plants and they are an important source of many modern drugs. This customary herbal medicinal system is deeply rooted in the human cultures and habitats, and knowledge of folk remedies is conveyed accordingly to the descendants as the time goes (Majid et al., 2015MAJID, M., KHAN, M.R., SHAH, N.A., HAQ, I.U., FAROOQ, M.A., ULLAH, S., SHARIF, A., ZAHRA, Z., YOUNIS, T. and SAJID, M., 2015. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Euphorbia dracunculoides. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0868-0. PMid:26445953.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-086...
). Many allopathic drugs of the modern world like aspirin, ephedrine, digoxin, atropine, morphine, reserpine, quinine, artemisinin, and tubocurarine were obtained from ethnobotanicals because of their enormous fidelity and use value in the local system of medicine (Gilani and Atta-ur-Rahman, 2005GILANI, A.H. and ATTA-UR-RAHMAN, 2005. Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 43-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.001. PMid:16127805.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06....
). In spite of the modern techniques in chemistry still, these medicines are not replaced and are regularly used for the cure of various ailments (Kumar et al., 2011KUMAR, S., KUMAR, R. and KHAN, A., 2011. Medicinal plant resources: manifestation and prospects of life-sustaining healthcare system. Cont J Biol Sci., vol. 4, pp. 19-29.). Although the synthetic products have surpassed their importance in the modern world, however, the use of herbal in the various local system of medicine, flavoring and for their aromatic qualities, throughout the world the herbals are considered safe and cost effective. On account of safety and security to human and environment, the herbals are gaining importance and people are returning to the naturals (Joy et al., 1998JOY, P., THOMAS, J., MATHEW, S. and SKARIA, B.P., 1998. Medicinal plants. Tropical Horticulture., vol. 2, pp. 449-632.).

Bio-organic compounds have enormous therapeutic values and medicinal plants are a major source of organic constituents (Sajid et al., 2016SAJID, M., KHAN, M.R., SHAH, N.A., SHAH, S.A., ISMAIL, H., YOUNIS, T. and ZAHRA, Z., 2016. Phytochemical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Alnus nitida bark in carbon tetrachloride challenged Sprague Dawley rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1245-3. PMid:27488054.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-124...
). There are about 5700 plants among which many are used by the local population of Pakistan to treat and cure various diseases. The formulations are developed on their beneficial and curative potential that is based on the flora present in their vicinity. Although, tremendous efforts have been made in past to record the ethnobotanical data, the field of traditional medicines is still a virgin. Among 5700 ethnobotanicals nearly 372 are endemic whereas about 456 ethnobotanicals are used by the local healers and practitioners to synthesize nearly 350 formulated drugs for various diseases (Ahmad and Husain, 2008AHMAD, S.S. and HUSAIN, S.Z., 2008. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from salt range (Kallar Kahar) of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 40, pp. 1005-1011.). Indigenous medicinal knowledge is a part of the Pakistani culture, and plant-based medicines are traditionally used by the majority of the Pakistani population (Qureshi et al., 2009QURESHI, R.A., GHUFRAN, M.A., GILANI, S.A., YOUSAF, Z., ABBAS, G. and BATOOL, A., 2009. Indigenous medicinal plants used by local women in southern Himalayan regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 41, pp. 19-25.). The rural population, in particular, is more dependent on folk medicine for their health related problems due to efficacy, minimal side effects, easy availability, and ease of use. This type of traditional medicinal knowledge is regularly practiced in homes, and it is transferred from generation to generation (Mahmood et al., 2011aMAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., SHAHEEN, H., QURESHI, R.A., SANGI, Y. and GILANI, S., 2011a. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from district Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 2348-2360.). However, this tradition and associated knowledge are dwindling rapidly because the younger generation is either reluctant or less inclined to inherit this legacy of ethnomedicinal wealth from their forefathers. A fascination towards western lifestyles, industrialization, migration from rural to urban areas for jobs and education, allopathic medicine, and deforestation may underlie this change in behavior. Therefore, the need to collect and systematically document this valuable traditional knowledge is urgent for the interest of humanity before it is lost forever (Bhatia et al., 2014BHATIA, H., SHARMA, Y.P., MANHAS, R. and KUMAR, K., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 1005-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.017. PMid:24365639.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12....
).

Floristic and ethnobotanical studies of Changa Manga forest have been reported earlier (Ahmad et al., 2014aAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M. and NAWAZ, M., 2014a. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at Changa Manga park Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 46, pp. 19-25., bAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M., NAWAZ, M. and WAHID, A., 2014b. Exploring the medicinal plants wealth: a traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, pp. 1772-1779.). In these studies, traditional recipes that were practiced for years in this area were missing. Moreover, the whole area of this forest was not explored and the data were not statistically analyzed. The modern techniques of statistical analysis provide more elaborate use of the botanicals in treating and curing various ailments. There are gaps in ethnobotanical knowledge in this region. Therefore, there was a need to explore the whole territory of this forest using an advanced statistical approach. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: (i) to record the ethnobotanicals used by the local population for various health ailments; ii) to enrich the data regarding the formulation, dosage, and modes of administration; iii) pharmacological evaluation of candidate ethnobotanicals in subsequent studies; and iv) to inform the community about the diversity and conservation of medicinal plants.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Topography

The Changa Manga is the world’s largest artificial planted forest of District Kasur, in Punjab province of Pakistan. It is situated 31°0833N and 73°9667E in the south of Lahore near Chunian (Ahmad et al., 2014bAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M., NAWAZ, M. and WAHID, A., 2014b. Exploring the medicinal plants wealth: a traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, pp. 1772-1779.). The total area of Changa Manga forest is about 12,510 acres and its cultivation was started in 1864 for the provision of fuel wood (Ahmad et al., 2014aAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M. and NAWAZ, M., 2014a. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at Changa Manga park Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 46, pp. 19-25.). This forest is situated in sub-tropical continental plains of Pakistan. Now it is maintained as national wildlife park (Shinwari and Gilani, 2003SHINWARI, Z.K. and GILANI, S.S., 2003. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (northern Pakistan). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 289-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00333-1. PMid:12648828.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)...
). In the forest D. sissoo (Shisham), M. alba (Tooth), B. malabaricum (Simbal), A. nilotica (Kikar), P.tremula (Popular) are the most common trees species. The trees are irrigated from 17 channels of the main Upper Bari Doab Canal and Vahn distributary which starts from April till October (Shinwari and Gilani, 2003SHINWARI, Z.K. and GILANI, S.S., 2003. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (northern Pakistan). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 289-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00333-1. PMid:12648828.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)...
; Shuaib et al., 2021SHUAIB, M., HUSSAIN, F., RAUF, A., JAN, F., ROMMAN, M., PARVEZ, R., ZEB, A., ALI, S., ABIDULLAH, S., BAHADUR, S. and SHAH, A.A., 2021. Traditional knowledge about medicinal plant in the remote areas of Wari Tehsil, Dir Upper, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 83, e246803.). Changa Manga forest also provides an important breeding center for wildlife and Asiatic vultures especially endangered G. bengalensis (Murn et al., 2008MURN, C., KHAN, U. and FARID, F., 2008. Vulture populations in Pakistan and the Gyps vulture restoration project. Vulture News., vol. 58, pp. 35-43.). A part of this forest has now been developed as a recreation site.

2.2. Climate

The Changa Manga has a semi-arid climate with annual average precipitation of 364 mm. Most precipitation falls in August, with an average of 104 mm. The driest month is November; with an average precipitation of 2 mm. The difference in precipitation is 102 mm between the driest and wettest months of the year. The average temperature of this area on annual basis is 24.2 °C. The hottest month is June (average 34.1 °C) whereas the lowest average temperature (12.2 °C) is recorded in January. The average temperatures varied during the year by 21.9 °C (Ahmad et al., 2014bAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M., NAWAZ, M. and WAHID, A., 2014b. Exploring the medicinal plants wealth: a traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, pp. 1772-1779.).

2.3. Socio-demographic information

Kasur is one of the renowned districts of Punjab province in Pakistan, located on Ferozpur road, bordering 55Kilometers north with Lahore while India in the southeast. It got a separate distinction on July 1st, 1976 as it was a part of District Lahore formerly (Ahmad et al., 2014bAHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M., NAWAZ, M. and WAHID, A., 2014b. Exploring the medicinal plants wealth: a traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, pp. 1772-1779.). District Kasur is administratively subdivided into 5 tehsils, Pattoki, Chunian, Kot Radha Kishan, Raiwind, and Kasur. This district consists of several fortified territories named locally as Kots, which collectively form sizeable towns spreading nearly 4,7962 Kilometers. Prominent and well-known kots and towns of the district are Change Manga, Wahnadhan, Wahnkhara, Doba, Pacca Qila, Kot Ghulam Muhammad, Kot Badar-ud-Din Khan, Kot Azam Khan, Kot Murad Khan, Kot Usman Khan, Kot Halim Khan, Kot Fateh Din Khan (City Kasur Welfare Organization, 2021CITY KASUR WELFARE ORGANIZATION [online], 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Available from: http://citykasur.tripod.com/citynetcafe/id12.html
http://citykasur.tripod.com/citynetcafe/...
). According to 2011 census population of the area is 3,466,000. Most of the population (56.22%) lives in rural areas. Of the total population, Muslims comprise 97%, Christians 2%, while the rest belong to Ahmadis, Hindus, and other religions. Punjabi is the major dialect of the district as it contributes 44% followed by Mewati (32%), Pashto (9%) and Gujarati (8%). Urdu is a common medium of communication in various ethnic groups throughout the study area (Wikipedia, 2021WIKIPEDIA, 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Kasur [online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasur
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasur...
; Figure 1). Agriculture, textile and tanning industry is the major source of income for the people of Kasur (United Nations Development Programme, 2021UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME – UNDP, 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Kasur Tannery Pollution Control (KTPC) [online]. Available from: http://www.soc.titech.ac.jp/~sakano/atiq/kasur/ktwma.html
http://www.soc.titech.ac.jp/~sakano/atiq...
).

Figure 1
Map of the study area.

2.4. Data collection

Data about the ethnobotanicals of Changa Manga were collected from April 2014 to March 2015 including the local area i.e. Chunian, Changa Manga, Pattoki, Janbar and Kot radhakishan. A total of 81 informants including 32 local healers were interviewed to obtain indigenous knowledge of the community as shown in Table 1. Uses and recipes of medicinal plant species for various ailments were recorded through various sources; interviews, meetings, discussions,and dialogues with the common people and with local practitioners and shepherds. Open-ended and semi-structured questionnaires were filled in the field. People were asked to provide information about each local medicinal plant, including the vernacular name, origin, flowering period, uses (particularly medicinal uses), route of administration, methods of preparation of various recipes specific to the community and plant parts that were used for therapeutic value. Interviews were performed in the local languages (Urdu and Punjabi).

Table 1
Demographic information of the local informants.

2.5. Collection and identification of medicinal plants

Ethnobotanicals used by the local inhabitants in the surroundings of Changa Manga forest were identifiedby vernacular names and collected with the assistance of local farmers. The plants after collection were wrapped in blotting paper, and carefully taken to the Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan. Specimens were pressed for dryness, accessed on a herbarium sheet and identified by Prof. Dr. Rizwana Aleem Qureshi (plant taxonomist, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad and Sayed Afzal Shah (plant taxonomist).

2.6. Data analysis

Three quantitative indices; use value (UV), Factor of informants consensus (FIC) and fidelity level (Fl) were determined on the collected data from the informants surrounding the Changa Manga forest. Relative importance (UVi) of each ethnobotanical was determined by estimating the use value by slightly modifying the formula described by O Phillips AH Gentry (Phillips and Gentry, 1993PHILLIPS, O. and GENTRY, A.H., 1993. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique. Economic Botany, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02862203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02862203...
). A total number of disease categories were 17. The factor of use values was obtained by dividing 1 by this categories number (i.e. 1/17). By this each plant species “i” gets a use value factor of 0.059 for each disease category. Use value for plant species “i” is (Equation 1):

U V i = Uf ni (1)

where “ƩUf” indicates the sum of use value factor of the specific ethnobotanical “i”, and “ni” represents the number of informants interviewed for the specific plant species “i”. The range of use value is from 0 to 1; higher values imply the importance of the ethnobotanical among the population while the low values indicate that there are fewer use reports. This Biostatistics does not differentiate for its single or multipurpose therapeutic use (Musa et al., 2011MUSA, M.S., ABDELRASOOL, F.E., ELSHEIKH, E.A., AHMED, L.A., MAHMOUD, A.L.E. and YAGI, S. M., 2011. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 4287-4297.).

Citation of informants for the use of ethnobotanicals for a particular category of ailment recognizes the therapeutic importance. For this purpose prior to analysis of the data ailments were broadly categorized into various classes. To establish the homogeneity for the therapeutic use of medicinal plants Factor of informants consensus (Fic) was determined according to Heinrich et al. (1998)HEINRICH, M., ANKLI, A., FREI, B., WEIMANN, C. and STICHER, O., 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1859-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6. PMid:9877354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)...
. Fic was calculated as Equation 2:

F i c = nur nt nur 1 (2)

On the basis of number of use-reports “nur” for a specific ailment class and the number of taxa “nt” used for the specific ailment class by all the informants, a range of 0 to 1 is expected for the Fic value. Fic approximates near ‘0’ if the taxa are randomly chosen or if there is not any exchange of information about their use among the informants. A well-defined selection criterion and/or the exchange of information in the local community render Fic near ‘1’ (Sharma et al., 2012SHARMA, R., MANHAS, R. and MAGOTRA, R., 2012. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 265-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.027. PMid:22366093.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02....
).

A specific class of ailment may be treated by a number of ethnobotanicals. Therefore it is utmost important to indicate the preferred ethnobotanical among the local population for the treatment of a particular ailment category (Musa et al., 2011MUSA, M.S., ABDELRASOOL, F.E., ELSHEIKH, E.A., AHMED, L.A., MAHMOUD, A.L.E. and YAGI, S. M., 2011. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 4287-4297.). For this purpose, the biostatistics fidelity level “Fl” was determined according to Friedman et al. (1986)FRIEDMAN, J., YANIV, Z., DAFNI, A. and PALEWITCH, D., 1986. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 275-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90094-2. PMid:3747566.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)9...
(Equation 3).

F l % = Np N × 100 (3)

Number of use-reports for a specific ailment of a given medicinal plant species is indicated by “Np” whereas “N” refers to the total number of use-reports cited for any given species. If an ethnobotanical is most preferably used for a specific ailment class than a high Fl value (near100%) is obtained whereas multipurpose ethnobotanical renders low Fl value (Musa et al., 2011MUSA, M.S., ABDELRASOOL, F.E., ELSHEIKH, E.A., AHMED, L.A., MAHMOUD, A.L.E. and YAGI, S. M., 2011. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 4287-4297.).

2.7. Relative frequency citation (RFC)

We determined the Relative frequency of citation (RFC)of reported species using the following index (Equation 4).

R F C = F C / N 0 < R F C < 1 (4)

This index shows the local importance of each species and it is given the frequency of citation (FC, the number of informants mentioning the use of the species) divided by the total number of informants participating in the survey (N), without considering the use categories (Vitalini et al., 2013VITALINI, S., IRITI, M., PURICELLI, C., CIUCHI, D., SEGALE, A. and FICO, G., 2013. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy): an alpine ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 517-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.024. PMid:23220197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11....
).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Diversity of medicinal plants

Plants are an important source of traditional and alternate cure for different diseases in our health care system. In the present study, we collected ethnopharmacological information of 73 plants species belonging to 37 families and 46 genera (Figure 2). The majority of the plant species were from Compositae (10) family, followed by Leguminosae (6) and Malvaceae (4). Remaining, 7 families (Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, Capparidaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, and Rutaceae) shared 3 species each and 6 families (Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Solanaceae, and Zygophyllaceae) consisted of 2 species each. The vast utilization of medicinal plants belonging to different important families might be because of the presence of effective bioactive constituents against ailments in various species (Gazzaneo et al., 2005GAZZANEO, L.R.S., DE LUCENA, R.F.P. and DE ALBUQUERQUE, U.P., 2005. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9. PMid:16270911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9...
). In a similar study by Ijaz et al. (2016)IJAZ, F., IQBAL, Z., RAHMAN, I.U., ALAM, J., KHAN, S.M., SHAH, G.M., KHAN, K. and AFZAL, A., 2016. Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 179, pp. 208-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050. PMid:26739924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12....
, they reported 74 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 42 families in which Compositae was the dominant family used in the treatment of different diseases (8 species and 8 genera). Compositae was followed by Fabaceae having 7 spp. and 7 genera and Malvaceae having 3 spp. and 2 genera. Similarly, Lamiaceae was the major family possessing 9 genera and 11 species, followed by Brassicaceae (5 species), Apiaceae and Amaranthaceae (4 species each) indicating the frequent usage of medicinal plants belonging to these families in the investigation done by Shah et al. (2016)SHAH, S.A., SHAH, N.A., ULLAH, S., ALAM, M.M., BADSHAH, H., ULLAH, S. and MUMTAZ, A.S., 2016. Documenting the indigenous knowledge on medicinal flora from communities residing near Swat River (Suvastu) and in high mountainous areas in Swat-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 182, pp. 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008. PMid:26869542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02....
.

Figure 2
Number of genera and species present in different families.

3.2. Parts of plants used in the preparation of herbal recipes

The use of specific plant parts for curing various human diseases suggests that these parts have strongest medicinal properties but it needs further phytochemical analysis and phytopharmaceutical screening to cross-check the local information. Most frequently leaves, stem, roots, seeds, fruits, flowers, bark and whole plant were used. The local inhabitants of the area usually utilize every part of the plant. In our research different parts of plants were used like, leaves 29%, roots 13.70%, thewhole plant 11.50%, fruits 13%, seeds 8.40%, flowers and bark 7.60%, latex and twigs 3.10% and aerial part 2.30% (Figure 3). The use of whole plant and roots is not beneficial for plants population in nature so aerial parts are the safest. Medicinal plants are being threatened by the increasing population and agricultural expansions that may lead to areduction of plants population reported in other studies (Lulekal et al., 2008LULEKAL, E., KELBESSA, E., BEKELE, T. and YINEGER, H., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-10. PMid:18442379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-10...
). Among the parts utilized for medicinal purposes, leaves of 13 species (28.85%), whole plant (15.38%), bark (13.46%), roots (11.54%), wood (9.62%), fruit (7.69%), flowers and seeds (5.77% each), and stem (3.85%) were utilized (Ahmad and Habib, 2014AHMAD, K.S. and HABIB, S., 2014. Indigenous knowledge of some medicinal plants of Himalaya region, Dawarian village, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Universal Journal of Plant Science., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 40-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020...
). Our findings of the frequent use of leaves corroborate the results of Sohel et al. (2016)SOHEL, M., KAWSAR, M., SUMON, M. and SULTANA, T., 2016. Ethnomedicinal studies of Lalmohan Thana in Bhola District, Bangladesh. Alternative & Integrative Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 1. and (Hasan et al., 2014aHASAN, M.N., FERDOUSHI, A., ARA, N., RAHMAN, S., HOSSAN, M.S. and RAHMATULLAH, M., 2014a. Preliminary phytochemical screening, toxicity, antihyperglycemic and analgesic activity studies with Curcuma longa leaves. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 81-91.). Mostly local healers advised for ingestion of herbals for the treatment of different disorders but other routes like topical were of great importance for skin disorders, wounds, poisonous bites, rheumatism, weakness and body pain.

Figure 3
Percentage of plant parts used for herbal preparations in Changa Manga Forest.

3.3. Use value of medicinal plants

The use value (UVi) is a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species or plant family for a population (Vendruscolo and Mentz, 2006VENDRUSCOLO, G.S. and MENTZ, L.A., 2006. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasílica, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 367-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000200012.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006...
). The highest use value reported in this study was 0.1, and the lowest value was 0.009. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus (UVi=0.1), C. viscosa (UVi=0.016), C. arvensis (UVi=0.016), D. sissoo (UVi=0.017), N. arbortristis (UVi=0.03), P.harmala (UVi=0.028), S. spontaneum (UVi=0.023), Z. nummularia (UVi=0.018), A. conyzoides (UVi=0.019), C.arvense (UVi=0.024), C. limon (UVi=0.021) and G. abutilifolia (UVi=0.026), M.arvensis (UVi=0.02) and S. cumini (UVi=0.017) which indicates their extensive use in local medicine (Table 2). The plants with high UVis might be commonly found in wide areas and thelocal population is aware of their use for various ailments. Ijaz et al. (2016)IJAZ, F., IQBAL, Z., RAHMAN, I.U., ALAM, J., KHAN, S.M., SHAH, G.M., KHAN, K. and AFZAL, A., 2016. Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 179, pp. 208-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050. PMid:26739924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12....
reported the use value of medicinal plants species ranges from 0.21 to 0.91. The species with high used values were B. lycium (UVi=0.91), C. sativa (UVi=0.81), Z. nummularia (UVi=0.80), F. carica (UVi=0.78) and G. mascatense (UVi=0.77). Llah et al. (2014)LLAH, S., RASHID KHAN, M., ALI SHAH, N., AFZAL SHAH, S., MAJID, M. and ASAD FAROOQ, M., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plant use value in the Lakki Marwat District of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 158, no. Pt A, pp. 412-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.048. PMid:25448507.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09....
reported the highest use values (UVi) for P. ovata (UVi =0.98), L. inermis (UVi=0.98), C. Procera and. (UVi=0.96) and P. harmala (UVi=0.95). In the above studies, UV was much higher than the present study because they followed the conventional method of finding use values of plants. Maximum use values of mentioned medicinal plants might be due to their common distribution and local practitioner's awareness which make the first choice for the ailment.

Table 2
List of indigenous medicinal plants used by the people of Changa Manga Forest.

3.4. Route of application

Results obtained in this study indicated that oral administration is the most favorite route of herbal application (45%) followed by topical application (35%) and gargles (9%). Among these herbal applications, the least type of herbal application is through optical route (2%) (Figure 4) This study supports the earlier studies where it was realized that in Pakistan the most preferred rout of herbal administration was the oral route (Mahmood et al., 2011aMAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., SHAHEEN, H., QURESHI, R.A., SANGI, Y. and GILANI, S., 2011a. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from district Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 2348-2360.). The two preferred rout of herbal administration; oral and topical routs permit quick physiological action and enhance the curative power of herbal preparation. In Pakistan, most of the ethnobotanicals are used as a mixture with other medicinal plants and these preparations are taken with additions like honey, milk, butter, sugar, salt, water etc. to treat or cure various ailments. The present study also indicates that to cure a specific class of ailment more than one plant species were usually used by the local population. The most common preparations used were decoction (36.10%), paste (16.70%), juice (11.10%) followed by the bandage, steam, extract and ashes etc. as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 4
Mode of utilization for the preparation of medicine.
Figure 5
Percentage of preparation used.

Our study demonstrated that local healers use these plants to treat different human disorders (Table 2). The use values of plants have the correlation with percentage of healers practicing the plants in different categories of diseases (Figure 6). Other communities also use these plants to treat various ailments. The roots of C. avensis are used for cathartic properties. However, thewhole plant is used as a fodder for goats and sheep (Panhwar and Abro, 2007PANHWAR, A.Q. and ABRO, H., 2007. Ethnobotanical studies of Mahal Kohistan (Khirthar National Park). Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 39, pp. 2301-2315.), blood purifier, blood cancer and skin diseases (Marwat, 2008MARWAT, S.K., 2008. Ethnophytomedicines for treatment of various diseases in DI Khan district. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 24, pp. 293-303.). The decoction of roots of D. sissoo is used to cure blood ailments while its leaves are used as a treatment of gonorrhea (Shah et al., 2016SHAH, S.A., SHAH, N.A., ULLAH, S., ALAM, M.M., BADSHAH, H., ULLAH, S. and MUMTAZ, A.S., 2016. Documenting the indigenous knowledge on medicinal flora from communities residing near Swat River (Suvastu) and in high mountainous areas in Swat-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 182, pp. 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008. PMid:26869542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02....
). Its bark decoction is used for dysentery. Leaf juice of D. sissoo is used as an emollient and as an infusion during fever and for cooling purposes and in emesis while bark powder is used for pyorrhea (Mahmood et al., 2013MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 714-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.035. PMid:23707336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05....
). A decoction of the leaves of M. arvensis is used in afever while its plants extract is given in diarrhea, cholera, and vomiting (Ahmad and Habib, 2014AHMAD, K.S. and HABIB, S., 2014. Indigenous knowledge of some medicinal plants of Himalaya region, Dawarian village, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Universal Journal of Plant Science., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 40-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020...
). S. cumini plant powder is used for diabetes (Mahmood et al., 2013MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 714-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.035. PMid:23707336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05....
). Fruits of M. nigra are useful for the treatment of bad thorax and expulsion of stomach worms (Ullah et al., 2010ULLAH, R., IQBAL, Z.H.Z., HUSSAIN, J., KHAN, F.U., KHAN, N., MUHAMMAD, Z., AYAZ, S., AHMAD, S., REHMAN, N.U. and HUSSAIN, I., 2010. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Darra Adam Khel NWFP Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1815-1821.) and its leaves juice are used for a sore throat and in a cough while leaves infusion is used for stomach worms. It's powder can also be used as a blood purifier and as a carminative (Mahmood et al., 2013MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 714-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.035. PMid:23707336.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05....
). C. canadensis is used as homeostatic, stimulant, astringent and diuretic (Ahmad and Habib, 2014AHMAD, K.S. and HABIB, S., 2014. Indigenous knowledge of some medicinal plants of Himalaya region, Dawarian village, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Universal Journal of Plant Science., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 40-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020...
). Different ethnobotanical reports have indicated the same medicinal characteristics as that are reported in the ethnopharmacological study. Previously, Kumar and Roy (2007)KUMAR, V.L. and ROY, S., 2007. Calotropis procera latex extract affords protection against inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats. Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2007, pp. 47523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/47523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/47523...
gave experimental proof that the latex of C. procera gives protection against inflammation. Along with this, Yesmin et al. (2008)YESMIN, M.N., UDDIN, S.N., MUBASSARA, S. and AKOND, M.A., 2008. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Calotropis procera Linn. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 550-553. explained that the leaves of C. procera contain strong antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Iqbal et al. (2005)IQBAL, Z., LATEEF, M., JABBAR, A., MUHAMMAD, G. and KHAN, M.N., 2005. Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. F. flowers in sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 256-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.022. PMid:16085379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06....
validated the anti-helminthic activity against sheep nematodes using flowers of C. procera. The leaves of A. chtaindica possess strong antibacterial activities and leaves of this plant are extensively used to remove the parasitic load in animals and humans (Tipu et al., 2006TIPU, M., AKHTAR, M., ANJUM, M. and RAJA, M., 2006. New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, vol. 26, pp. 144-148.; Akram et al., 2011AKRAM, M., ASIF, H.M., AKHTAR, N., SHAH, P.A., UZAIR, M., SHAHEEN, G., TAHIRA SHAMIM, S.M., SHAH, A. and AHMAD, K., 2011. Tribulus terrestris Linn.: a review article. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 3601-3605. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271.
https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271...
). Akram et al. (2011)AKRAM, M., ASIF, H.M., AKHTAR, N., SHAH, P.A., UZAIR, M., SHAHEEN, G., TAHIRA SHAMIM, S.M., SHAH, A. and AHMAD, K., 2011. Tribulus terrestris Linn.: a review article. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 3601-3605. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271.
https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271...
reported the use of M. arvensisas carminative, anti-peptic ulcer agent and as antispasmodic. Pods of Cassia fistulaare given as such or in the form of decoction for curing constipation (Sharma et al., 2012SHARMA, R., MANHAS, R. and MAGOTRA, R., 2012. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 265-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.027. PMid:22366093.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02....
). In addition, its use also has been explained in Bangladesh in asthma, chlorosis, in fever, as a purgative, anti-bilious and as anti-amoebiasis (Hasan et al., 2014bHASAN, S.A., UDDIN, M., HUDA, K.N.-U., DAS, A., TABASSUM, N., HOSSAIN, R., MAHAL, M.J. and RAHMATULLAH, M., 2014b. Ethnomedicinal plants of two village folk medicinal practitioners in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh: comparison of their folk medicinal uses with Ayurvedic uses. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 10-19.). P. guajava is used traditionally in stomach problems and other gastrointestinal infections, nausea, and vomiting (Heinrich et al., 1998HEINRICH, M., ANKLI, A., FREI, B., WEIMANN, C. and STICHER, O., 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1859-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6. PMid:9877354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)...
). H. annuus is used to treat respiratory infections, bronchitis, and flue (Ishtiaq et al., 2012ISHTIAQ, M., MUMTAZ, A.S., HUSSAIN, T. and GHANI, A., 2012. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Leepa Valley, Muzaffarabad (AJK), Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 3087-3098.).

Figure 6
Use value and percentage of healers practicing of medicinal plants for various diseases.

Plants with smaller UVi values are C. didymus (UVi=0.009) F. religiosa (UVi=0.012), S. mucoross (UVi=0.015). P. pinnata (UVi=0.015), these should not be neglected as they can imply potential effects to health.

3.5. Factor of informants consensus (FIC)

Ailments were first classified into 17 different categories according to Heinrich et al. (1998)HEINRICH, M., ANKLI, A., FREI, B., WEIMANN, C. and STICHER, O., 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1859-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6. PMid:9877354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)...
, before factor of informants consensus was determined (Table 3). The greatest number of locally used species (51 of 73) were used to treat gastrointestinal problems, followed by 32 species for the treatment of dermatological ailments, 26 species for the treatment of respiratory disorders, 22 species for circulatory disorders, 12 species for the andrological/gynecological disorders, 9 species for the treatment of fever, 10 species for the treatment of liver disorders, 6 species for the treatment of cardiovascular and 7 species for the treatment of dental disorders, 11 species for neurological and brain disorders, and six and eleven species for the treatment of inflammation and pain problems respectively. A large number of plant species for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments were also reported in other ethnobotanical surveys (Llah et al., 2014LLAH, S., RASHID KHAN, M., ALI SHAH, N., AFZAL SHAH, S., MAJID, M. and ASAD FAROOQ, M., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plant use value in the Lakki Marwat District of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 158, no. Pt A, pp. 412-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.048. PMid:25448507.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09....
; Ullah et al., 2013ULLAH, M., KHAN, M.U., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N., HUSSAIN, M., WAZIR, S.M., DAUD, M. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Wana district south Waziristan agency, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 918-924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.032. PMid:24120747.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09....
). However, these findings are consistent with Revathi et al. (2013)REVATHI, P., PARIMELAZHAGAN, T. and MANIAN, S., 2013. Ethnomedicinal plants and novel formulations used by Hooralis tribe in Sathyamangalam forests, Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, no. 28, pp. 2083-2097. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2013.5074.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2013.5074...
, who reported that more species were used for the treatment of dermatological disorders. Generally, a greater success rate with one species as a remedy for a disorder produces a high scoring rate, which indicates that this plant might contain bioactive constituents and demands a bioassay-guided pharmacological investigation. Gastrointestinal problems had the highest (Fic=0.91) scores. Comparatively, our informants showed medium consensus in the treatment of dermatological ailments (Fic=0.87) and respiratory disorders (Fic=0.85) and less agreement for the treatment of dental disorders (Fic=0.76) and liver disorders (Fic=0.75) (Table 3).

Table 3
Fidelity level (Fl %) and factor informant consensus (Fic) of important species for various ailment categories.

3.6. Fidelity level (Fl)

Fidelity level is used to identify species that are most preferred by the inhabitants for the treatment of certain ailments. Fidelity level in the present study varied from 4.5% to 68.18%. E. helioscopia (Fl=68.18%), A.vera (Fl=59.09%), C. carandas (Fl=54.54%), M. arvensis (Fl=54.5%), D. stramonium (FI=47.73%) and C.paradise (Fl=15.90%) had high fidelity levels (Fl) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. C. arvensis (Fl=59.09%), A. indica (Fl=52.27%), A. conyzoides(Fl=45.54%), D. sissoo (Fl=31.81%) and P. pinnata (Fl=31.81%) were reported to cure dermatological disorders. Respiratory complaints were treated mainly by C. didymus (Fl=61.36%),P. cineraria (Fl=38.6%), E. gubulus (Fl=25%), H. annuus (Fl=25%) and A. Aspera (Fl=22.72%), while C. viscose (Fl=38.63%), G. abutilifolia (Fl=27.27%), C. deciduas (Fl=18.18%), P. cineraria(Fl=15.90%) and P. hysterophorus(Fl=13.63%) for the treatment of skeleton-musculardisorders (Table 3).

Four medicinal plants expressed Fl value greater than 55%. Gastrointestinal disorders had the maximum of two species with a Fl> 55% and dermatological disorders had one species with a Fl> 55% and Respiratory disorders have one species with a Fl> 55%. A low Fl value indicates that the same or different parts of the same plant are used for other medicinal purposes. Other communities also showed fidelity levels for the use of some plant species against different categories of ailments, as mentioned in the present work. Bhatia et al. (2014)BHATIA, H., SHARMA, Y.P., MANHAS, R. and KUMAR, K., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 1005-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.017. PMid:24365639.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12....
reported Fl of 37.5% for A. indica for dermatological disorders, 100% for M. arvensis against gastrointestinal disorders and 37.2% of V. odorataand 36.4% E. prostrate against respiratory disorders. Similarly, Ayyanar and Ignacimuthu (2011)AYYANAR, M. and IGNACIMUTHU, S., 2011. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 851-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.029. PMid:21291981.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01....
reported a 100% Fl for A. indica against itching and wounds, and 100% for R. communisan against joint and muscle pain. Islam et al. (2014)ISLAM, M.K., SAHA, S., MAHMUD, I., MOHAMAD, K., AWANG, K., JAMAL UDDIN, S., RAHMAN, M.M. and SHILPI, J.A., 2014. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 921-930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056. PMid:24342778.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11....
reported a Fl of 100% for D. metel and91.11% for A. indicaagainst dermatological disorders. Ishtiaq et al. (2012)ISHTIAQ, M., MUMTAZ, A.S., HUSSAIN, T. and GHANI, A., 2012. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Leepa Valley, Muzaffarabad (AJK), Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 3087-3098. reported a 51% Fl for C. orientalis for andrological/gynecological and a 21% Fl for A. sativumagainst the cardiovascular disorders.

3.7. Relative frequency citation (RFC)

Different ethnobotanical tools such as relative frequency citation (RFC) were calculated in themost common occurring medicinal plant used for various disorders. Based on RFC value number of informants who cite the different plant species for the different disorders at various localities in the local area, the most consumed medical species includes P. guajava (0.93), S. melongena (0.91), G. abutilifolia(0.90), F. officinalis, C. sativa (0.87), P. granatum, P. hysterophorus, M. coromandelianum and H. annuus (0.83), C. didymus (0.82), G. ciliate and S.cumini (0.81), R. muricatus (0.80), T. arjuna, S. irio, F. religiosa, C. arvense (0.79), Z. nummularia, T. officinale, S. media, S. arvensis, P. emblica, H. rosa-sinensis, C. boelckei Cabrera, C. procera (0.77), S. indicum, S. spontaneum, R. indica, M.indica, C. paradise, C. decidua (0.76) C. fistula, A. arvensis (0.74) S. mukorossi, R. crispus, M. azedarach, F. benghalensis, A. indica (0.70) and C. carandas(0.70), S. oleraceus, P. dactylifera (0.67), K. Pinnata, C. arvensis (0.66) (Table 2). The plant species have utilized for maximum disorders in the local area. The high values of RFC show the fact that these ethnobotanicals species were well known to maximum numbers of informants. The least Relative frequency citation represented by A. javanica, P.pinnata, A. aspera, C. limon, C. religiosa, M. arvensis, A. conyzoides, A. nilotica, D. sissoo, M. nigra, Cirsium horridulum, P. cineraria, C. maxima, D. stramonium, M. elengi, A. concinna, D. bipinnata, N. arbor-tristis, C. Canadensis, C. dactylon, O. corniculata, C. viscosa, P. harmala, P.canariensis, A. theophrasti, A. vera, F. Arabica, E. globulus, C. album and E.helioscopia.

3.8. New medicinal uses

The number of species with fresh uses in each category of diseases has been highlighted in Table 4 and Figure 7. The highest number of new species has been reported in curing gastrointestinal disorders (51) followed by dermatological disorders (32), respiratory (26), and others disease category (25). Least numbers of new plants species have been reported in ophthalmological disorders (3). The majority of the medicinal plants listed in Table 2 are well known for their medicinal uses and cited for different uses in many ethnomedicinal studies. However, in the present study, all the 73 species have been reporting fresh uses. Maximum fresh uses (17) has been reported for C. dactylon, while the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13 (Figure 8). No specific trend of fresh uses against a number of species was observed here; however (Shah et al., 2016SHAH, S.A., SHAH, N.A., ULLAH, S., ALAM, M.M., BADSHAH, H., ULLAH, S. and MUMTAZ, A.S., 2016. Documenting the indigenous knowledge on medicinal flora from communities residing near Swat River (Suvastu) and in high mountainous areas in Swat-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 182, pp. 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008. PMid:26869542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02....
) in their study reported a trend of maximum new use with aminimum number of plant species. In addition to the new uses documented here for the certain species, C. carandas, C. horridulum, C. boelckei, P. canariensisand S. arvensisare reported for the first time as medicinal plants. These plants are used against different ailments and need thorough pharmacological investigations. The plethora of medicinal uses given in Table 2 reflects two declarations (1) the previously reported medicinal uses (showing a majority in the table) are also known from other cultures signifying the authenticity of these medicinal plants (2) the new uses for the known medicinal plants are either unique to our study area or they are still not explored from other cultures. Therefore, there is a need to scientifically validate the fresh ethnomedicinal uses documented here.

Table 4
List of different recipes used by people of the Changa Manga Forest.
Figure 7
Number of new species in each category.
Figure 8
Number of plants reporting new uses in the study area.

Plants are an important source of traditional and alternate cure for different diseases in our health care system. In the present study, we collected ethnopharmacological information of 73 plants species belonging to 37 families and 46 genera (Figure 2). The majority of the plant species were from Compositae (10) family, followed by Leguminosae (6) and Malvaceae (4).Remaining, 7 families (Amaranthaceae, Fabaceae, Capparidaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, and Rutaceae) shared 3 species each and 6 families (Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae) consisted of 2 species each. The vast utilization of medicinal plants belonging to different important families might be because of the presence of effective bioactive constituents against ailments in various species (Gazzaneo et al., 2005GAZZANEO, L.R.S., DE LUCENA, R.F.P. and DE ALBUQUERQUE, U.P., 2005. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9. PMid:16270911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9...
). In a similar study by Ijaz et al. (2016)IJAZ, F., IQBAL, Z., RAHMAN, I.U., ALAM, J., KHAN, S.M., SHAH, G.M., KHAN, K. and AFZAL, A., 2016. Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 179, pp. 208-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050. PMid:26739924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12....
, they reported74 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 42 families in which Compositae was the dominant family used in the treatment of different diseases (8 species and 8 genera). Compositae was followed by Fabaceae having 7 spp. and 7 genera and Malvaceae having 3 species and 2 genera. Similarly, Lamiaceae was the major family possessing 9 genera and 11 species, followed by Brassicaceae (5 species), Apiaceae and Amaranthaceae (4 species each) indicating the frequent usage of medicinal plants belonging to these families in the investigation done by Shah et al. (2016)SHAH, S.A., SHAH, N.A., ULLAH, S., ALAM, M.M., BADSHAH, H., ULLAH, S. and MUMTAZ, A.S., 2016. Documenting the indigenous knowledge on medicinal flora from communities residing near Swat River (Suvastu) and in high mountainous areas in Swat-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 182, pp. 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008. PMid:26869542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02....
. Other supporting information such as the botanical names, family, plant parts used, applications, administration routes, use value and average of healer practicing are presented. A. vera, A. indica, D.sissoo shows100 percent healer practice in the survey areas. Peganum harmalaL,Anagallis arvensis were the most cited plants by the locals with 0.028 and 0.025. Barkatullah and Ibrar (2011)BARKATULLAH, B. and IBRAR, M., 2011. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 73, pp. 16521-16535. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258...
have reported the use value of many herbs of which is in line with the present report. Tolossa et al. (2013)TOLOSSA, K., DEBELA, E., ATHANASIADOU, S., TOLERA, A., GANGA, G. and HOUDIJK, J.G., 2013. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-32. PMid:23680260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-32...
reported that oral route is the most preferred mode of administration, the present finding also showed oral route is the preferred mode of administration. Barkatullah and Ibrar (2011)BARKATULLAH, B. and IBRAR, M., 2011. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 73, pp. 16521-16535. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258...
reported the oral route administration. The uses of medicinal plant are much common in rural than urban areas because there were no health facilities. Murad et al. (2013)MURAD, W., AZIZULLAH, A., ADNAN, M., TARIQ, A., KHAN, K.U., WAHEED, S. and AHMAD, A., 2013. Ethnobotanical assessment of plant resources of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-77. PMid:24267174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-77...
reported that the people of district Karak also depend on the medicinal flora because of their multipurpose same is true in the present finding. The current results showed that plant are locally used for various purposes including medicine, fuel, wood, fodder, edible, shelter, vegetable, fences and hedges, timber wood and furniture, Ali et al. (2016)ALI, K., SHUAIB, M., HUSSAIN, Z., SAJJAD, W., ALI, F. and FAZIL, M., 2016. Ethnobotanical assessment of the medicinal flora of Khyber agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 22, pp. 607-616. reported that the people of Khyber agency also depend on their native flora for fuel, medicine, vegetable, vegetable etc. that’s what the present report show Nadeem et al. (2013)NADEEM, M., SHINWARI, Z.K. and QAISER, M., 2013. Screening of folk remedies by genus Artemisia based on ethnomedicinal surveys and traditional knowledge of native communities of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 45, pp. 111-117. reported the medicinal flora of the change manga forest in his report which are same with the present finding. Result have also proved that the features and uses of the traditional plants for improving the livelihood by giving various medicine and other ethnobotanical uses the same result were also reported by the Habib-Ul-Hassan et al. (2015)HABIB-UL-HASSAN, W.M., AHMAD, N., TARIQ, A., KHAN, I., AKHTAR, N. and JAN, S., 2015. Indigenous uses of the plants of Malakand valley, district Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 21, pp. 83-99.. Many workers reported ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal study in remote area Changa Manga forest. The same results about the traditional uses of medicinal species reported from Changa Manga forests by Kayani et al. (2014)KAYANI, S., AHMAD, M., ZAFAR, M., SULTANA, S., KHAN, M.P.Z., ASHRAF, M.A., HUSSAIN, J. and YASEEN, G., 2014. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants for respiratory disorders among the inhabitants of Gallies–Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 156, pp. 47-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.005. PMid:25153021.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.08....
they collected 37 ethnomedicinal species belonging to 22 families, 11 plant species were common known to the peoples and have constant usage. The identified plant is commonly used for fever, intestinal infections, skins diseases, throat infections, eye problems, stomach problems, liver problems and many common pains. It was noted that various parts of medicinal flora were used for the treatment of many ailments. A large number of people harvest the entire plant for medicinal and other purpose as well. Habib-Ul-Hassan et al. (2015)HABIB-UL-HASSAN, W.M., AHMAD, N., TARIQ, A., KHAN, I., AKHTAR, N. and JAN, S., 2015. Indigenous uses of the plants of Malakand valley, district Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 21, pp. 83-99. reported the same issue of harvesting the whole plant from the Malakand division same is true in the present finding. Harvesting the plant greatly reduces the number of plant and cause great threat to extinction of these medicinal floras. Khan et al. (2013)KHAN, S.M., PAGE, S., AHMAD, H., SHAHEEN, H., ULLAH, Z., AHMAD, M. and HARPER, D.M., 2013. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4. PMid:23302393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4...
reported the medicinal flora of the Naran Valley which face the same problem and in line with the recent finding. Leaves of 39 plants are being more frequently utilized in the research area. The high uses of the leaves may be due to its relative ease of finding. The excessive utilization of leaves may show the presentation of medicinal value but it need Scientific screening is required to explore these medicinal properties. Barkatullah and Ibrar (2011)BARKATULLAH, B. and IBRAR, M., 2011. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 73, pp. 16521-16535. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258...
have also reported the utilization of leaves for many disorders which is in line with present report. Mostly the people used the whole plant for ethnobotanical purpose. Khan et al. (2013)KHAN, S.M., PAGE, S., AHMAD, H., SHAHEEN, H., ULLAH, Z., AHMAD, M. and HARPER, D.M., 2013. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4. PMid:23302393.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4...
and Shuaib et al. (2014)SHUAIB, M., KHAN, I., SHARIFULLAH, R.K., HASHMATULLAH, S.M. and NAZ, R., 2014. Ethnobotanical studies of spring flora of Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 20, pp. 37-49. also reported the people of the Naran Valley also utilized the whole plant same is true in the present finding. 17 fruit 12 root bark 7 are utilized for the medicinal purpose, Habib-Ul-Hassan et al. (2015)HABIB-UL-HASSAN, W.M., AHMAD, N., TARIQ, A., KHAN, I., AKHTAR, N. and JAN, S., 2015. Indigenous uses of the plants of Malakand valley, district Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 21, pp. 83-99. also reported the use of different parts including root fruit bark etc. same is true in the present finding. This survey also showed that some medicinal plant recorded have been found to cure more than one diseases like A. niloticaAstringent, diarrhea, dysentery, expectorant, toothache, aphrodisiac, gonorrhea, gingivitis.C. decidua, F. officinalis, C. horridulum etc are the different plant which are used for more than one diseases, this is because some plant contain many important chemicals due to which its medicinal value become diverse. Simbo (2010)SIMBO, D.J., 2010. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-8. PMid:20156356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-8...
have also reported the similar findings.

4. Conclusion

This study provides valuable information on the use of ethnobotanicals by the local population surrounding the Changa Manga forest of District Kasur, Pakistan in their traditional health system for the treatment and cure of various disorders. This information might provide a basic knowledge to the forthcoming generations. In this study ethnopharmacological data on 73 plant species belonging to 46 genera of various families have been documented. The most useful plant species were E. helioscopia, C. carandas, A. vera and C. paradisi with high fidelity levels for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Dermatological disorders were treated by C. arvensis, A. indica, A. conyzoides, D. sissoo and P. pinnata. Respiratory complaints were treated mainly by C. didymus, P. cineraria, E. globulus, H. annuus and A. aspera. C. viscosa, G. abutilifolia, C. decidua, P. cineraria and P. hysterophorus are used for the treatment of skeleton-muscular disorders. Fresh uses of each plant reported for the first time against that plant species in Pakistan has been written in bold in Table 2. This extensive study resulted in five new medicinal plants being reported for the first time in Pakistan. These novel plants are C. carandas (Apocynaceae), C.horridulum (Compositae), C. boelckei (Compositae), P. canariensis (Arecaceae) and S. arvensis (Compositae) To conclude, there is a need to scientifically investigate the plants fresh uses and new medicinal plants for their respective use.

Acknowledgements

Not Applicable.

References

  • ABBASI, A.M., KHAN, M., AHMAD, M., ZAFAR, M., JAHAN, S. and SULTANA, S., 2010. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 322-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.052 PMid:20138210.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.052
  • ABU-IRMAILEH, B.E. and AFIFI, F.U., 2003. Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 89, no. 2-3, pp. 193-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00283-6 PMid:14611882.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00283-6
  • AHMAD, K., AHMAD, M. and WECKERLE, C., 2013. Ethnobotanical studies of the eastern plains of Takht-e-Sulaiman hills. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 45, pp. 197-205.
  • AHMAD, K.S. and HABIB, S., 2014. Indigenous knowledge of some medicinal plants of Himalaya region, Dawarian village, Neelum valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Universal Journal of Plant Science., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 40-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020203
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujps.2014.020203
  • AHMAD, S.S. and HUSAIN, S.Z., 2008. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from salt range (Kallar Kahar) of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 40, pp. 1005-1011.
  • AHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M. and NAWAZ, M., 2014a. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at Changa Manga park Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 46, pp. 19-25.
  • AHMAD, S.S., ERUM, S., KHAN, S.M., NAWAZ, M. and WAHID, A., 2014b. Exploring the medicinal plants wealth: a traditional medico-botanical knowledge of local communities in Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 20, pp. 1772-1779.
  • AHMED, N., MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., TAHIR, S., BANO, A., MALIK, R.N., HASSAN, S. and ISHTIAQ, M., 2014. Relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 509-523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.052 PMid:24942673.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.05.052
  • AKRAM, M., ASIF, H.M., AKHTAR, N., SHAH, P.A., UZAIR, M., SHAHEEN, G., TAHIRA SHAMIM, S.M., SHAH, A. and AHMAD, K., 2011. Tribulus terrestris Linn.: a review article. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, no. 16, pp. 3601-3605. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271
    » https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR.9001271
  • AKRAM, M., HAMID, A., KHALIL, A., GHAFFAR, A., TAYYABA, N., SAEED, A., ALI, M. and NAVEED, A., 2014. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 313-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/039463201402700301
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/039463201402700301
  • ALI, K., SHUAIB, M., HUSSAIN, Z., SAJJAD, W., ALI, F. and FAZIL, M., 2016. Ethnobotanical assessment of the medicinal flora of Khyber agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 22, pp. 607-616.
  • AMJAD, M.S., 2015. Ethnobotanical profiling and floristic diversity of Bana Valley, Kotli (Azad Jammu and Kashmir), Pakistan. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 292-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30348-8
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30348-8
  • ARIAS, B.A. and RAMÓN-LACA, L., 2005. Pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 89-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.019 PMid:15652281.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.10.019
  • AYYANAR, M. and IGNACIMUTHU, S., 2005. Traditional knowledge of kani tribals in Kouthalai of Tirunelveli hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 246-255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.020 PMid:16054791.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.020
  • AYYANAR, M. and IGNACIMUTHU, S., 2011. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 851-864. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.029 PMid:21291981.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.029
  • BALIGA, M.S., PAI, R.J., BHAT, H.P., PALATTY, P.L. and BOLOOR, R., 2011. Chemistry and medicinal properties of the Bakul (Mimusops elengi Linn): a review. Food Research International, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1823-1829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.01.063
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.01.063
  • BARKATULLAH, B. and IBRAR, M., 2011. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 73, pp. 16521-16535. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1258
  • BHATIA, H., SHARMA, Y.P., MANHAS, R. and KUMAR, K., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the villagers of district Udhampur, J&K, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 1005-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.017 PMid:24365639.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.017
  • BISWAS, K., CHATTOPADHYAY, I., BANERJEE, R.K. and BANDYOPADHYAY, U., 2002. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, vol. 82, pp. 1336-1345.
  • CHAKRABORTY, A., AMUDHA, P., GEETHA, M. and SINGH, N., 2010. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of methanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. in mice. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. PS51ref.23.
  • CITY KASUR WELFARE ORGANIZATION [online], 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Available from: http://citykasur.tripod.com/citynetcafe/id12.html
    » http://citykasur.tripod.com/citynetcafe/id12.html
  • DÍAZ‐JUÁREZ, J., TENORIO‐LÓPEZ, F., ZARCO‐OLVERA, G., VALLE-MONDRAGÓN, L.D., TORRES-NARVÁEZ, J.C. and PASTELÍN-HERNÁNDEZ, G., 2009. Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo. Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 948-954. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2680 PMid:19153985.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2680
  • DWIVEDI, S., 2007. Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.: a useful drug for cardiovascular disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 114-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.003 PMid:17875376.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.003
  • FRIEDMAN, J., YANIV, Z., DAFNI, A. and PALEWITCH, D., 1986. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, pp. 275-287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90094-2 PMid:3747566.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90094-2
  • GAZZANEO, L.R.S., DE LUCENA, R.F.P. and DE ALBUQUERQUE, U.P., 2005. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9 PMid:16270911.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-9
  • GILANI, A.H. and ATTA-UR-RAHMAN, 2005. Trends in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 100, no. 1-2, pp. 43-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.001 PMid:16127805.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.001
  • HABIB-UL-HASSAN, W.M., AHMAD, N., TARIQ, A., KHAN, I., AKHTAR, N. and JAN, S., 2015. Indigenous uses of the plants of Malakand valley, district Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 21, pp. 83-99.
  • HAMMICHE, V. and MAIZA, K., 2006. Traditional medicine in Central Sahara: pharmacopoeia of Tassili N’ajjer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 358-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.028 PMid:16414225.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.11.028
  • HASAN, M.N., FERDOUSHI, A., ARA, N., RAHMAN, S., HOSSAN, M.S. and RAHMATULLAH, M., 2014a. Preliminary phytochemical screening, toxicity, antihyperglycemic and analgesic activity studies with Curcuma longa leaves. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 81-91.
  • HASAN, S.A., UDDIN, M., HUDA, K.N.-U., DAS, A., TABASSUM, N., HOSSAIN, R., MAHAL, M.J. and RAHMATULLAH, M., 2014b. Ethnomedicinal plants of two village folk medicinal practitioners in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh: comparison of their folk medicinal uses with Ayurvedic uses. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 10-19.
  • HEINRICH, M., ANKLI, A., FREI, B., WEIMANN, C. and STICHER, O., 1998. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers’ consensus and cultural importance. Social Science & Medicine, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 1859-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6 PMid:9877354.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00181-6
  • HUSAIN, S.Z., MALIK, R.N., JAVAID, M. and BIBI, S., 2008. Ethonobotanical properties and uses of medicinal plants of Morgah biodiversity park, Rawalpindi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 40, pp. 1897-1911.
  • HUSSAIN, K., SHAHAZAD, A. and ZIA-UL-HUSSNAIN, S., 2008. An ethnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hattar district Haripur, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, vol. 12, pp. 29-35.
  • HUSSAIN, K., NISAR, M.F., MAJEED, A., NAWAZ, K. and BHATTI, K.H., 2010. Ethnomedicinal survey for important plants of Jalalpur Jattan, district Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, vol. 2010, pp. 11.
  • IJAZ, F., IQBAL, Z., RAHMAN, I.U., ALAM, J., KHAN, S.M., SHAH, G.M., KHAN, K. and AFZAL, A., 2016. Investigation of traditional medicinal floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 179, pp. 208-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050 PMid:26739924.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.12.050
  • IQBAL, Z., LATEEF, M., JABBAR, A., MUHAMMAD, G. and KHAN, M.N., 2005. Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. F. flowers in sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 256-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.022 PMid:16085379.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.022
  • ISHTIAQ, M., MUMTAZ, A.S., HUSSAIN, T. and GHANI, A., 2012. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Leepa Valley, Muzaffarabad (AJK), Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 3087-3098.
  • ISLAM, M.K., SAHA, S., MAHMUD, I., MOHAMAD, K., AWANG, K., JAMAL UDDIN, S., RAHMAN, M.M. and SHILPI, J.A., 2014. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 921-930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056 PMid:24342778.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.056
  • ISMAIL, S. and NISAR, M.F., 2010. Ethnomedicinal survey for important plants of district Lodhran, Punjab, Pakistan. BIOL (E-Journal of Life Sciences), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 52-58.
  • JOSHI, M., PATEL, M. and MEHTA, P., 1980. Some folk medicines of Dangs, Gujarat state. Bulletin of Medico Ethno Botanical Research, vol. 1, pp. 8-14.
  • JOY, P., THOMAS, J., MATHEW, S. and SKARIA, B.P., 1998. Medicinal plants. Tropical Horticulture., vol. 2, pp. 449-632.
  • KAMAL, M., WAZIR, S.M., HASSAN, M., SUBHAN, M., KHAN, S., MUHAMMAD, A. and TAJ, S., 2009. Ethnobotanically important plants of district Bannu, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 87-93.
  • KAYANI, S., AHMAD, M., ZAFAR, M., SULTANA, S., KHAN, M.P.Z., ASHRAF, M.A., HUSSAIN, J. and YASEEN, G., 2014. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants for respiratory disorders among the inhabitants of Gallies–Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 156, pp. 47-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.005 PMid:25153021.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.005
  • KHAN, S.M., PAGE, S., AHMAD, H., SHAHEEN, H., ULLAH, Z., AHMAD, M. and HARPER, D.M., 2013. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4 PMid:23302393.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-4
  • KRISHNAVENI, M. and MIRUNALINI, S., 2010. Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): the ayurvedic wonder. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 93-105. PMid:20506691.
  • KUMAR, S., KUMAR, R. and KHAN, A., 2011. Medicinal plant resources: manifestation and prospects of life-sustaining healthcare system. Cont J Biol Sci., vol. 4, pp. 19-29.
  • KUMAR, V.L. and ROY, S., 2007. Calotropis procera latex extract affords protection against inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats. Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2007, pp. 47523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/47523
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/47523
  • LANS, C.A., 2006. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-45 PMid:17040567.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-45
  • LLAH, S., RASHID KHAN, M., ALI SHAH, N., AFZAL SHAH, S., MAJID, M. and ASAD FAROOQ, M., 2014. Ethnomedicinal plant use value in the Lakki Marwat District of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 158, no. Pt A, pp. 412-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.048 PMid:25448507.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.048
  • LULEKAL, E., KELBESSA, E., BEKELE, T. and YINEGER, H., 2008. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-10 PMid:18442379.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-10
  • MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 714-723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.035 PMid:23707336.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.035
  • MAHMOOD, A., MAHMOOD, A., SHAHEEN, H., QURESHI, R.A., SANGI, Y. and GILANI, S., 2011a. Ethno medicinal survey of plants from district Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 2348-2360.
  • MAHMOOD, A., RIFFAT, N., ZABTA, K. and AQEEL, M., 2011b. Ethnobotanical survey of plants from Neelum, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 43, pp. 10.
  • MAJID, M., KHAN, M.R., SHAH, N.A., HAQ, I.U., FAROOQ, M.A., ULLAH, S., SHARIF, A., ZAHRA, Z., YOUNIS, T. and SAJID, M., 2015. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Euphorbia dracunculoides. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0868-0 PMid:26445953.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0868-0
  • MARWAT, S.K., 2008. Ethnophytomedicines for treatment of various diseases in DI Khan district. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 24, pp. 293-303.
  • MURAD, W., AZIZULLAH, A., ADNAN, M., TARIQ, A., KHAN, K.U., WAHEED, S. and AHMAD, A., 2013. Ethnobotanical assessment of plant resources of Banda Daud Shah, District Karak, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-77 PMid:24267174.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-77
  • MURN, C., KHAN, U. and FARID, F., 2008. Vulture populations in Pakistan and the Gyps vulture restoration project. Vulture News., vol. 58, pp. 35-43.
  • MUSA, M.S., ABDELRASOOL, F.E., ELSHEIKH, E.A., AHMED, L.A., MAHMOUD, A.L.E. and YAGI, S. M., 2011. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the Blue Nile State, South-eastern Sudan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, pp. 4287-4297.
  • NADEEM, M., SHINWARI, Z.K. and QAISER, M., 2013. Screening of folk remedies by genus Artemisia based on ethnomedicinal surveys and traditional knowledge of native communities of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 45, pp. 111-117.
  • PANHWAR, A.Q. and ABRO, H., 2007. Ethnobotanical studies of Mahal Kohistan (Khirthar National Park). Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 39, pp. 2301-2315.
  • PARVEEN, UPADHYAY, B., ROY, S. and KUMAR, A., 2007. Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the rural communities of Churu district in the Thar Desert, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 387-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.06.010 PMid:17714898.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.06.010
  • PATTEWAR, S.V., 2012. Kalanchoe pinnata: phytochemical and pharmacological profile. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 3, pp. 993.
  • PHILLIPS, O. and GENTRY, A.H., 1993. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru: I. Statistical hypotheses tests with a new quantitative technique. Economic Botany, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 15-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02862203
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02862203
  • QURESHI, R., BHATTI, G.R. and MEMON, R.A., 2010. Ethnomedicinal uses of herbs from northern part of Nara desert, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 42, pp. 839-851.
  • QURESHI, R., MAQSOOD, M., ARSHAD, C.A. and CHAUDHRY, A.K., 2011. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants by the people of Kadhi areas of Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 43, pp. 121-133.
  • QURESHI, R.A., GHUFRAN, M.A., GILANI, S.A., YOUSAF, Z., ABBAS, G. and BATOOL, A., 2009. Indigenous medicinal plants used by local women in southern Himalayan regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 41, pp. 19-25.
  • REHMAN, K., MASHWANI, Z.U., KHAN, M.A., ULLAH, Z. and CHAUDHARY, H.J., 2015. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 165, pp. 251-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.035 PMid:25732837.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.02.035
  • REVATHI, P., PARIMELAZHAGAN, T. and MANIAN, S., 2013. Ethnomedicinal plants and novel formulations used by Hooralis tribe in Sathyamangalam forests, Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, no. 28, pp. 2083-2097. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2013.5074
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR2013.5074
  • SAHREEN, S., KHAN, M.R., KHAN, R.A. and SHAH, N.A., 2013. Estimation of flavoniods, antimicrobial, antitumor and anticancer activity of Carissa opaca fruits. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-372 PMid:24373124.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-372
  • SAJID, M., KHAN, M.R., SHAH, N.A., SHAH, S.A., ISMAIL, H., YOUNIS, T. and ZAHRA, Z., 2016. Phytochemical, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Alnus nitida bark in carbon tetrachloride challenged Sprague Dawley rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1245-3 PMid:27488054.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1245-3
  • SAQIB, Z., MAHMOOD, A., NASEEM MALIK, R., MAHMOOD, A., HUSSIAN SYED, J. and AHMAD, T., 2014. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants in Kotli Sattian, Rawalpindi district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 820-828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.034 PMid:24286963.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.034
  • SAXENA, R., GUPTA, B., SAXENA, K., SRIVASTAVA, V. and PRASAD, D., 1987. Analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activity of Nyctanthes arbor tristis leaf extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(87)90041-9 PMid:3497308.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(87)90041-9
  • SHAH, A., MARWAT, S.K., GOHAR, F., KHAN, A., BHATTI, K.H., AMIN, M., DIN, N.U., AHMAD, M. and ZAFAR, M., 2013. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of semi-tribal area of Makerwal & Gulla Khel (lying between Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab Provinces), Pakistan. American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 4, no. 01, pp. 98-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.41015
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.41015
  • SHAH, S.A., SHAH, N.A., ULLAH, S., ALAM, M.M., BADSHAH, H., ULLAH, S. and MUMTAZ, A.S., 2016. Documenting the indigenous knowledge on medicinal flora from communities residing near Swat River (Suvastu) and in high mountainous areas in Swat-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 182, pp. 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008 PMid:26869542.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.02.008
  • SHARMA, L., AGARWAL, G. and KUMAR, A., 2003. Medicinal plants for skin and hair care. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 62-68.
  • SHARMA, R., MANHAS, R. and MAGOTRA, R., 2012. Ethnoveterinary remedies of diseases among milk yielding animals in Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 265-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.027 PMid:22366093.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.027
  • SHINWARI, Z.K. and GILANI, S.S., 2003. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (northern Pakistan). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 289-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00333-1 PMid:12648828.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00333-1
  • SHUAIB, M., KHAN, I., SHARIFULLAH, R.K., HASHMATULLAH, S.M. and NAZ, R., 2014. Ethnobotanical studies of spring flora of Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, vol. 20, pp. 37-49.
  • SHUAIB, M., HUSSAIN, F., RAUF, A., JAN, F., ROMMAN, M., PARVEZ, R., ZEB, A., ALI, S., ABIDULLAH, S., BAHADUR, S. and SHAH, A.A., 2021. Traditional knowledge about medicinal plant in the remote areas of Wari Tehsil, Dir Upper, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology, vol. 83, e246803.
  • SIMBO, D.J., 2010. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-8 PMid:20156356.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-8
  • SINGH, D., SINGH, B. and GOEL, R.K., 2011. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus religiosa: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 565-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.046 PMid:21296646.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.046
  • SOFOWORA, A., 1982. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa Ibadan: Spectrum Books.
  • SOHEL, M., KAWSAR, M., SUMON, M. and SULTANA, T., 2016. Ethnomedicinal studies of Lalmohan Thana in Bhola District, Bangladesh. Alternative & Integrative Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 1.
  • SOUZA, G.C., HAAS, A., VON POSER, G., SCHAPOVAL, E. and ELISABETSKY, E., 2004. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 135-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.039 PMid:14698521.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.039
  • TIPU, M., AKHTAR, M., ANJUM, M. and RAJA, M., 2006. New dimension of medicinal plants as animal feed. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, vol. 26, pp. 144-148.
  • TOLOSSA, K., DEBELA, E., ATHANASIADOU, S., TOLERA, A., GANGA, G. and HOUDIJK, J.G., 2013. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-32 PMid:23680260.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-32
  • ULLAH, M., KHAN, M.U., MAHMOOD, A., MALIK, R.N., HUSSAIN, M., WAZIR, S.M., DAUD, M. and SHINWARI, Z.K., 2013. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Wana district south Waziristan agency, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 918-924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.032 PMid:24120747.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.032
  • ULLAH, R., IQBAL, Z.H.Z., HUSSAIN, J., KHAN, F.U., KHAN, N., MUHAMMAD, Z., AYAZ, S., AHMAD, S., REHMAN, N.U. and HUSSAIN, I., 2010. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Darra Adam Khel NWFP Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1815-1821.
  • UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME – UNDP, 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Kasur Tannery Pollution Control (KTPC) [online]. Available from: http://www.soc.titech.ac.jp/~sakano/atiq/kasur/ktwma.html
    » http://www.soc.titech.ac.jp/~sakano/atiq/kasur/ktwma.html
  • VENDRUSCOLO, G.S. and MENTZ, L.A., 2006. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasílica, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 367-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000200012
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000200012
  • VITALINI, S., IRITI, M., PURICELLI, C., CIUCHI, D., SEGALE, A. and FICO, G., 2013. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy): an alpine ethnobotanical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 517-529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.024 PMid:23220197.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.024
  • WIKIPEDIA, 2021 [viewed 31 August 2021]. Kasur [online]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasur
    » http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasur
  • WILLIAMS, L., VASQUES, E., REID, W., PORTER, R. and KRAUS, W., 2003. Biological activities of an extract from Cleome viscosa L. (Capparaceae). Naturwissenschaften, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 468-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-003-0460-1 PMid:14564407.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-003-0460-1
  • YESMIN, M.N., UDDIN, S.N., MUBASSARA, S. and AKOND, M.A., 2008. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Calotropis procera Linn. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 550-553.
  • ZAHOOR, M., WAZIR, S., MOHAMMAD, A. and MOHAMMAD, S., 2009. Ethnobotany of some plants from Darra’e Pezo, District Lakki Marwat, Pakistan. Pak J Pl Sci., vol. 15, pp. 75-80.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    25 Mar 2022
  • Date of issue
    2024

History

  • Received
    31 Aug 2021
  • Accepted
    01 Feb 2022
Instituto Internacional de Ecologia R. Bento Carlos, 750, 13560-660 São Carlos SP - Brasil, Tel. e Fax: (55 16) 3362-5400 - São Carlos - SP - Brazil
E-mail: bjb@bjb.com.br