First record and economic losses of the passionflower caterpillar in two biomes from Brazil

W. S. Soares M. M. F. Oliveira G. B. B. Botrel E. A. A. Rocha M. M de J. Silva B. K. R. da Silva R. C. Pereira F. M. Alves V. A. R. Gonçalves F. L. Fernandes About the authors

The sour passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims, is one of the main species of economic importance that can be injured by a variety of insect pest that feeds upon all parts of the plant reducing production (Ferreira et al., 2019FERREIRA, T.E., FALEIRO, F.G., JUNQUEIRA, N.T.V., CAMARGO, A.J.A.D., TESTON, J.A. and SPECHT, A., 2019. First record of Isia alcumena, Spodoptera cosmioides and S. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) attacking Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452019047.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-294520190...
). However, the most important Lepidoptera pests are larvae Dione juno juno (Cramer) and Agraulis vanillae vanillae (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (Angelini and Boiça Junior, 2015ANGELINI, M.R. and BOIÇA JÚNIOR, A.L., 2015. Biologia de imaturos e adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) alimentados com lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), criadas em diferentes genótipos de maracujazeiro. EntomoBrasilis, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 196-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v8i3.477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v8i...
; Paynter et al., 2020PAYNTER, Q., POESCHKO, M. and WINKS, C., 2020. Leaf heteroblasty explains unexpected spillover non-target attack on Passiflora edulis by Heliconius erato cyrbia, a biological control agent for Passiflora rubra, in Rarotonga. Biological Control, vol. 141, pp. 104-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2...
).

The caterpillar of passion Azamora penicillana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), attack leaves of passion (Santos and Costa, 1983SANTOS, Z.F.A.F. and COSTA, J.M., 1983. Pragas da cultura do maracujá no estado da Bahia. Salvador: EPABA, 26 p.) and fruits (Pirovani et al., 2020PIROVANI, V.D., FANCELLI, M., MOREIRA, B., SILVEIRA, L. and PRATISSOLI, D., 2020. Azamora penicillana occurrence in sour passion fruit in the state of Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452020567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-294520205...
). However, A. penicilliana damage in different biomes has not yet been studied because these studies are restricting to one municipally, evaluating just one area and not evaluated economic losses. Thus, this study report the attack and loss of the A. penicillana on fruit passion in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states from Brazil.

Adult and immature A. penicillana were collected in the passion fields in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil (Table 1). These fields are located in the Cerrado (South of Minas and Alto Paranaíba) and Atlantic forest (Zona da Mata) biomes. In cerrado biome the collect were in the Rio Paranaíba - MG (19°11'56.5”S 46°14'13.7”W), Viçosa - MG (20°45'22.3”S 42°52'59.9”W), Guaraciaba - MG (20°34'13.0”S 43°00'30.5”W), Carmo do Paranaíba - MG (19°00'05.5”S 46°18'49.3”W), Patos de Minas - MG (18°34'59.0”S 46°30'45.6”W), Alfenas -MG (21°24'59.4”S 45°57'14.7”W), São Gotardo - MG (19°18'45.9”S 46°03'02.5”W), and Patrocínio - MG (18°56'10.0”S 46°59'54.0”W). In the Atlantic forest biome the collect were in the Bom Jesus Itabapoana (21°08'47.0”S 41°40'51.0”W). The experiment was carried out when the passion fruit was with 6 months after planting. Passion fruits were sampled monthly from March to December 2019. Fruits were sampled at a distance of 20-30 m from each side of the trail, totaling a sampled area of about 30-60 samples per ha. The collected fruits were taken directly from the trees and the ground if they were freshly fallen. We evaluated fruits, flowers, leaves, stems with larvae of A. penicillana, and calculated the loss per Kg. Adults of A. penicillana were collected and stored 70% alcohol, and taken to the Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Campus de Rio Paranaíba to the identification by means of comparison in the literature and taxonomic keys. The mean air temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity of these months were 24±11 °C, 25±15 mm/day, and 69.9±22% (INMET, 2019INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE METEOROLOGIA – INMET, 2019 [viewed 12 October 2019]. Estações meteorológicas [online]. Available from: http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/
http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/...
), respectively.

Table 1
Yield, economic losses and part of the plant from sour passion fruits attacked per Azamora penicillana in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro (2019-2020).

The adults oviposited on the leaves, flowers, and stem. The larvae attacked the leaves and migrated to the fruits (Figure 1A, B, and C). Damage to fruit increased as the months progressed, reflected by multiple rotten fruits (Table 1). Was observed fruit loss from 0.5 to 35.4% and economic loss from U$1.6 to 67.6 per ha in passion fruits (Table 1). This pest can cause both yield losses and decrease of fruit quality in passion field (Joy and Sherin, 2013JOY, P.P. and SHERIN, C.G., 2013 [viewed 10 December 2020]. Reduced productivity of sour passion fruit by insect pest [online]. Ernakulam: Pineapple Research Station. Available from: http://prsvkm.tripod.com/Docs/InsectPestsOfPassionFruit.pdf
http://prsvkm.tripod.com/Docs/InsectPest...
).

Figure 1
Injurie of Azamora penicillana on sour passion fruits, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais States, Brazil. (A) adult, (B,C) larvae of A. penicillana.

This report confirms A. penicillana feeding P. edulis leaves and fruits, in State of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, thus highlighting the potential of this insect to affect passion production negatively.

References

  • ANGELINI, M.R. and BOIÇA JÚNIOR, A.L., 2015. Biologia de imaturos e adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) alimentados com lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), criadas em diferentes genótipos de maracujazeiro. EntomoBrasilis, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 196-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v8i3.477
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v8i3.477
  • FERREIRA, T.E., FALEIRO, F.G., JUNQUEIRA, N.T.V., CAMARGO, A.J.A.D., TESTON, J.A. and SPECHT, A., 2019. First record of Isia alcumena, Spodoptera cosmioides and S. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) attacking Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452019047
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452019047
  • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE METEOROLOGIA – INMET, 2019 [viewed 12 October 2019]. Estações meteorológicas [online]. Available from: http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/
    » http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/
  • JOY, P.P. and SHERIN, C.G., 2013 [viewed 10 December 2020]. Reduced productivity of sour passion fruit by insect pest [online]. Ernakulam: Pineapple Research Station. Available from: http://prsvkm.tripod.com/Docs/InsectPestsOfPassionFruit.pdf
    » http://prsvkm.tripod.com/Docs/InsectPestsOfPassionFruit.pdf
  • PAYNTER, Q., POESCHKO, M. and WINKS, C., 2020. Leaf heteroblasty explains unexpected spillover non-target attack on Passiflora edulis by Heliconius erato cyrbia, a biological control agent for Passiflora rubra, in Rarotonga. Biological Control, vol. 141, pp. 104-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104132
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104132
  • PIROVANI, V.D., FANCELLI, M., MOREIRA, B., SILVEIRA, L. and PRATISSOLI, D., 2020. Azamora penicillana occurrence in sour passion fruit in the state of Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452020567
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452020567
  • SANTOS, Z.F.A.F. and COSTA, J.M., 1983. Pragas da cultura do maracujá no estado da Bahia Salvador: EPABA, 26 p.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    05 July 2021
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    10 Dec 2020
  • Accepted
    24 Mar 2021
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