Length-weight relationships of fish from sandy beaches

Relação peso-comprimento de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem perto de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

D. Olentino C. C. F. Lubich M. D. P. Rocha J. H. N. Santos T. Gomes H. Beltrão J. F. Silva K. C. Yamamoto About the authors

Abstract

This study estimated the length–weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL – 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW – 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.

Keywords:
ichthyofauna; sandy beach; allometric coefficient; allometry

Resumo

Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.

Palavras-chave:
ictiofauna; praia; coeficiente alométrico; alometria

1. Introduction

The Negro River is one of the main tributaries of the Amazon River (Junk et al., 2015JUNK, W.J., WITTMANN, F., SCHÖNGART, J. and PIEDADE, M.T.F., 2015. Uma classificação dos principais habitats das planícies aluviais dos rios de águas negras da Amazônia e uma comparação com suas contrapartes de águas brancas. Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 677-693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-9412-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-941...
), and its diversity of fish is among the richest so far reported in the world (Roberts, 1972ROBERTS, T.R., 1972. Ecology of fishes in the Amazon and Congo basins. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, vol. 143, pp. 117-147.; Saint-Paul et al., 2000SAINT-PAUL, U., ZUANON, J., CORREA, M.A.V., GARCÍA, M., FABRÉ, N.N., BERGER, U. and JUNK, W.J., 2000. Fish communities in central Amazonian white-and blackwater floodplains. Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 235-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007699130333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:100769913033...
; Soares and Yamamoto, 2005SOARES, M.G.M., and YAMAMOTO, K.C., 2005. Diversidade e composição da ictiofauna do lago Tupé. In: E.N. SANTOS-SILVA, F.M. APRILE and V.V. SCUDELLER and S. MELO, organizadores. Diversidade Biológica e Sociocultural do Baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia Central. Manaus: Editora INPA, pp. 181-197.). As such, it is of major importance to the region, with species with great ornamental (Olentino et al., 2020OLENTINO, D., LUBICH, C.C.F. and YAMAMOTO, K.C., 2020 [viewed 10 February 2021]. Espécies de peixes com potencial ornamental nas proximidades de Manaus, Amazonas-Brasil. Scientia Amazonia [online], vol. 9, no. 4, pp. CA1-CA10. Available from: http://scientia-amazonia.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/v9-n4-CA1-CA10-2020.pdf
http://scientia-amazonia.org/wp-content/...
) and commercial (Inomata and Freitas, 2018INOMATA, S.O. and FREITAS, C.E.C., 2018 [viewed 10 February 2021]. Fishing in the middle Rio Negro: socioeconomic aspects and operational structure. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca [online], vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 79-87. Available from: https://www.pesca.sp.gov.br/boletim/index.php/bip/article/view/41_1_79-87
https://www.pesca.sp.gov.br/boletim/inde...
) potential, as well as for recreational fisheries (Furtado, 2020FURTADO, C.L.C., 2020. Efeito da pesca comercial e esportiva sobre os “troféus” de tucunaré-açu (Cichla temensis, Humboldt, 1821) em um trecho do médio Rio Negro, Barcelos-Amazonas. Manaus: INPA, 86 p. Dissertação de Mestrado em Biologia em Água doce e Pesca Interior.; Campos et al., 2020CAMPOS, C.P., CATARINO, M.F. and FREITAS, C.E.C., 2020. Stock assessment of the peacock bass Cichla temensis (Humboldt, 1821), an important fishing resource from the middle Negro river, Amazonas, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology = Revista Brasileira de Biologia, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 506-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.203124. PMid:31576929.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.2031...
).

Currently 1165 species are known, with high levels of endemism (Beltrão et al., 2019BELTRÃO, H., ZUANON, J. and FERREIRA, E., 2019. Checklist of the ichthyofauna of the Rio Negro basin in the Brazilian Amazon. ZooKeys, vol. 881, pp. 53-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.881.32055. PMid:31662611.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.881.32...
), and these are distributed in various aquatic environments, such as flooded forests (igapós), alluvial island lakes, wooded shore areas, swamps and sandy beaches (Goulding et al., 1988GOULDING, M., CARVALHO, M.L. and FERREIRA, E.J.G., 1988. Río Negro, rich life in poor water: Amazonian diversity and foodchain ecology as seen through fish communities. The Hague (Netherlands): PB Academic Pub.).

The sandy beaches deserve a special mention since they are subjected to the flood pulse. These areas are susceptible to flooding during periods of high water and contribute to the migration of fish species, while in the low water period the areas close to their shores are key shallow aquatic environments due to their provision of shelter for many species (Goulding et al., 1988GOULDING, M., CARVALHO, M.L. and FERREIRA, E.J.G., 1988. Río Negro, rich life in poor water: Amazonian diversity and foodchain ecology as seen through fish communities. The Hague (Netherlands): PB Academic Pub., Goulding, 1997GOULDING, M., 1997. História natural dos rios amazônicos. Tefé: Sociedade Civil Mamirauá.; Claro-Junior, 2007CLARO-JUNIOR, L.H., 2007. Distribuição e estrutura trófica das assembleias de peixes em praias do Rio Solimões/Amazonas, Brasil. Manaus: INPA, 89 p. Tese de Doutorado em Biologia em Água Doce e Pesca Interior.; Olds et al., 2018OLDS, A.D., VARGAS‐FONSECA, E., CONNOLLY, R.M., GILBY, B.L., HUIJBERS, C.M., HYNDES, G.A., LAYMAN, C.A., WHITFIELD, A.K. and SCHLACHER, T.A., 2018. The ecology of fish in the surf zones of ocean beaches: a global review. Fish and Fisheries, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 78-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/faf.12237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/faf.12237...
). However, are scarce in the literature studies on the regarding the length–weight relationships species that occur close to the shores of the sandy beaches along the Rio Negro basin.

This length–weight relationships, is useful in fisheries and species monitoring, also serve as baseline data for future studies focused on the as for programs conservation, and ecology of natural resources in the region. The present study describes the LWRs parameters of 16 fish species collected close to sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon.

2. Materials and Methods

Sampling was conducted near three sandy beaches located in the Anavilhanas National Park - PARNA (municipality of Novo Airão) and Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Tupé – RDS Tupé (municipality of Manaus) (Figure 1). The Anavilhanas National Park and RDS Tupé are bordered by the typical black waters of the Negro River basin, rich in dissolved humic substances, acidic pH and low sediment load. They have a transparency that varies between 1.3 and 1.5 m (Latrubesse and Stevaux, 2015LATRUBESSE, E.M. and STEVAUX, J.C., 2015. The anavilhanas and mariuá archipelagos: fluvial wonders from the Negro River, Amazon Basin. In: B. VIEIRA, A. SALGADO and L. SANTOS, editors. Landscapes and Landforms of Brazil. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 157-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8023-0_14. ; Sioli, 1984SIOLI, H., 1984. Introduction: history of the discovery of the Amazon and of research of Amazonian waters and landscapes. In: H. SIOLI, editor. The Amazon (pp. 1-13). Dordrecht: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-6542-3_1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-654...
).

Figure 1
Map of the sampling points close to sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon.

Along the lower Negro River, sandy substrates dominate at lower topographic levels-and, in the dry season, possible to see large stretches of sandy beaches emerging (Junk et al., 2015JUNK, W.J., WITTMANN, F., SCHÖNGART, J. and PIEDADE, M.T.F., 2015. Uma classificação dos principais habitats das planícies aluviais dos rios de águas negras da Amazônia e uma comparação com suas contrapartes de águas brancas. Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 677-693. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-9412-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11273-015-941...
; Latrubesse and Stevaux, 2015LATRUBESSE, E.M. and STEVAUX, J.C., 2015. The anavilhanas and mariuá archipelagos: fluvial wonders from the Negro River, Amazon Basin. In: B. VIEIRA, A. SALGADO and L. SANTOS, editors. Landscapes and Landforms of Brazil. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 157-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8023-0_14. ). These environments lead to the creation of thousands of kilometers of habitats that are occupied by fish communities searching for food and shelter to survive (Goulding et al., 1988GOULDING, M., CARVALHO, M.L. and FERREIRA, E.J.G., 1988. Río Negro, rich life in poor water: Amazonian diversity and foodchain ecology as seen through fish communities. The Hague (Netherlands): PB Academic Pub.).

For the sampling, we used a trawl net (20 m length and 3.5 m height, 5 mm mesh between opposite knots) to collect the specimens. Fish were sampled for one day each month, in October to November 2016. Five parallel trawls were carried out on each beach during in the morning (about 7–10 a.m.) and five at night (about 6–7 p.m.), totaling 30 samplings (Ferreira et al., 1998FERREIRA, E.J.G., ZUANON, J.A.S. and SANTOS, G.M., 1998. Peixes comerciais do médio Amazonas: região de Santarém, Pará. Brasília: IBAMA, 214 p.; Zuanon et al., 2015ZUANON, J., MENDONÇA, F.P., SANTO, H.M.V.E., DIAS, M.S., GALUCH, A.V. and AKAMA, A., 2015. Guia de peixes da Reserva Adolpho Ducke. Manaus: Editora INPA.) and advice from specialists.

Subsequently, were used Eugenol for euthanasia (as recommended by American Veterinary Medical Association - Leary et al., 2020LEARY, S., UNDERWOOD, W., ANTHONY, R., CARTNER, S., GRANDIN, T., GREENACRE, C., GWALTNEY-BRANT, S., MCCRACKIN, M. A., MEYER, R., MILLER, D., SHEARER, J., TURNER, T. and YANONG, R., 2020. AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2020 Edition. Meacham Road Schaumburg, IL: American Veterinary Medical association, 931 N.). Fresh fish were submitted to biometrics to measure the total weight (nearest 0.01 g total weight, W) and standard length (nearest 0.1 cm standard length, L) and preserved in 10% formalin. Samples were collected under the license SISBIO 50778-1.

The length–weight relationship of the species ware obtained using non-linear regression and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (Lourakis, 2005LOURAKIS, M.I., 2005. A brief description of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm implemented by Levmar. Foundation of Research and Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-6.), using the equation: W=a.L b (Le Cren, 1951LE CREN, E.D., 1951. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 201-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1540...
), where W is the total weight (g), L is the standard length, a is the intercept and b is the allometric coefficient. The confidence limit (CL) of 95% was determined for parameters a and b (Froese, 2006FROESE, R., 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 241-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
). All outliers were identified and removed from the analysis (Froese, 2006FROESE, R., 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 241-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
).

3. Results

A total of 2677 individuals from 16 species belonging to five orders, and 10 families were analyzed. The LWR parameters of the species, sample size, minimum and maximum length and weight for each species are shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Length-weight relationship (LWR) parameters for samples of 16 fish species obtained close to sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon.

All regressions were significant for all the species (p <0.05), with the coefficient of determination r2 ranging from 0.9512 to 0.9998, and the a values ranging from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranging from 2.5271 to 3.3244.

Based on the values obtained from the Bayesian predictions available on FishBase (Froese and Pauly, 2021FROESE, R. and PAULY, D., 2021 [viewed 10 February 2021]. FishBase [online]. Available from: https://www.fishbase.org
https://www.fishbase.org...
), four species had a and b values outside the 95% confidence limit (Table 1). The present study provides new information on the maximum length for the following six species: Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus.

4. Discussion

Areas close to sandy beaches include mainly species of Characiformes and Siluriformes of small size with low migration capacities over great distance (Claro-Junior, 2007CLARO-JUNIOR, L.H., 2007. Distribuição e estrutura trófica das assembleias de peixes em praias do Rio Solimões/Amazonas, Brasil. Manaus: INPA, 89 p. Tese de Doutorado em Biologia em Água Doce e Pesca Interior., Duarte et al., 2010DUARTE, C., PY-DANIEL, L.R. and DEUS, C.P.D., 2010. Fish assemblages in two sandy beaches in lower Purus river, Amazonas, Brazil. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 319-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212010000400006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212010...
). During the low water period, more than 100 species of fish can be found, and these mainly have well-developed eyes and feed on small invertebrates living on the sandy river bed (Goulding et al., 1988GOULDING, M., CARVALHO, M.L. and FERREIRA, E.J.G., 1988. Río Negro, rich life in poor water: Amazonian diversity and foodchain ecology as seen through fish communities. The Hague (Netherlands): PB Academic Pub.; Goulding, 1997GOULDING, M., 1997. História natural dos rios amazônicos. Tefé: Sociedade Civil Mamirauá.).

The 16 species presented a coefficient of determination (r2) within the acceptable value (95%) and the values of b fell within the expected range of 2.5–3.5 (Froese, 2006FROESE, R., 2006. Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: History, meta-analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 241-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
). In the Bayesian LWR predictions, four species had a or b or both values outside the 95% confidence limits (Table 1) (Froese and Pauly, 2021FROESE, R. and PAULY, D., 2021 [viewed 10 February 2021]. FishBase [online]. Available from: https://www.fishbase.org
https://www.fishbase.org...
). This is because the LWR estimates were based on data for similar body shape and total length for each taxon (Froese et al., 2014FROESE, R., THORSON, J.T. and REYES JUNIOR, R.B., 2014. A Bayesian approach for estimating length‐weight relationships in fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 78-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.12299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.12299...
; Froese and Pauly, 2021FROESE, R. and PAULY, D., 2021 [viewed 10 February 2021]. FishBase [online]. Available from: https://www.fishbase.org
https://www.fishbase.org...
).

The LWR estimates for Brycon pesu can be found in other studies (Giarrizzo et al., 2011GIARRIZZO, T., BASTOS, D. and ANDRADE, M., 2011. Length-weight relationships for selected fish species of Rio Trombetas Biological Reserve: a reference study for the Amazonian basin. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1422-1424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01820.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.20...
), however, we chose to maintain this species in our study since it reports a new maximum length and presents a larger number of specimens. However, for the other species this is the first report with these estimates.

The data for Ageneiosus uranophthalmus (max length: 23.0 cm SLmax, see Ribeiro and Py-Daniel, 2010RIBEIRO, F.R.V. and PY-DANIEL, L.H.R., 2010. Ageneiosus uranophthalmus, a new species of auchenipterid catfish (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) from river channels of the central Amazon basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 97-104. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-62252010000100012.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-6225201000...
), Eigenmannia macrops (25.2 cm TLmax, see Albert, 2003aALBERT, J.S., 2003a. Sternopygidae (Glass knifefishes, Rattail knifefishes). In R.E. REIS, S.O. KULLANDER and C.J. FERRARIS JUNIOR, editors. Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, pp. 487-491.) and Steatogenys elegans (max length: 29.4 cm TLmax, see Albert, 2003bALBERT, J.S., 2003b. Hypopomidae (Bluntnose knifefishes). In: R.E. REIS, S.O. KULLANDER and C.J. FERRARIS JUNIOR, editors. Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, pp. 494-496.) cover a limited size range, therefore approximately 50% of the TLmax is included in the analysis, and the classes of sizes may be over-represented. The parameters of the equation (a and b) may be influenced by juvenile individuals, since they have different growth patterns to adults and the point at which they transition from juveniles to adults has not yet been determined (Olentino et al., 2021OLENTINO, D., LUBICH, C.C.F., LEAL, M.S. and YAMAMOTO, K.C., 2021. Length‐weight relationship of six small fish species from the Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 492-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180...
). Similar provisional estimates have been reported before for Moenkhausia lata (Olentino et al., 2021OLENTINO, D., LUBICH, C.C.F., LEAL, M.S. and YAMAMOTO, K.C., 2021. Length‐weight relationship of six small fish species from the Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 492-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180...
), which is a species that also occurs in the Negro River basin.

In our study, small species occur, however, the species Amazonsprattus scintilla was the only one that presented a weight that was at the precision limit of the scale (0.01 g). Olentino et al. (2021)OLENTINO, D., LUBICH, C.C.F., LEAL, M.S. and YAMAMOTO, K.C., 2021. Length‐weight relationship of six small fish species from the Negro River basin in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 492-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jai.14180...
cite problematic issues related to the measurement of the weight of small species, thus care must be taken, such as the use of more accurate equipment (scales that are accurate to 0.001 g) and limiting the time of exposure of individuals to air, due to weight loss through evaporation, in order to guarantee the quality and reliability of the data.

Finally, this study provides the first information on LRW parameters for 15 Neotropical fish species, and presents data that can contribute to future studies focused regional management of the basin and for species conservation.

Acknowledgements

We are indebted to the Programa de Educação Tutorial de Engenharia de Pesca, PET-Pesca/UFAM, to the Universidade Federal do Amazonas and to the Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação (FNDE).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    11 Oct 2021
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    17 Mar 2021
  • Accepted
    09 June 2021
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