First record of Eremionycha bahiana (Boheman) infesting Tabebuia sp.

S. M. França P. R. R. Silva J. D. C. Silva A. A. R. Araújo S. I. Moreira About the authors

The Chrysomelidae is the second largest family regarding the number of species within the order Coleoptera. It consists of 37,000 species grouped into 19 subfamilies. Among these subfamilies, most presents species considered agricultural pests ( Chaboo, 2007 CHABOO, C.S., 2007. Biology and phylogeny of the Cassidinae Gyllenhal sensu lato (tortoise and leaf-mining beetles) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 305, pp. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2007)305[1:BAPOTC]2.0.CO;2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(200...
; Laumann et al., 2004 LAUMANN, R., RIBEIRO, P.H., PIRES, C.S., SCHMIDT, F.G., BORGES, M., MORAES, M.C.B. and SUJII, E.R., 2004. Diversidade de crisomelídeos-praga (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) no Distrito Federal. Brasília: Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 22 p. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, no. 76. ; Stolar and Bidau, 1997 STOLAR, C.E. and BIDAU, C.J., 1997. Chromosomal multiformity in Botanochara bonariensis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). Brazilian Journal of Genetics , vol. 20, pp. 193-196. ). The subfamily Cassidinae has about 6,000 species distributed into 324 genera. They can be found worldwide, with a higher diversity in the tropics, especially in South America and less frequently in North America and Australia ( Chaboo, 2007 CHABOO, C.S., 2007. Biology and phylogeny of the Cassidinae Gyllenhal sensu lato (tortoise and leaf-mining beetles) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 305, pp. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2007)305[1:BAPOTC]2.0.CO;2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(200...
).

According to Barney et al. (2007) BARNEY, R.J., CLARK, S.M. and RILEY, E.G., 2007. Annotated list o the leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of Kentucky: Subfamily Cassidinae. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 132-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.3101/1098-7096(2007)68[132:ALOTLB]2.0.CO;2.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3101/1098-7096(200...
, the subfamily Cassidinae currently includes two previously recognized subfamilies: Hispinae (“hispines” or leaf-mining beetles) and Cassidinae (tortoise beetles). The species of this subfamily feed on leaves and are associated with the Boraginaceae, Bignoniaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae and Solanaceae families, and also associated with other no host plants ( Boldt and Staines, 1993 BOLDT, P.E. and STAINES, C.L., 1993 [viewed 14 April 2016]. Biology and description of immature stages of Pentispa suturalis (Baly) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Baccharis bigelovii (Asteraceae). Coleopterists Bulletin [online], vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 215-220. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008874
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008874 ...
; Buzzi, 1988 BUZZI, Z.J., 1988. Biology of neotropical Cassidinae. In: Z.J. BUZZI. Biology of Chrysomelidae. Netherlands: Springer, pp. 559-580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3105-3_32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-31...
; Virkki et al., 1992 VIRKKI, N., SANTIAGO-BLAY, J.A. and RILEY, E.G., 1992 [viewed 14 April 2016]. Chromosomes of Puerto Rican Hispinae and Cassidinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Coleopterists Bulletin [online], vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 29-42. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008933
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008933 ...
).

Coleoptera specimens of all developmental stages were collected manually in plants of the genus Tabebuia sp. (Bignoniaceae) at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Socopo campus, Teresina, Piauí state, located in the campus of the Federal University of Piauí (UFPI). They were housed in small cages (transparent plastic pots, 500 mL capacity) and their development was observed at laboratorial conditions. Samples of these insects were sent to a taxonomist for species identification. Images of specimens were obtained using the stereo microscope Hirox at the São Paulo University (Esalq/USP, Piracicaba, SP) Electron Mycroscopy Laboratory and the Nikon SMZ1500 at the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG) Electron Microscopy Laboratory.

The species was then identified as Eremionycha bahiana (Boheman), Coleoptera order, Chrysomelidae family, Cassidinae subfamily and Cassidini tribe. Eremionycha is a monospecific genus, occurring exclusively in Brazil in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Santa Catarina. This genus differs from other Cassidini tribe genera recorded in the New World because it presents only one tarsal claw in each foot. This claw is plain, non-pectinate or non-pedicellate ( Borowiec and Świętojańska, 2014 BOROWIEC, L. and ŚWIĘTOJAŃSKA, J., 2014 [viewed 14 April 2016]. World Catalog of Cassidinae [online]. Wrocław: Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Available from: http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/katalog%20internetowy/eremionychabahiana.htm
http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/ka...
). Initially, this species was named Coptocycla bahiana (Boheman, 1855), then Eremionycha bahiana (Spaeth, 1931) (Borowiec, 1999), Eremionycha miraculous (Spaeth, 1931) and finally Microctenochira difficilis ( Teixeira and Casari, 2003 TEIXEIRA, E.P. and CASARI, S.A., 2003. Descriptions and biological notes of immatures of Microctenochira difficilis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Hispinae, Cassidini). Iheringia. Série Zoologia, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 23-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212003000100002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-4721200...
).

Eremionycha bahiana is associated with the host Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. Ex DC.), a plant from the Bignoniaceae family, at the state of Bahia ( Marques et al., 2008 MARQUES, O.M., COUTINHO, M.L., GIL-SANTANA, H.R. and SANTANA, M.J.S., 2008. Handroanthus impetiginosus (Bignoniaceae), o primeiro vegetal hospedeiro de Eremionycha bahiana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Textura, vol. 1, pp. 101-104. ). In the state of Piauí, it is the first report of E. bahiana ( Figure 1 ) associated with Tabebuia sp. as its host for food and oviposition. The damage caused was due to feeding, especially in the larval phase, in young and old leaves, where they feed on all layers of the leaf, leaving only one layer of transparent tissue, that is, during feeding, the larvae scrape the leaf limb, and the veins and rib stay intact, lace-like ( Figure 1 A). Larvae support the exuvio-fecal anex on forked dorsal process of segment 8 ( Figure 1 C). This is being a new location and new host plant record for E. bahiana. This pest can be a threat to this ornamental plant.

Figure 1
Eremionycha bahiana. (A) Damage on Tabebuia sp. leaves caused by Eremionycha bahiana; (B) Eggs; (C) Larvae; (D) Pupae; (E) Adults; (F) Dorsal view of the adult; (G) Ventral view of the adult; (H, I) Details of the last tarsal; (J) Detail of the head. B: 1000µm; F: 2000µm; C, D, E and G: 2000µm; H and I: 200µm; J: 1000µm.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Fernando A. Frieiro-Costa (University Center of Lavras - Unilavras) for the identification of the species Eremionycha bahiana, to Dr. Elliot Watanabe Kitajima (Esalq/USP) by obtaining images. To the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for granting the scholarship.

  • (With 1 figure)

References

  • BARNEY, R.J., CLARK, S.M. and RILEY, E.G., 2007. Annotated list o the leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of Kentucky: Subfamily Cassidinae. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 132-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.3101/1098-7096(2007)68[132:ALOTLB]2.0.CO;2.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.3101/1098-7096(2007)68[132:ALOTLB]2.0.CO;2
  • BOLDT, P.E. and STAINES, C.L., 1993 [viewed 14 April 2016]. Biology and description of immature stages of Pentispa suturalis (Baly) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on Baccharis bigelovii (Asteraceae). Coleopterists Bulletin [online], vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 215-220. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008874
    » http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008874
  • BOROWIEC, L. and ŚWIĘTOJAŃSKA, J., 2014 [viewed 14 April 2016]. World Catalog of Cassidinae [online]. Wrocław: Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Available from: http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/katalog%20internetowy/eremionychabahiana.htm
    » http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/katalog%20internetowy/eremionychabahiana.htm
  • BUZZI, Z.J., 1988. Biology of neotropical Cassidinae. In: Z.J. BUZZI. Biology of Chrysomelidae Netherlands: Springer, pp. 559-580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3105-3_32.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3105-3_32
  • CHABOO, C.S., 2007. Biology and phylogeny of the Cassidinae Gyllenhal sensu lato (tortoise and leaf-mining beetles) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 305, pp. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2007)305[1:BAPOTC]2.0.CO;2.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1206/0003-0090(2007)305[1:BAPOTC]2.0.CO;2
  • LAUMANN, R., RIBEIRO, P.H., PIRES, C.S., SCHMIDT, F.G., BORGES, M., MORAES, M.C.B. and SUJII, E.R., 2004. Diversidade de crisomelídeos-praga (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) no Distrito Federal Brasília: Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, 22 p. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, no. 76.
  • MARQUES, O.M., COUTINHO, M.L., GIL-SANTANA, H.R. and SANTANA, M.J.S., 2008. Handroanthus impetiginosus (Bignoniaceae), o primeiro vegetal hospedeiro de Eremionycha bahiana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Textura, vol. 1, pp. 101-104.
  • STOLAR, C.E. and BIDAU, C.J., 1997. Chromosomal multiformity in Botanochara bonariensis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). Brazilian Journal of Genetics , vol. 20, pp. 193-196.
  • TEIXEIRA, E.P. and CASARI, S.A., 2003. Descriptions and biological notes of immatures of Microctenochira difficilis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Hispinae, Cassidini). Iheringia. Série Zoologia, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 23-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212003000100002.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212003000100002
  • VIRKKI, N., SANTIAGO-BLAY, J.A. and RILEY, E.G., 1992 [viewed 14 April 2016]. Chromosomes of Puerto Rican Hispinae and Cassidinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Coleopterists Bulletin [online], vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 29-42. Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008933
    » http://www.jstor.org/stable/4008933

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    19 Apr 2018
  • Date of issue
    Jan-Mar 2019

History

  • Received
    27 Mar 2017
  • Accepted
    25 July 2017
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