Physalis ixocarpa: new species of genus physalis to the flora of Pakistan from mountainous region of district Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

Physalis ixocarpa: novas espécies do gênero physalis para a flora paquistanesa na região montanhosa do distrito de Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão

W. Khan B. Gul M. N. Uddin B. M. Khan S. Attacha N. Zaman About the authors

Abstract

In the western mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan at the Shangla district, we found Physalis ixocarpa for the first time, not yet reported from Pakistan. Physalis ixocarpa was unidentified and has no ethnobotanical record in the flora of Pakistan. It is a member of family Solanaceae and having a close relation with Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum. The stem is prostrate with a dichotomous pattern of branches having leaves flower and fruits. Leaves are smooth, ovate and the margins of leaf blade dentation are poorly developed. The average length and width of the leaves are 6.50 and 3.61 cm respectively. P. ixocarpa grows to the length of 4-5 feet and an annual herb. The flowers of the plants are yellow in color and having purple color spots on the petals which are star-shaped. The round berry fruits are surrounded by persistent calyx and purple in color. The fruits are the 3-6cm in diameter. The plants are found in the different localities of district Shangla especially in Bar and Koz Kana. The life cycle of reporting plant is started in May and completed in November.

Keywords:
Physalis; ethnobotanical study; flora; accessions

Resumo

Na região montanhosa ocidental de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão, no distrito de Shangla, encontramos Physalis ixocarpa pela primeira vez, ainda não relatada nesse país. A P. ixocarpa não foi identificada e não possui registro etnobotânico na flora do Paquistão. É membro da família Solanaceae e tem estreita relação com Solanum tuberosum e Lycopersicon esculentum. O caule é rastejante com um padrão dicotômico de ramos com folhas, flores e frutos. As folhas são lisas e ovais e as margens da dentição da lâmina foliar são pouco desenvolvidas. O comprimento e a largura médios das folhas são de 6,50 e 3,61 cm, respectivamente. A P. ixocarpa cresce aproximadamente 120-150 cm de comprimento e é uma planta anual. As flores das plantas são de cor amarela com manchas roxas nas pétalas em forma de estrela. Os frutos redondos da baga são rodeados por cálice persistente e de cor roxa. Os frutos têm 3-6 cm de diâmetro. As plantas são encontradas em diferentes localidades do distrito de Shangla, especialmente em Bar e Koz Kana. O ciclo de vida da planta reportado é iniciado em maio e concluído em novembro.

Palavras-chave:
Physalis; estudo etnobotânico; flora; acessos

1. Introduction

Physalis ixocarpa is an important species of the genus Physalis. This genus was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 (Bardi and Marques, 2007BARDI, J. and MARQUES, A.C., 2007. Taxonomic redescription of the Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Siphonophorae, Cystonectae) from Brazil. Iheringia. Série Zoologia, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 425-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000400011.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007...
). The genus Physalis belongs to the family Solanaceae. It contains more than 90 species distributed around the globe (Wei et al., 2012WEI, J., HU, X., YANG, J. and YANG, W., 2012. Identification of single-copy orthologous genes between Physalis and Solanum lycopersicum and analysis of genetic diversity in Physalis using molecular markers. PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. e50164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050164. PMid:23166835.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0...
; Samules, 2015). Among this genus, only three species i.e. Physalis minima, Physalis perviana, and Physalis alkekengi have been reported for the flora of Pakistan (Stewart, 1972STEWART, R.R., 1972. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of west pakistan and kashmir. Flora of West Pakistan. Karachi: Fakhri Printing Press.). The inflated calyx surrounding the berry and the presence of the pendant flowers are the identification features of this genus (Sullivan, 1984SULLIVAN, J.R., 1984. Pollination biology of Physalis viscosa var. cinerascens (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 815-820. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1984.tb14146.x.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.19...
). Among the reported species of the genus, only four species are grown for their fruit in the different regions of the world (Singh et al., 2014SINGH, D.B., AHMED, N., LAL, S., MIRZA, A., SHARMA, O.C. and PAL, A.A., 2014. Variation in growth, production and quality attributes of Physalis species under temperate ecosystem. Fruits, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 31-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/fruits/2013099.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/fruits/2013099...
; Zhang et al., 2016ZHANG, C.R., KHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and NAIR, M.G., 2016. New anti-inflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit. Food Chemistry, vol. 196, pp. 726-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.007. PMid:26593547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
). One of the most important species of the genus Physalis is P. ixocarpa, shows similarity to the potato and tomato. This species has originated from the South American regions and widely grown in the regions of Mexico and Guatemala (Cantwell et al., 1992CANTWELL, M., FLORES-MINUTTI, J. and TREJO-GONZÁLEZ, A., 1992. Developmental changes and postharvest physiology of tomatillo fruits (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 59-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(05)80009-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(05)...
). These regions are also popular for the distribution of the wild P. ixocarpa (Peña Lomelí et al., 2002PEÑA LOMELÍ, A., MOLINA GALÁN, J.D., MÁRQUEZ SÁNCHEZ, F., SAHAGÚN CASTELLANOS, J., ORTIZ CERECERES, J. and CERVANTES SANTANA, T., 2002. Respuestas estimadas y observadas de tres métodos de selección en tomate de cáscara (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, vol. 25, pp. 171-178.).

P. ixocarpa is reported from the different parts of the world. About seventeen accessions have been collected, identified and their seeds are stored in National Plant Germplasm System (USDA) the USA. However, up to till date it has not been reported from Pakistan according to the published Flora of Pakistan. The current study reveals the reporting of unidentified species (P. ixocarpa) of genus Physalis from Pakistan and this will become 4th species of genus Physalis in the ethnobotanical record of the flora of Pakistan.

2. Materials and Methods

Research group visited the different regions of District Shangla for the ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Sep 2020. During this trip, we found the plant species of genus Physalis which has not been reported by the flora of Pakistan. The samples of the species were collected from the regions of district Shangla including Koz kana, Bar Kana and Baylay Baba. The specimen was then identified according to the morphological features of the species.

3. Results

3.1. Collection and identification

The floral record of Pakistan presents the three different species of genus Physalis i.e. P. minima, P. perviana, and P. alkekengii. The species of this genus named P. ixocarpa has not been yet reported for the flora of Pakistan, was collected from district Shangla, and has been identified by Prof. Dr. Farukh Hussain, prominent plant taxonomist, Ex-Chairman, Department of the Botany University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Specimens were deposited in the herbarium of Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan and recorded with voucher number (WD1). The comparative distinctive features of the available and non-reported species of genus Physalis in Pakistan are shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Comparative morphological features of the available species of Physalis in the flora of Pakistan with new accession of Physalis ixocarpa.

3.2. Plant description

P. ixocarpa is locally called Tamatargay or China Tamatar. Morphologically it looks like a tomato and commonly found in tropical and subtropical condition (Figure 1). It is an annual herb and grows up to 4-5 feet. Plant body consists of stem, dichotomous branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Leaf is 6.53 cm long, 3.63 cm broad and smooth, ovate with poor leaf dentation. Flowers are yellow in color with purple spots in the form of star-like structure is present in their petals (Figure 2). Petals are yellow in color, 8-10 mm long and campanulate. Anthers are blue or yellowish in color, 2-4 mm long and gynoecium bicarpellary, syncarpous and oblique. The fruits are fleshy globose berry, light orange or lemon in color with 3-6 cm in diameter (Figure 3). Internally fruit consists of three layers epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. Epicarp is thin, while mesocarp and endocarp are fleshy. Fruits are different in size, number and weight. The largest fruits develop from the first flowers of the main branches. The fruit is enclosed in husk known as Calyx. Calyx is 4-5 cm long and its color change into yellowish brown on maturity. Below the calyx sticky material is present on the outer surface of fruit with potent anti-inflammatory activity, which we have been reported in the previous study (Zhang et al., 2016ZHANG, C.R., KHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and NAIR, M.G., 2016. New anti-inflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit. Food Chemistry, vol. 196, pp. 726-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.007. PMid:26593547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
). Seeds are 2.5mm long with pitted testa, which is numerous, yellowish brown and endospermic.

Figure 1
Plant of Physalis ixocarpa.
Figure 2
Flower of Physalis ixocarpa.
Figure 3
Fruit of Physalis ixocarpa.

Low temperature upsets the growth of the plant and makes it slow at temperatures of 16-18 °C or less. The life cycle of the reported plant starts from May and finished in November as the snowfall starts in Shangla district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Plant starts flowering from September and ends in November. Flowers are pollinated by bees.

3.3. Distribution of P. ixocarpa

Sandy and well-drained soil favor plant growth. According to information of National Plant Germplasm System USDA (USA), seventeen accessions of P. ixocarpa have been reported from different parts of the world. These include PI 291560 (India), PI 270459 (Mexico), PI 512011 (Mexico), PI 662847 (Mexico), PI 512010 (Mexico), PI 512009 (Mexico), PI 512006 (Mexico), PI 512005 (Mexico), PI 512007 (Mexico) PI 290968 (Argentina), PI 360740 (Ecuador), PI 662844 (Mexico), PI 662843 (Mexico), PI 309812 (Mexico), PI 512008 (Mexico), PI 662846 (California, United States) and PI 662845 (California, United States). Besides these accessions, here we are reporting P. ixocarpa from Pakistan.

3.4. The geographical locality of P. ixocarpa

In the western mountainous region of district Shangala KPK Pakistan, the plant specimens are found in different localities of Bayleybaba area, especially in Bar and Koz Kana. Bar Kana and Koz kana is situated between north latitude 34°-5504”-95', 34°-5742”-57' and east longitude 72°-9522”-35', 72°-4449”-74' respectively. Similarly, Bayleybaba area is present between east longitude 72°-4054”-63' and north latitude 34°-5334”-44' according to GPS reading. The geographical map of the plant reported area is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4
Map of District Shangla indicating the locality of Physalis ixocarpa (Pak image.com).

3.5. Morphometric differentiation of the non-reported P. ixocarpa with available species of Physalis in Pakistan

Morphological features of the P. ixocarpa shown in Table 1 were noted during the present study which makes it different from the other existing species found in Pakistan.

3.6. Medicinal and economic importance

P. ixocarpa is cultivated as vegetable crop in USA and Mexico. It produces fruit, commonly called tomatillo. Traditionally, tomatillo is an important component of many sauces and Mexican dishes (Zhang et al., 2016ZHANG, C.R., KHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and NAIR, M.G., 2016. New anti-inflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit. Food Chemistry, vol. 196, pp. 726-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.007. PMid:26593547.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.201...
). It is also used in folk medicine to relieve cough and fever (Maldonado et al., 2011MALDONADO, E., PÉREZ-CASTORENA, A.L., GARCÉS, C. and MARTÍNEZ, M., 2011. Philadelphicalactones C and D and other cytotoxic compounds from Physalis philadelphica. Steroids, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 724-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2011.03.018. PMid:21497618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.201...
). The leaves and calyx are also used in traditional medicine and rich of polyphenol (Khan et al., 2016aKHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and SHAFI, M., 2016a. Evaluation of polyphenol content in different parts of Physalis ixocarpa. Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 48, pp. 1145-1151.). Anolides and withanolides are the important bioactive compounds have been reported in different parts of this plant (Yang et al., 2021YANG, Y., XIANG, K., SUN, D., ZHENG, M., SONG, Z., LI, M., WANG, X., LI, H. and CHEN, L., 2021. Withanolides from dietary tomatillo suppress HT1080 cancer cell growth by targeting mutant IDH1. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 36, pp. 116095. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116095. PMid:33735687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116...
). Furthermore, cytotoxic activity, antimicrobial potential and apoptotic activities have also documented in previous studies (Choi et al., 2006CHOI, J.K., MURILLO, G., SU, B.N., PEZZUTO, J.M., KINGHORN, A.D. and MEHTA, R.G., 2006. Ixocarpalactone A isolated from the Mexican tomatillo shows potent antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in colon cancer cells. The FEBS Journal, vol. 273, no. 24, pp. 5714-5723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05560.x. PMid:17212786.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.20...
; Khan et al., 2016bKHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and SHAFI, M., 2016b. Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 467-475. PMid:27087074.).

4. Conclusion

The comparative morphological study of the subject plant with known species of genus Physalis available in Pakistan and observation of plant specimen by prominent taxonomist, clearly stated that unidentified plant is P. ixocarpa, and recommended for the addition to the flora of Pakistan.

Acknowledgements

The research project was financed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan under the Indigenous Fellowship Program (5000).

References

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212007000400011
  • CANTWELL, M., FLORES-MINUTTI, J. and TREJO-GONZÁLEZ, A., 1992. Developmental changes and postharvest physiology of tomatillo fruits (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 59-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(05)80009-3
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(05)80009-3
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05560.x
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  • MALDONADO, E., PÉREZ-CASTORENA, A.L., GARCÉS, C. and MARTÍNEZ, M., 2011. Philadelphicalactones C and D and other cytotoxic compounds from Physalis philadelphica. Steroids, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 724-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2011.03.018 PMid:21497618.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2011.03.018
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/fruits/2013099
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050164
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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116095
  • ZHANG, C.R., KHAN, W., BAKHT, J. and NAIR, M.G., 2016. New anti-inflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit. Food Chemistry, vol. 196, pp. 726-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.007 PMid:26593547.
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.007

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    25 May 2022
  • Date of issue
    2024

History

  • Received
    10 Nov 2021
  • Accepted
    10 Jan 2022
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