First report of Crocidosema (Epinotia) cosmoptila Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Brazil

O. C. Bortolotto S. B. C. Lustosa F. Pacentchuk About the authors

The Lepidoptera of the Tortricidae family are economically important owing to their polyphagous capacity ( Brown et al., 2008 BROWN, J. W., ROBINSON, G., and POWELL, J.A., 2008 [viewed 7 February 2018]. Food plant database of the leafrollers of the world (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Version 1.0 [online]. Available from: http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp
http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp...
). In this family, the genus Crocidosema (Epinotia) (Zeller, 1847) stands out because it contains species that can damage several plants, including fruit ( Brown et al., 2014 BROWN, J.W., COPELAND, R.S., AARVIK, L., MILLER, S.E., ROSATI, M.E. and LUKE, Q., 2014. Host records for fruit-feeding Afrotropical Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). African Entomology , vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 343-376. ), cotton ( Mensah et al., 2012 MENSAH, R.K., VODOUHÊ, D.S.I., SANFILIPPO, D. and ASSOGBA, S.C.G., 2012. Increasing organic cotton production in Benin West Africa with a supplementary food spray product to manage pests and beneficial insects. International Journal of Pest Management , vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 53-64. ), and several legumes ( Brown et al., 2008 BROWN, J. W., ROBINSON, G., and POWELL, J.A., 2008 [viewed 7 February 2018]. Food plant database of the leafrollers of the world (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Version 1.0 [online]. Available from: http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp
http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp...
).

In Brazil, the most important species in this genus is Crocidosema ( Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham, 1914), which is especially harmful in soybean ( Siqueira and Siqueira, 2012 SIQUEIRA, P.R.E. and SIQUEIRA, P.R.B., 2012. Incidência de danos da broca dos ponteiros em diferentes genótipos de soja. Ciência Rural, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2120-2126. ). This species also occurs in soybean in other parts of South America, such as Uruguay, Chile, and Argentina ( Formentini et al., 2015 FORMENTINI, A.C., SOSA-GÓMEZ, D.R., PAULA-MORAES, S.V., BARROS, N.M. and SPECHT, A., 2015. Lepidoptera (Insecta) associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Ciência Rural, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2113-2120. ). On the other hand, there are other species with a more restricted distribution, as is the case of Crocidosema (Epinotia) cosmoptila Meyrick, 1917, which is only registered in Argentina ( Meyrick, 1917 MEYRICK, E., 1917. Descriptions of South American Micro-Lepidoptera. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1-52. ). In addition, to date, their host plants are unknown. Thus, the present study reports the species C. cosmoptila for the first time in Brazil ( Duarte and Casagrande, 2018 DUARTE, M. and CASAGRANDE, M.M., 2018. Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: PNUD. ).

The insects were collected at the State University of Centro-Oeste (Unicentro), Campus Cedeteg, located in the municipality of Guarapuava (25°23’03.8’’S 51°29’16.0’’ W, 1120 m) state of Paraná, Brazil. The assessments were conducted on September 18, 2017 in an ornamental flowerbed with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. ‘Dixie’). Only damaged plants (leaf and/or stems) were used for the assessments, indicating the presence of C. cosmoptila ( Figure 1 ). Twelve crimson clover plants were collected (severed at the base), which were packed in Gerbox boxes (three plants in each box) lined with previously moistened filter paper. The material was then maintained under controlled conditions (25 °C ± 2 °C, 60% ± 20% humidity, and at 12 h photophase) to allow the emergence of adults. The containers were maintained daily, and the filter paper was wetted when necessary. In total, three adults emerged and were referred to Dr. Vitor O. Becker for identification. By examining the genitalia, all individuals were identified as C. cosmoptila and are currently in the museum of the Uiraçu Institute in Brazil.

Figure 1
Leaflet of crimson clover damaged by Crocidosema cosmoptila ( Meyrick, 1917 MEYRICK, E., 1917. Descriptions of South American Micro-Lepidoptera. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1-52. ) (a). Presence of the C. cosmoptila larvae in the crimson clover stem (b). Location: Guarapuava, PR. Date: 09/18/2017.

It was observed that the larvae can feed on both the leaves and stems of the plant ( Figure 1 ). Although its biology is unknown, this behavior is similar to that observed for C. aporema in soybean, in which the larvae begin feeding on the plant leaflets, and from their deterioration, migrate to the petiole and stems of the crop allowing shelter and protection ( Siqueira and Siqueira, 2012 SIQUEIRA, P.R.E. and SIQUEIRA, P.R.B., 2012. Incidência de danos da broca dos ponteiros em diferentes genótipos de soja. Ciência Rural, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2120-2126. ). To date, this is the first record of C. cosmoptila outside of Argentina and is the first observed association between this species and its host plant. It is recommended to conduct studies on the bioecology of C. cosmoptila as well as its potential host plants.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Fundação Araucária for providing scholarchips support.

  • (With 1 figure)

References

  • BROWN, J.W., COPELAND, R.S., AARVIK, L., MILLER, S.E., ROSATI, M.E. and LUKE, Q., 2014. Host records for fruit-feeding Afrotropical Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). African Entomology , vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 343-376.
  • BROWN, J. W., ROBINSON, G., and POWELL, J.A., 2008 [viewed 7 February 2018]. Food plant database of the leafrollers of the world (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Version 1.0 [online]. Available from: http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp
    » http://www.tortricid.net/foodplants.asp
  • DUARTE, M. and CASAGRANDE, M.M., 2018. Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil Rio de Janeiro: PNUD.
  • FORMENTINI, A.C., SOSA-GÓMEZ, D.R., PAULA-MORAES, S.V., BARROS, N.M. and SPECHT, A., 2015. Lepidoptera (Insecta) associated with soybean in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Ciência Rural, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2113-2120.
  • MENSAH, R.K., VODOUHÊ, D.S.I., SANFILIPPO, D. and ASSOGBA, S.C.G., 2012. Increasing organic cotton production in Benin West Africa with a supplementary food spray product to manage pests and beneficial insects. International Journal of Pest Management , vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 53-64.
  • MEYRICK, E., 1917. Descriptions of South American Micro-Lepidoptera. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1-52.
  • SIQUEIRA, P.R.E. and SIQUEIRA, P.R.B., 2012. Incidência de danos da broca dos ponteiros em diferentes genótipos de soja. Ciência Rural, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2120-2126.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    14 Nov 2018
  • Date of issue
    Oct-Dec 2019

History

  • Received
    07 Feb 2018
  • Accepted
    05 July 2018
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