• Environmentally responsive polymeric "intelligent" materials: the ideal components of non-mechanical valves that control flow in microfluidic systems Reviews

    Ruben Morones-Ramirez, J.

    Abstract in English:

    Miniaturization and commercialization of integrated microfluidic systems has had great success with the development of a wide variety of techniques in microfabrication, since they allowed their construction at a low cost and by following simple step-series procedures. However, one of the major challenges in the design of microfluidic systems is to achieve control of flow and delivery of different chemical reagents. This feature is especially important when using microfluidic systems in the development of cell culture systems, the construction of labs on a chip and the fabrication and design of chemical microreactors. Spatiotemporal control of the microenvironment in microfluidic devices has been only partially achieved by incorporating actuator parts (mechanical and non-mechanical) within these devices; nevertheless, recently there has been enormous progress due to advances in the materials sciences, and the development of novel polymeric "intelligent" materials. These materials have proved to be excellent candidates in the construction of non-mechanical actuators in the form of environmentally responsive valves. These valves can more efficiently control flows because these "intelligent" materials are capable of undergoing conformational changes and phase transitions in response to different local or external environmental stimuli; allowing them to turn the valves from "on" to "off". In addition, these valves have very simple designs, and are easy and cheap to incorporate into microfluidic systems. Therefore, although there are many reviews that focus on the development and design of non-mechanical actuators, the following review proceeds to describe the exciting characteristics, potential uses and synthesis methods of the building blocks of the most recent and innovative non-mechanical valves, environmentally responsive polymeric "intelligent" materials. In addition, the last section of this review will focus on the synthesis of composite materials that are capable of responding to more than one type of stimulus, since these materials are believed to be the future components that will boost the development of microfluidic systems with spatiotemporal controlled microenvironments.
  • Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review Reviews

    Barros, M.; Fleuri, L. F.; Macedo, G. A.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.
  • Nuclease p1 immobilized on deae cellulose Bioprocess Engineering

    Shi, Lu-E; Yi, Yu; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Xiong, Wen-Yue; Mei, Jiang-Feng; Ying, Guo-Qing

    Abstract in English:

    Effects of various factors, such as pH, ionic strength, glutaraldehyde concentration, enzyme amount and immobilization time, on enzyme activity were investigated. The immobilization conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiments. Characterizations of immobilized nuclease p1 were also evaluated. Through orthogonal optimization, the optimal immobilization conditions were as follows: pH 5.6, ionic strength 0.125, glutaraldehyde concentration 0.20% and immobilization time 2.0 h. Optimal pH of immobilized enzyme was 5.8. Optimal temperature of immobilized enzyme was 70ºC. Thermal, operational and storage stabilities of the enzyme were improved after it was immobilized on DEAE cellulose. Michaelis constant Km of immobilized enzyme at 69ºC was found to be 27.21 g/l by the Lineweaver-Burk plot.
  • Including dissolved oxygen dynamics into the Bt δ-endotoxins production process model and its application to process control Bioprocess Engineering

    Amicarelli, A.; di Sciascio, F.; Toibero, J. M.; Alvarez, H.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper proposes a model to characterize the Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics (DO) for the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins production process. The objective of this work is to include this dynamics into a phenomenological model of the process in order to facilitate the biomass estimation from the knowledge of oxygen consumption; and for control purposes, by allowing the addition of a new control variable in order to favorably influence the bioprocess evolution. The mentioned DO model is based on first principles and parameter estimation and model verification are supported by real experimental data. Finally, a control strategy is designed based on this model with its corresponding asymptotic stability and robustness analysis.
  • Revisiting the influence of loading on organic material removal in primary facultative ponds Environmental Engineering

    Silva, F. J. A. da; Souza, R. O. de; Araújo, A. L. C.

    Abstract in English:

    This paper investigated the influence of organic loading on BOD and COD removal in primary facultative ponds. The study was based on six full-scale pond plants in which average removals of unfiltered biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 72 and 50%, respectively. For filtered samples, the removals were 89 and 83%, respectively. First-order removal rates assuming ideal hydraulic patterns (completely mixed and plug-flow) decreased with increments in the mean hydraulic retention time (HRT). Reduction in organic loading also caused a decrease in removal rates. The results emphasized that HRT and surface organic loading are more reliable to estimate first-order removal rates than traditional Arrhenius-style equations. Thus, HRT and surface organic loading can be used to compute more realistic first-order removal rates and surface removal rates. An alternative design procedure based on HRT and surface organic loading was proposed and demonstrated.
  • Recovery and reuse of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange Environmental Engineering

    Gayathri, R.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    Abstract in English:

    The chrome plating industry is one of the highly polluting industries whose effluent mainly consists of chromium(VI). This compound is highly toxic to aquatic life and human health. The rinse water constituents reflect the chrome plating bath characteristics; generally dead tank wash water contains about 1% of the plating bath concentration. Other metals and metal compounds usually considered as toxic can be precipitated out by suitably adjusting the pH of the wastewaters. However, Cr(VI) is soluble in almost all pH ranges and therefore an efficient treatment is required for the removal and recovery of chromium, and also for the reuse of wastewaters. The present study aims to recover the chromium by a hybrid technique of electrodialysis and ion exchange for the removal and concentration of chromate ions from the effluent. The different modes of operation like batch recirculation process, batch recirculation process with continuous dipping and continuous process were carried out to remove and recover the chromium from the effluent and the percentage reductions of chromium were found to be 98.69%, 99.18% and 100%, respectively.
  • Removal of lead from aqueous solution using waste tire rubber ash as an adsorbent Environmental Engineering

    Mousavi, H. Z.; Hosseynifar, A.; Jahed, V.; Dehghani, S. A. M.

    Abstract in English:

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of the utilization of waste tire rubber ash (WTRA) as a low cost adsorbent for removal of lead (II) ion from aqueous solution. The effect of different parameters (such as contact time, sorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH of the medium and temperature) were investigated. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 90 min of contact. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and the Langmuir isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 22.35 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics was investigated and the best fit was achieved by a first-order equation. The results of the removal process show that the Pb (II) ion adsorption on WTRA is an endothermic and spontaneous process. The procedure developed was successfully applied for the removal of lead ions in aqueous solutions.
  • Optimization of napthalene biodegradation by a genetic algorithm based response surface methodology Environmental Engineering

    Zafar, M.; Kumar, Shashi; Kumar, Surendra

    Abstract in English:

    Naphthalene biodegradation was studied using the bacterial strain Pseudomonas putida S2. Three medium variables out of seven medium components were selected under Plakett-Burman (PB) design as having significant response on naphthalene biodegradation. These variables were citric acid (additional carbon sources), ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride. The levels of these three variables were optimized by the application of genetic algorithm (GA) based response surface methodology (RSM) in terms of maximum biodegradation efficiency. The maximum biodegradation efficiency of 55.51% was observed at concentrations of 1.0 g L-1, 1.0 g L-1, and 0.7g L-1 for citric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, respectively. In addition, the interactive effects of significant medium variables were analyzed using three dimensional surface plots simulated by network output in terms of maximum fitness function.
  • Soluble microbial product (SMP) characterization in bench-scale aerobic and anaerobic CSTRs under different operational conditions Environmental Engineering

    Mesquita, P. L.; Aquino, S. F.; Xavier, A. L. P.; Silva, J. C. Cardoso da; Afonso, R. C. F.; Silva, S. Queiroz

    Abstract in English:

    This work presents results on the production and characterization (by both mass spectrometry and conventional chemical analyses) of Soluble Microbial Products (SMP) that accumulated in aerobic and anaerobic bench scale completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed with glucose or acetate under different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and temperatures. SMP accumulation varied from 2 to 68% of the influent COD in the aerobic reactor and from 9 to 27% in the anaerobic reactor and increased with the decrease in temperature and with the HRT reduction in the aerobic reactor. On the other hand, in the anaerobic reactor, the organic loading rate and the temperature had little impact on SMP production, implying that the SMP originated from different mechanisms in each system. For both reactors, a higher accumulation of SMPs was observed as the substrate was acetate when compared to glucose, and the chemical analysis showed that the majority of the SMP did not seem to be proteins or carbohydrates. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the mass spectra from positive and negative mode electron-spray ionization (LC-IT-TOF-MS) and results from matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) confirmed the chemical analyses and showed the absence of proteins in the effluents and the predominance of low molecular weight SMP. The PCA analysis also showed that the majority of the SMP from aerobic and anaerobic reactors did not seem to originate from soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or cell lysis products.
  • A methodology for optimising the removal of cyanobacteria cells from a brazilian eutrophic water Environmental Engineering

    De Julio, M.; Fioravante, D. A.; De Julio, T. S.; Oroski, F. I.; Graham, N. J. D.

    Abstract in English:

    This work is concerned with optimizing the performance of the coagulation process in terms of the removal of intact cyanobacteria cells and saxitoxins (STX). The evaluation has been carried out through bench-scale jar tests to construct coagulation diagrams for aluminium sulphate, polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride. The test water was taken from a eutrophic surface source, collected at the inlet to the water treatment plant that supplies Ponta Grossa City, Brazil, at a time of high algal activity corresponding to a total of 108833 cells/mL of cyanobacteria. By constructing the coagulation diagram for turbidity, the optimal dose-pH conditions were used in subsequent tests involving both coagulation and sand filtration. In these tests the benefits of adding a cationic synthetic polymer and powdered activated carbon (PAC) to the overall treatment were investigated. From the results of the tests, the optimal dosages and pH for each coagulant, polymer and PAC were obtained corresponding to the lowest concentrations of cyanobacteria cells, STX and turbidity.
  • Estimation of effective thermal conductivity enhancement using foam in heat exchangers based on a new analytical model Fluid Dynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer and Other Topics

    Haghighi, Maryam; Kasiri, Norollah

    Abstract in English:

    Thermal performance of open-cell metal foam has been investigated under low Reynolds number by comparing the heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity for the flow through a packed channel of high porosity metal foam to that of an open channel. In the case of Al-Air at porosity 0.971, the ratio of heat transfer coefficients is estimated to be 18.5 when the thermal conductivity ratio of foam matrix to fluid conductivity is 130. This demonstrates that the useusing of foam in the structure of conventional air coolers increases effective thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and thermal performance considerably. To overcome the drawbacks of previous models, a new model to describe the effective thermal conductivity of foam was developed. The model estimates effective thermal conductivity based on a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron unit-cell and is not confined only to isotropic cases as in previous models. Effective thermal conductivity is a function of foam geometrical characteristics, including ligament length (L), length of the sides of horizontal square faces (b), inclination angle that defines the orientation of the hexagonal faces with respect to the rise direction (θ), porosity, size, shape of metal lump at ligament intersections and heat transfer direction. Changing dimensionless foam ligament radius or height (d) from 0.1655 to 0.2126 for Reticulated vitreous foam -air (RVC-aAir) at θ=π/4 and dimensionless spherical node diameter (e) equal to 0.339, raises effective thermal conductivity by 31%. Moreover, increasing θ from π/4 to 0.4π for RVC-aAir at d=0.1655 and e=0.339 enhances effective thermal conductivity by 33%.
  • Sodium phosphate as a solid catalyst for biodiesel preparation Kinetics and Catalysis; Reaction Enginneering; and Materials Science

    Jiang, S. T.; Zhang, F. J.; Pan, L. J.

    Abstract in English:

    Sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) was chosen as catalyst for biodiesel preparation from rapeseed oil. The effects of mass ratio of catalyst to oil, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and rotation speed on biodiesel yield were investigated. For a mass ratio of catalyst to oil of 3%, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 9:1, reaction temperature of 343K and rotation speed of 600rpm, the transesterification was nearly completed within 20 minutes. Na3PO4 has a similar activity to homogeneous catalysts. Na3PO4 could be used repeatedly for 8 runs without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. The concentrations of catalyst in biodiesel ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mg/g. Compared to Na3PO4, Na3PO4.10H2O was cheaper, but the final yield was 71.3%, much lower than that of Na3PO4 at 99.7%.
  • Liquid phase hydrogenation of acethydrazone to N'-methyl acethydrazide over Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyst Kinetics and Catalysis; Reaction Enginneering; and Materials Science

    Pakdehi, S. G.; Sohrabi, M.; Moghaddam, A. S.

    Abstract in English:

    Catalytic hydrogenation of acethydrazide (AH) is the main step in the production of N'-methyl acethydrazide (MAH). In this step, AH reacts with formaldehyde to produce acetylhydrazone (AOH). AOH is hydrogenated in the presence of 5% Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyst to MAH. In this paper, the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst loading and initial concentration of AOH on the initial rate of hydrogenation were studied in a batch slurry reactor within a temperature range of 303-333K. The hydrogenation rate was first order with respect to hydrogen concentration at lower hydrogen pressures. However, at higher pressures, the rate became independent of both hydrogen and initial AOH concentrations. A single site Langmuir-Hinshelwood type formulation was found to describe adequately the kinetic data. A good correlation was observed between the predicted concentration vs. time profiles and those determined experimentally. The apparent activation energy was calculated from the initial rates as 40.6 kJ/mol.
  • A comparison of hyperbolic solvers II: ausm-type and Hybrid Lax-Wendroff-Lax-Friedrichs methods for two-phase flows Process System Engineering

    Coelho, R. M. L.; Lage, P. L. C.; Silva Telles, A.

    Abstract in English:

    Riemann-solver based schemes are difficult and sometimes impossible to be applied for complex flows due to the required average state. Other methods that do not use Riemann-solvers are best suited for such cases. Among them, AUSM+, AUSMDV and the recently proposed Hybrid Lax-Friedrichs-Lax-Wendroff (HLFW) have been extended to two-phase flows. The eigenstructure of the two-fluid model is complex due to the phase interactions, leading to numerous numerical difficulties. One of them is the well-posedness of the equation system because it may lose hyperbolicity. Therefore, the methods that are not based on the wave structure and that are not TVNI could lead to strong oscillations. The common strategy to handle this problem is the adoption of a pressure correction due to interfacial effects. In this work, this procedure was applied to HLFW and AUSM-type methods and their results analyzed. The AUSM+ and AUSMDV were extended to achieve second-order using the MUSCL strategy for which a conservative and a non-conservative formulation were tested. Additionally, several AUSMDV weighting functions were compared. The first and second-order AUSM-type and HLFW methods were compared for the solution of the water faucet and the shock tube benchmark problems. The pressure correction strategy was efficient to ensure hyperbolicity, but numerical diffusion increased. The MUSCL AUSMDV and HLFW methods with pressure correction strategy were, on average, the best of the analyzed methods for these test problems. The HLFW was more stable than the other methods when the pressure correction was considered.
  • Water activity of aqueous solutions of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymers and maltodextrins Thermodynamics and Separation Processes

    Carareto, N. D. D.; Monteiro Filho, E. S.; Pessôa Filho, P. A.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    Abstract in English:

    The water activity of aqueous solutions of EO-PO block copolymers of six different molar masses and EO/PO ratios and of maltodextrins of three different molar masses was determined at 298.15 K. The results showed that these aqueous solutions present a negative deviation from Raoult's law. The Flory-Huggins and UNIFAC excess Gibbs energy models were employed to model the experimental data. While a good agreement was obtained with the Flory-Huggins equation, discrepancies were observed when predicting the experimental behavior with the UNIFAC model. The water activities of ternary systems formed by a synthetic polymer, maltodextrin and water were also measured and used to test the predictive capability of both models.
  • Adsorption of chromium ion (VI) by acid activated carbon Thermodynamics and Separation Processes

    Attia, A. A.; Khedr, S. A.; Elkholy, S. A.

    Abstract in English:

    The activated carbon produced from olive stones was chemically activated using sulfuric acid, (OS-S), and utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution in the concentration range 4-50 mg/L. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch process and various experimental parameters such as effect of contact time, initial chromium ion concentration, carbon dosage, and pH on percentage removal have been studied. Adsorption results obtained for activated carbon (OS-S) were compared with the acid-treated commercial activated carbon (CAC-S). The optimum efficiency shows that the Cr(VI) uptake being attained at pH 1.5. The equilibrium adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir adsorption model. The results of kinetic models showed that the pseudo-first-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well. It was concluded that activated carbon produced from olive stones (OS-S) has an efficient adsorption capacity compared to (CAC-S) sample.
  • A reliable procedure to predict salt precipitation in pure phases Thermodynamics and Separation Processes

    Beltrão, P. S. O.; Cardoso, M. J. E. M.; Castier, M.

    Abstract in English:

    This article proposes a new procedure to compute solid-liquid equilibrium in electrolyte systems that may form pure solid phases at a given temperature, pressure, and global composition. The procedure combines three sub-procedures: phase stability test, minimization of the Gibbs free energy with a stoichiometric formulation of the salt-forming reactions to compute phase splitting, and a phase elimination test. After the phase splitting calculation for a system configuration that has a certain number of phases, the phase stability test establishes whether including an additional phase will reduce the Gibbs free energy further. The criteria used for phase stability may lead, in some cases, to the premature inclusion of phases that should be absent from the final solution but, if this happens, the phase elimination sub-procedure removes them. It is possible to use the procedure with several excess Gibbs free energy models for liquid phase behavior. The procedure has proven to be reliable and fast and the results are in good agreement with literature data.
  • Errata

Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Rua Líbero Badaró, 152 , 11. and., 01008-903 São Paulo SP Brazil, Tel.: +55 11 3107-8747, Fax.: +55 11 3104-4649, Fax: +55 11 3104-4649 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: rgiudici@usp.br