Abstract in English:Abstract The bio-solubilization of Jordan phosphorite by the phosphate-solubilizing fungus Aspergillus niger has been investigated. The effect of the phosphate concentration in the liquid medium, the duration of biodecomposition, titratable acidity and the effect of preliminary mechanical activation on the process of dissolution have been studied. The investigations indicate that almost complete extraction of P2O5 from Jordan Phosphorite in a form utilizable by plants can be achieved. A maximum degree of P2O5 extraction 99.10% was obtained on the 15-th day in a medium containing 0.5% w/v non-activated Jordan phosphorite. The preliminary mechanical activation of the phosphate facilitates the dissolution until a definite period of the bioconversion. Investigations with mechanically-activated Jordan phosphorite showed that a maximum extent of 92.40% of phosphate solubilization was observed on the 10-th day at a phosphorite concentration of 0.5% w/v.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influence on lipase activity were also analyzed. The results showed that the supplementation with miniemulsified soybean oil promoted an increase of 9.7% in polymer content and the productivity increased from 0.58 to 0.63 g.L-1.h-1, when compared with the culture without supplementation. The best time to add the supplement is in the beginning of the production phase. The lipase activity was higher for the culture supplemented with miniemulsified soybean oil, promoting the use of the oil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bioprocess development studies concerning the production of cellulases are of crucial importance due to the significant impact of these enzymes on the economics of biomass conversion into fuels and chemicals. This work evaluates the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) operational conditions on cellulase production by a novel strain of Aspergillus oryzae using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The use of SSF cultivation under controlled conditions substantially improved cellulase production. Highest production of FPase (0.40 IU g-1), endoglucanase (123.64 IU g-1), and β-glucosidase (18.32 IU g-1) was achieved at 28 °C, using an initial substrate moisture content of 70%, with an inlet air humidity of 80% and an airflow rate of 20 mL min-1. Further studies of kinetic profiles and respirometric analyses were performed. The results showed that these data could be very useful for bioprocess development of cellulase production and scale-up.
Abstract in English:Abstract Shea tree sawdust delignification kinetic data during alkaline peroxide pretreatment were investigated at temperatures of 120 °C, 135 °C, and 150 °C. The activation energy during delignification was 76.4 kJ/mol and the Arrhenius constant was calculated as 8.4 x 106 per min. The reducing sugar yield for the treated to the untreated biomass was about 22-fold. Enzymatic hydrolysis conditions studied were; time (72 h and 96 h), substrate concentration (20, 30, 40, and 50 g/L), and enzyme loadings (10, 25, 40, 50 FPU/g dry biomass), which showed the optimum conditions of 96 h, 40 g/L, and 25 FPU/g dry biomass at 45 °C hydrolysis temperature. At the optimized enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, the reducing sugar yield was 416.32 mg equivalent glucose/g treated dry biomass. After 96 h fermentation of treated biomass, the ethanol obtained at 2% effective cellulose loading was 12.73 g/L. Alkaline peroxide oxidation pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis improved the ethanol yield of the biomass.
Abstract in English:Abstract The following sludge reduction alternatives were tested in wastewater biological reactors: oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA-process); ultrasonic disintegration (UD); chlorination (CH); 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS); and folic acid (FA). Compared to the control system, UD reduced 55% of the sludge production, and greater substrate and nutrient removal efficiency was achieved. CH worsened the sludge settleability and increased the SVI values; the system achieved 25% of sludge reduction. OSA showed 50% and 60% of sludge reduction after 16 and 10 hours under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The observed sludge yield during TCS addition was decreased by 40%, and the sludge settleability worsened. FA presented the highest sludge reduction (75%), and the system improved the nutrient removal efficiency by 30% compared to the control system and maintained the sludge properties. Acute toxicity conducted with Daphnia magna classified the effluent from the sludge reduction systems as non-toxic for discharge into water sources.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this work the aerobic degradation of phenol (PH), catechol (CA), resorcinol (RE), hydroquinone (HY) and of the binary mixtures PH+CA, PH+RE, PH+HY by phenol-acclimated activated sludge was studied. Single substrate experiments show a Haldane-type dependence of the respiration rate on PH, RE and HY, while CA corresponded to the Monod model. Binary substrate experiments demonstrated that the presence of a second substrate only affected the kinetics, but not the stoichiometry of the oxidation of the compounds tested. While CA inhibited the oxidation of PH, PH inhibited the oxidation of RE and HY. A mathematical model was developed to represent the aerobic biodegradation of the phenolic compounds tested. The agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data indicates that the proposed model can be useful for predicting substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations in bioreactors treating phenolic wastewaters.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Supercritical Antisolvent (SAS) technique allows for the precipitation of drugs and biopolymers in nanometer size in a wide range of industrial applications, while guaranteeing the physical and chemical integrity of such materials. However, a suitable combination of operating parameters is needed for each type of solute. The knowledge of fluid dynamics behavior plays a key role in the search for such parameter combinations. This work presents a numerical study concerning the impact of operating temperature and pressure upon the physical properties and mixture dynamics within the SAS process, because in supercritical conditions the radius of the droplets formed exhibits great sensitivity to these variables. For the conditions analyzed, to account for the heat of mixture in the energy balance, subtle variations in the temperature fields were observed, with almost negligible pressure drop. From analyses of the intensity of segregation, there is an enhancement of the mixture on the molecular scale when the system is operated at higher pressure. This corroborates experimental observations from the literature, related to smaller diameters of particles under higher pressures. Hence, the model resulted in a versatile tool for selecting conditions that may promote a better control over the performance of the SAS process.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP) during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.
Abstract in English:Abstract Heap leaching of caliche ores is frequently performed with run-of-mine (ROM) material, which includes rocks of very different sizes; however, most of the experimental data are obtained using small particles. To contribute to the understanding of caliche leaching, an experiment using coarse particles was carried out. The recoveries obtained from this experiment were compared with those observed in the leaching of fine particles and, as expected, a larger volume of leachant was required for leaching coarse particles to reach the same recovery. For the highly soluble species nitrate, the recovery was modelled using a previously developed model, obtaining good agreement without any fitting by using only the mass transfer coefficient obtained, by fitting, from fine particle leaching data in previous works. Physical properties such as permeability and capillarity were determined, showing that capillary forces are large, but that the permeability is very small, implying that flow through caliche particles should be very small.
Abstract in English:Abstract The macadamia tree is known for producing fruit high in fats, enclosed in very hard woody shells. Macadamia nut shell, considered as a by-product from macadamia nut processing, may be a suitable option for pyrolysis. These residues are constituted of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. The Independent Parallel Reaction (IPR) Model has been applied in this work to study the pyrolysis of macadamia nut shell from thermogravimetric experiments. The kinetic parameters and mass fraction of each component were estimated using the Differential Evolution Algorithm. The influence of the model parameters was also analyzed by means of sensitivity studies. The results showed that the decomposition of the macadamia nut shell is more sensitive to the parameters related to the decomposition of lignin. The results of sensitivity analysis also showed that the activation energy affects the total biomass conversion more strongly than the other parameters and the contribution of extractives in the IPR model is as important as the hemicellulose.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper introduces an effective optimization approach to investigate the morphological effects of nanocomposite gel electrophoresis and operational parameters (see below) by integrating the numerical simulations based on finite element method and population-based search algorithm such as differential evolution. Simulations are performed to study the solute transport by Convection-Diffusion-Electromigration in a microvoid with axially varying cross-section. Morphological parameters such as channel shape and size, as well as operational parameters such as pressure gradient in the axial direction, and electric field in the orthogonal direction were considered and found to have considerable effects on the separation resolution in electrophoresis. Key observations on the most favorable hydrogel morphology for an efficient electrophoresis separation are presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Heat exchanger networks present an interesting control problem due to coupling among process streams. In this work, the linear quadratic regulator (LQR), a feedback optimal control technique, is used to control stream temperatures on a laboratory scale heat exchanger network, through bypass manipulation, in a multivariable system. The LQR design was based on a mathematical model of the plant and its performance was compared to traditional PID control and to dynamical decoupling. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the controllers, involving regulatory and servo problems. The performance of the different controllers was quantitatively compared by using the integral absolute error. Although LQR is not a new control methodology, the results obtained in this work suggest that LQR is an interesting alternative to control HEN when compared to the PID and to the dynamic decoupler. Moreover, one of the main advantages of the LQR is its tuning simplicity, since only one parameter is sufficient for this application.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, the robustness of a typical control scheme for Wiener systems is studied. These systems consist of the cascade connection of a linear time invariant system and a static nonlinearity. To control this kind of systems, several approaches were discussed in the literature. Most of these control schemes involve transformation of the measured variable as well as the setpoint, by the inverse of the nonlinear gain. The approach followed in this work uses the inverse model of the static nonlinear gain, while the uncertainty in the Wiener model is treated as a partitioned problem. The linear block is considered as a parameter-affine-dependent model and, on the other hand, the nonlinear block uncertainty is analyzed as a conic-sector. The robustness analysis is performed using µ-theory. The results are evaluated on the basis of a simulation of a pH neutralization process.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.
Abstract in English:Abstract The results of two-dimensional mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer in a highly viscous hydrocarbon liquid by inductive and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) heating are presented. The model takes into account the dependence of the liquid's viscosity and thermal conductivity on the temperature and also the presence of thermal convection effects. It is shown that the occurrence of volumetric heat sources inside the liquid caused by EM radiation yields an intensive deep heating as compared with inductive heating. Numerical calculations show that, in both these cases, the single vortex flow structure is formed in the whole volume of the liquid. However, RF EM heating provides a more homogeneous distribution of heat in the medium and requires three-fold less power consumption in comparison with induction heating.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study used a predictive controller based on an empirical nonlinear model comprising a three-layer feedforward neural network for temperature control of the suspension polymerization process. In addition to the offline training technique, an algorithm was also analyzed for online adaptation of its parameters. For the offline training, the network was statically trained and the genetic algorithm technique was used in combination with the least squares method. For online training, the network was trained on a recurring basis and only the technique of genetic algorithms was used. In this case, only the weights and bias of the output layer neuron were modified, starting from the parameters obtained from the offline training. From the experimental results obtained in a pilot plant, a good performance was observed for the proposed control system, with superior performance for the control algorithm with online adaptation of the model, particularly with respect to the presence of off-set for the case of the fixed parameters model.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the process industry, advanced controllers usually aim at an economic objective, which usually requires closed-loop stability and constraints satisfaction. In this paper, the application of a MPC in the optimization structure of an industrial Propylene/Propane (PP) splitter is tested with a controller based on a state space model, which is suitable for heavily disturbed environments. The simulation platform is based on the integration of the commercial dynamic simulator Dynsim® and the rigorous steady-state optimizer ROMeo® with the real-time facilities of Matlab. The predictive controller is the Infinite Horizon Model Predictive Control (IHMPC), based on a state-space model that that does not require the use of a state observer because the non-minimum state is built with the past inputs and outputs. The controller considers the existence of zone control of the outputs and optimizing targets for the inputs. We verify that the controller is efficient to control the propylene distillation system in a disturbed scenario when compared with a conventional controller based on a state observer. The simulation results show a good performance in terms of stability of the controller and rejection of large disturbances in the composition of the feed of the propylene distillation column.
Abstract in English:Abstract A CFD-ABND coupling model was used to study the flow characteristic of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the process of gas passing through the liquid bath of a water-coal-slurry entrained-flow gasifier. In this model, an average bubble number density (ABND) approach was employed and merged with the two-fluid model. A two-phase version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model was used for the liquid and gas, respectively. Comparisons of computational results with experimental data are done. The results show that the gas gathers along the outer wall of the cooling pipe and rises. The higher turbulent kinetic energy of gas and liquid, the larger bubble and the higher interfacial area concentration exist mainly near the exit and outer wall of the cooling pipe. The existence of a separator inserter is very helpful to strengthen the turbulence between gas and liquid; this can reduce the bubble diameter and increase the interfacial area effectively.
Abstract in English:Abstract Parameters of equilibrium adsorption obtained from experiments using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) were used to evaluate the applicability of the steric mass-action (SMA) model to describe the adsorption of lactoferrin to cryogel resin under different conditions. The adsorption of lactoferrin on continuous supermacroporous cryogel with immobilized Cu2+ ions was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments at different pH (6-8) and temperature (293-313 K) values. Estimated values of the equilibrium constant (K) and characteristic number of binding sites (n) showed that these parameters decreased with increasing ionic strength, pH and temperature, while the nonlinear parameter, the steric factor (σ), increased with increasing ionic strength and temperature. Expressions correlating these parameters with pH, ionic strength and temperature were then derived.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper the cubic and tetragonal structure of MOF-5 were successfully synthesized and characterized by TGA and SEM analysis. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms of C-MOF-5 and T-MOF-5 for H2 and CO2 were measured up to 25 bar at 298 K using a volumetric method. The C-MOF-5 adsorbent synthesized in this study had a 0.107 and 79.9 wt% adsorption capacities at 298 K and 25 bar for H2 and CO2, respectively. T-MOF-5 had a H2 adsorption capacity of 0.122 wt% and CO2 adsorption capacity of 67.6 wt% at 298 K and 25 bar. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO units in the T-MOF-5 structure. The difference between H2 and CO2 adsorption capacity for the cubic and tetragonal structure of MOF-5, suggests that C-MOF-5 and T-MOF-5 are potential adsorbents for the separation of CO2 and H2 from gas mixtures, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models were used to correlate the adsorption isotherms. The results showed that, at 298 K, the fit of the Sips isotherm to the experimental datawas better than Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. According to TGA results, the thermal decomposition of C-MOF-5 requires a higher temperature than T-MOF-5.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hydrotalcite-like compounds are anionic clays of scientific and technological interest for their use as ion exchange materials, catalysts and modified electrodes. Surface phenomenon are important for all these applications. Although conventional analytical methods have enabled progress in understanding the behavior of anionic clays in solution, an evaluation at the atomic scale of the dynamics of their ionic interactions has never been performed. Molecular simulation has become an extremely useful tool to provide this perspective. Our purpose is to validate a simplified model for the adsorption of 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (MBSA), a prototype molecule of anionic dyes, onto a hydrotalcite surface. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble with MBSA ions and a pore model of hydrotalcite using UFF and ClayFF force fields. The proposed molecular model has allowed us to reproduce experimental data of atomic force microscopy. Influences of protonation during the adsorption process are also presented.