Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume: 51, Issue: 1, Published: 2021
  • Identification and analysis of bottom simulating reflectors in the Foz do Amazonas Basin, Northern Brazil RAPID COMMUNICATIONS

    Aguiar, Laisa da Fonseca; Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes; Silva, Cleverson Guizan; Lupinacci, Wagner Moreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work proposed an additional approach to investigate gas hydrate occurrences in the Foz do Amazonas Basin, in the Brazilian Equatorial Margin. The automatic comparison of seafloor seismic amplitudes with those from the Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSR) was used to exhibit the reversal of signal polarities among the seafloor (positive) and the BSR (negative), reinforcing the identification of BSR in areas where its visualization was unclear. Additionally, we used the envelope attribute to highlight the BSR in the seismic section. Subsequently, we decomposed the seismic data into different frequency bands, applied a -90 degrees phase rotation to the data and recalculated the envelope attribute for each section decomposed in frequency bands. This technique improved visualization, allowing the identification of intervals where BSR were laterally discontinuous, revealing to be valuable for mapping the gas hydrate distribution in Foz do Amazonas Basin.
  • Mineral chemistry and genetic implications of garnet from the São João del Rei Pegmatitic Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil Article

    Sousa, Sarah Siqueira da Cruz Guimarães; Ávila, Ciro Alexandre; Neumann, Reiner; Faulstich, Fabiano Richard Leite; Alves, Felipe Emerson André; Cidade, Taís Proença; Silva, Victor Hugo Riboura Menezes da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The pegmatites of the São João del Rei Pegmatitic Province are related to the Siderian protoliths of the Cassiterita and Resende Costa orthogneisses and to the Ritápolis metagranitoid of Ryacian age. Chemical analysis of garnet from twelve pegmatites reveal two different types of grains, which were found in the same pegmatitic body in six of these samples. One garnet type has almandine-spessartine composition (Sps11-7-58.8 Alm36.8-86.5 Prp0.1-4.1Grs0.0-1.4Adr0.0-2.6), grains with orange and pink tones, and scarce mineral inclusions. These garnet grains may have been formed at the magmatic stage of pegmatite crystallization. The composition of these grains plot exclusively on the Alm-Sps axis at the Prp+Grs+Adr+Uvr × Alm × Sps diagram, as expected from garnet crystallized in pegmatites, and an expansion of the field associated to pegmatites is proposed. The second type has a distinct chemical composition (Sps26.9-84.8Alm3.6-40.0 Prp0.0-10.4 Grs9.3-45.6 Adr0.1-3.4), displaying enrichment in Ca. This Ca-enriched garnet has irregular shaped colourless grains and abundant mineral inclusions. These grains may have been formed by Ca-metasomatism during the late-stage crystallization of the pegmatites.
  • The 1.88 Ga Uatumã Magmatism in the Serra dos Magalhães region: petrology and implications to the extension of the south-eastern edge of the Amazonian Craton Article

    Lima, Ianna Ferreira de; Pierosan, Ronaldo; Barros, Márcia Aparecida de Sant'Ana; Rubert, Rogério Roque; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Okuno, Diogo Isamu de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Amazonian Craton (AC) is a Pre-Cambrian tectonic segment that extends over 4.3 × 105 km2 at the northern portion of the South American Platform. Phanerozoic sedimentary basins cover most of the edges of the AC and sparse occurrences of Precambrian rocks may aid the definition of its extension. One of these occurrences is the volcano-plutonic rocks that outcrop in the Serra dos Magalhães region, which relates to the Uatumã Magmatism, an expressive Orosirian magmatic event that constitutes a Siliceous Large Igneous Province. Effusive rhyodacites and rhyolites comprise the volcanic unit and the plutonic counterpart consists of epizonal monzogranites. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates an A2-type granite affinity to all magmatic rocks. Contrasting signatures suggest a magmatic evolution from a single stratified magma chamber. U-Pb zircon crystallization ages are 1870 ± 11 Ma for the rhyodacites, 1879 ± 5 Ma for the monzogranites, and a slightly younger age of 1863 ± 14 Ma for the rhyolites. Interpretation of satellite and geophysical images allows the recognition of regional lineaments in the Parecis and Bananal basins that suggest the extension of the AC up to the Tucurui Fault in the eastern portion (Bananal Basin) and up to the Brasnorte High in the southern part (Parecis Basin).
  • Geochemical evolution of soils developed from pyroclastic rocks of Trindade Island, South Atlantic Article

    Mateus, Ana Carolina Campos; Varajão, Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino; Oliveira, Fábio Soares de; Petit, Sabine; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The geochemical behavior of the major, minor, trace and rare earths elements (REEs) in soil profiles from ultramafic volcanoclastic rocks of the Vulcão do Paredão and Morro Vermelho Formation from Trindade Island (TI) was analyzed in this study. Losses and gains of chemical elements were calculated through the mass balance for two profiles along the slope: one located at higher altitude (460 m) and the other at lower altitude (258 m). In all profiles, Al, Fe and Ti accumulate due to their low mobility, whereas Ca, Na, K and Mg are the most intensely leached. Soils located at lower altitude show higher K and Mg values in the surface due to the contribution of saline sprays. Leaching of the REEs from higher to the lower slope led to the enrichment of these elements, especially the light REEs, in the soil at the lowest altitude (258 m). The high altitude profile showed Ce positive anomaly due to longer exposure to weathering. The geochemical balance shows a relative enrichment of Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, V, Zr, S related to the loss of mobile elements during the soil formation process, despite the youthful nature of these volcanic rocks.
  • Marine or freshwater? Accessing the paleoenvironmental parameters of the Caldas Bed, a key marker bed in the Crato Formation (Araripe Basin, NE Brazil) ARTICLE

    Varejão, Filipe Giovanini; Silva, Victor Ribeiro; Assine, Mario Luis; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Rodrigues, Mariza Gomes; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Simões, Marcello Guimarães

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Aptian Crato Formation is world renowned for its well-preserved fossils in microbially-induced laminated limestones, which are regarded as one of the main Cretaceous Konservat-Lagerstätte of the geological record. Detailed stratigraphic investigation and mapping of the up to 90-m-thick Crato Formation at the eastern border of the Araripe Plateau allowed recognition of a regionally persistent fossil-bearing muddy interval, herein defined as the Caldas Bed. At its type locality, it is defined as an up to 2-m-thick coarsening-upward succession of grey/green mudstone and interbedded sandy siltstone and claystone. The 0.85- to 2-m-thick interval was recognized in several localities along the outcrop belt, and it is bounded by sharp, lower (Konservat-Lagerstätte limestone) and upper (sandstone and heterolithic facies) contacts. Despite previous literature data suggesting the presence of marine mollusks, the bed contains freshwater bivalves, small gastropods, spinicaudatans, plant remains, trace fossils, and rare ostracods. The Caldas Bed records benthic paleocommunities representing a short-term isochronous regional freshening event, marked by abrupt changes in sedimentation pattern, bathymetry, salinity, oxygenation and water chemistry.
  • Transition from contractional to transpressive tectonics: evidence from the Feira Nova Region, Rio Capibaribe Domain, Borborema Province, NE Brazil ARTICLE

    Silva, Valdielly Larisse; Neves, Sérgio Pacheco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Differences in tectonic style and kinematics in orogenic belts can result from either multiphase or progressive deformation. In eastern Borborema Province, a regional shallow dipping foliation is multiply folded and crosscut by transcurrent shear zones. Here, we investigate if these fabrics resulted from diachronous deformational events or from a single-phase progressive deformation. The study area, the Feira Nova region, mostly comprises metasedimentary rocks from the Surubim Complex, and is bounded by the NE-trending sinistral Gloria do Goitá (GGSZ) and the sinistral contractional Paudalho (PSZ) shear zones, which separate it from Paleoproterozoic basement rocks. Structures can be grouped into a contractional and a transpressional stage, both related to the Brasiliano Orogeny. The contraction-related structures are represented by a gently dipping foliation (S2) related to a top-to-the-NW tectonic transport. The contact between the metasedimentary and basement rocks is parallel to S2, indicating the fabrics in both lithotypes are of Brasiliano age, with strain localization having produced the PSZ. NW-verging macroscopic folds are consistent with this regime. The following transpression generated steep mylonitic foliation (S3) mainly along the GGSZ, and caused refolding. The data here presented are consistent with a progressive deformation history comprising a gradual transition from contraction to transpression.
  • Origin and metamorphism of graphite from Formiga, Minas Gerais (Brazil) ARTICLE

    Rezende, Luiza Carneiro de; Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira; Ramos, Sérgio Luis Lima de Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During the Paleoproterozoic Era, the Brazilian cratons experienced orogenic events that modified the archean basement and sedimentary successions. In the southern São Francisco Craton, it can be recognized evidence of an orogenic event that happened between Rhyacian and Orosirian periods. It is related to the closure of an oceanic basin at this time, which led to the collision between the Archean Divinópolis and Campo Belo metamorphic complexes. Graphite schist occurs close to the cities of Formiga and Itapecerica (Minas Gerais), located between these complexes. To contribute to the understanding of the origin and metamorphism of the graphite from Formiga, petrographic studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy analyses have been done. XRD and Raman methods revealed that the temperatures recorded by graphite are around 460°C. However, Raman data showed that the crystallite sizes correspond to higher metamorphic grade conditions (amphibolite to granulite facies). Temperatures of 460°C are probably associated with hydrothermal processes along faults in post-collisional stage. The presence of todorokite, a mineral typical of deep-sea Mn nodules formed by microorganisms, in association with graphite from Formiga, suggests a biogenic origin for the graphite occurrence.
  • Practical mineralogical quantification of bentonites supported for a PXRD calibrated hkl model ARTICLE

    Porras, David Enrique Vega; Angélica, Rômulo Simões; Paz, Simone Patrícia Aranha da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In the bentonite industry - exploration and beneficiation - ore quality control has been traditionally carried out using the swelling parameter, denominating those that swell as naturally sodium bentonites and those that do not as naturally non-sodium bentonites. However, the properties of the bentonites can vary due to the quantity and cationic type of montmorillonite. The variation in those properties cannot always be predicted, because there is still no consolidated and convenient method for clays mineralogical quantification. A quantification via PXRD using the Rietveld method is only reliable when all the crystalline structures of the mineral phases are known. This is not the case for bentonites, since the montmorillonite shows turbostratic disorder that leads to extremely wide and asymmetric non-basal reflections that are not considered in the available structural models. Thus, in this work, is generate a calibrated hkl model for a Brazilian montmorillonite applying the combined Rietveld-Le Bail-Internal Standard method developed by Paz et al. (2018). The study concluded that the combined method is a good choice for the mineralogical quantification of the bentonites, handling turbostratic disorder of montmorillonite, since the develop hkl phase model showed good results in mixtures with >50% montmorillonite content (greater precision and reproducibility).
  • Isotopic study of the Pb-Zn (Cu-Ag) Santa Maria Deposit, Caçapava do Sul Region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil ARTICLE

    Pereira, David Ramos; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Pires, Karen Cristina de Jesus; Lago, Samuel Bouças do

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Camaquã Mines, in the central-southern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, contain the largest deposits of base metals (Camaquã, Cu; Santa Maria, Pb-Zn) in the Camaquã Basin. The host rocks are consisted of sandstones and conglomerates of the Santa Bárbara Group and interbedded volcanic rocks of undefined stratigraphic position. Peperitic features were identified in a mineralized trachytic sill. An age of 565 ± 5 Ma (U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS) was obtained for another trachytic rock, which allowed for the identification, for the first time, of the Acampamento Velho Formation in the Camaquã Mines region. Stratigraphic relations demonstrate that both rocks represent this magmatism. Data from Pb isotopes and spatial relationship observed in the field indicate a possible genetic link between Acampamento Velho Formation and Camaquã mineralization. Pb isotopic data also suggest a predominantly older crustal source (1.07 Ga model age) for Pb and possibly for the other metals, with intermediate or mixed origin, suggesting that magmatic-hydrothermal fluids leached the metals from the percolated rocks of the basement.
  • The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil ARTICLE

    Lopes, Renato Pereira; Dillenburg, Sérgio Rebello; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Pereira, Jamil Corrêa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Santa Vitória Formation is a lithostratigraphic unit known for its fossil assemblage of Pleistocene mammals, established in 1973 from sediments exposed along the banks of Chuí Creek, in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS), Brazil. The original description was presented in a Masters’ dissertation and never formally described in a peer-reviewed publication. Moreover, surveys and fossil collecting efforts developed in the last decade have led to a better understanding of its origin and nature. An updated description of this unit is presented here, which outcrops in areas occupied by barrier-lagoon depositional systems originated by eustatic oscillations. The formation encompasses Middle-Upper Pleistocene fluvial and eolian depositional systems and paleosols formed chiefly of fine to medium quartz sand, with subordinate clay, concentrations of iron and manganese oxides, and caliche nodules of pedogenic origin. It conformably overlies upper shoreface-foreshore marine deposits, and is overlain by loess deposited during the last glacial period. Here is proposed to re-define it as Santa Vitória Alloformation, considering that the use of an allostratigraphic framework to characterize this unit has the practical purpose of grouping depositional systems genetically unrelated to the barrier-lagoon systems.
  • Field availability and mobility of metals in Ferralsols developed on ultramafic rock of Niquelândia, Brazil ARTICLE

    Garnier, Jeremie; Quantin, Cecile; Raous, Sophie; Guimarães, Edi; Becquer, Thierry

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT: Ultramafic (UM) rocks are defined as igneous rocks that contain more than 90% of mafic minerals. Soils derived from ultramafic rock are generally nutrient-deficient and have concomitant high concentrations of potentially phytotoxic trace elements (Ni, Cr, Co, Mn). Consequently, to assess the dynamics of nutrients and metals in the ultramafic complex of Niquelândia (Brazil), soil solutions have been sampled in soils characterized by high Cr(VI) availability. The metal contents in surficial water have also been analyzed to investigate the metals’ leaching and mobility. Soil solutions featured low nutrient contents, a large Ca:Mg imbalance, and high Ni and Cr concentrations. Chromium was present in its toxic dissolved form (Cr(VI)) in the soil and surficial solutions. Metals concentrations were often above the toxic limit for biota and were therefore able to affect soil functioning. Ni behavior in the topsoil appeared to be primarily controlled by organic matter, while Cr was more likely to be released from Fe-oxides by anionic exchange. This result agreed with the Cr(VI) lability assessed using isotopic exchange kinetics in a companion study. In these serpentinic tropical soils, the highly leached Fe-oxide horizons appear to play a large role in the sequestration and diffuse leaching of labile Cr(VI) and Ni, respectively, in the deeper part of soil profiles and the topsoil. At the catchment scale, surficial solutions results suggest that metals may be exported to surrounding ecosystems that are not adapted to these metals.
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