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Brazilian Journal of Geology, Volume: 52, Issue: 3, Published: 2022
  • Inhibition of swelling clays and consolidation of Itararé Sandstone using diaminoalkanes (DAA) and ethyl silicate (TEOS) Article

    Grossi, Danielle; Del Lama, Eliane Aparecida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The conservation of stones containing swelling clay minerals such as montmorillonites is a challenging task. In this context, swelling inhibitors (DAA) were tested and a treatment based on consolidation with TEOS (ethyl silicate) was carried out on a sandstone containing swelling clay minerals: the Itararé Sandstone (commercial name). In this laboratory experiment, the inhibition of swelling, pore size and distribution, capillarity, colorimetric alteration, durability of treatments against the action of water, effectiveness of consolidation, and penetration depth were evaluated. Swelling inhibitors were effective in inhibiting the clay minerals from swelling. The consolidant, despite its effectiveness, altered the pore size and distribution and water absorption significantly, forming a very cracked gel, darkening the stone, reducing resistance to the action of water and presenting small penetration depth. When swelling inhibitors were applied before the consolidant, swelling inhibition also occurred, the porosity was less altered, the consolidant was less cracked, there was less chromatic modification and the sample became more resistant to the action of water. Therefore, this treatment proved to be more effective with fewer changes to the physical characteristics of the stone than the sole application of the consolidant.
  • Pore pressure prediction based on rock stress applied to Marmousi seismic data Article

    Leite, Lourenildo Williame Barbosa; Andrade, Fernando de Tassio Barros de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper focuses on the modeling of a sedimentary basin where the exploration of oil and gas takes place. In the modeling, we calculate the vertical variation of pore and rock pressure, which serve as natural pumps for the accumulation of fluids, where we use post-migration surface seismic data and information as necessary. We compare two methods of pore pressure calculation. In the first case, we calculate stress due to vertical loading created by gravitational geological overburden. In the second case, we propose a more complex method to calculate the stress distribution based on the mechanics of solids under gravity loading, using the concept of the first tensor invariant and the linear behavior of Hooke’s law. We prove the use of the P and S velocities and density information to calculate rock, pore, and effective pressure distribution, useful for characterizing potential zones for oil and gas accumulation. The proposed method allows formulation of rock pressure from different calculations instead of as a simple overburden pressure value. The joint analysis of the calculated sections can be used to identify patterns and correlations, outline and characterize the target zones, and make practical geological conclusions.
  • Occurrence of dravitic tourmaline in a diamond-bearing breccia: a possible lamproite deposit in the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province Article

    Vieira, Ana Carolina Batista; Almeida-Abreu, Pedro Angelo; Batillani, Gislaine Ámores; Sommer, Carlos Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The mineral chemistry of diamond indicator minerals is used to trace mineralizations in primary rocks such as lamproites/kimberlites and in secondary deposits. Subcalcic garnets and magnesian ilmenites are both minerals associated with the diamond potential described in many deposits in the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province where several kimberlitic pipes and alluvial deposits occur. Our study was conducted on the Romaria diamond deposit of (Brazil), where garnet, ilmenite and tourmaline grains were recovered from a diamon-bearing breccia were analyzed under electron microprobe. The garnet composition is compatible with G10, G9 and G5 types. Ilmenite grains are Mg- to Mn-rich. Nearly 80% of the tourmaline grains are dravite-type. This association of dravite tourmaline with diamond in rocks of lamproitic affinity may be common, as evidenced in the Argyle, Ellendale, Prairie Creek, Sask, Presidente Olegário and Ymi-1 pipes. We therefore suggest a possible lamproite origin for the studied diamond deposit.
  • Magnetic petrology of the Neoarchean granitoids in the Vila Jussara Suite, Carajás Province, Amazonian Craton Article

    Sousa, Luan Alexandre Martins de; Dall’Agnol, Roberto; Cunha, Ingrid Roberta Viana da; Silva, Fernando Fernandes da; Oliveira, Davis Carvalho de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Vila Jussara Suite (VJS) is formed by Neoarchean (~ 2.75 Ga) granites that are located in the Sapucaia Domain of the Carajás Province (CP), Amazonian Craton. Four petrographic varieties were identified in the VJS: biotite-hornblende monzogranite (BHMzG); biotite-hornblende tonalite (BHTnl); biotite monzogranite (BMzG); and hornblende-biotite granodiorite (HBGd). In terms of magnetic signature, BHMzG has two subgroups: the first subgroup has low magnetic susceptibility (MS) values (0.16 × 10-3 to 0.81 × 10-3) and more commonly contains ilmenite with titanite rims; the second subgroup shows moderate to high MS (1.91 × 10-3 to 6.02 × 10-3) and magnetite dominant over ilmenite. BHTnl has moderate MS (0.85 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 10-3) and dominance of pyrite followed by magnetite. BMzG and HBGd have comparatively high MS (3.35 × 10-3 to 19.3 × 10-3 and 2.14 × 10-3 to 25.0 × 10-3, respectively), with magnetite dominant over pyrite. The granite varieties of the VJS were formed under different oxygen fugacity (fO2) conditions, varying from reducing (< fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ)) to oxidizing conditions (nickel-nickel oxide (NNO) to NNO+1). In addition, biotite-hornblende syenogranite occurs subordinately and shows high MS values and extremely high FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) ratios, both in whole-rock and amphibole and biotite. The granites of the VJS are similar to other Neoarchean granites of the Carajás province. The reduced VJS granites are akin to the ferroan granites of Planalto suite, Estrela Complex and Vila União area and the magnesian granites of VJS approach the magnesian granites of Vila União area.
  • Differences in the occurrence of debris flows in tropical and temperate environments: field observations and geomorphologic characteristics in Serra do Mar (Brazil) and British Columbia (Canada) Article

    Dias, Vivian Cristina; Mitchell, Andrew; Vieira, Bianca Carvalho; McDougall, Scott

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Debris flows are among the most destructive types of mass movements throughout the world and are not restricted to certain climate zones or geological environments. In opposite corners of the American continent, Canada and Brazil have experienced several historic debris flows. As part of a one-year international exchange program, the lead author compared morphological evidence related to debris flows and the morphometry of watersheds at sites in Canada and Brazil, with the ultimate goal of improving the understanding of debris flows in Brazil. Field surveys carried out in both areas in 2019 and 2020 permitted observation of the debris-flow signatures, as well as the physical aspects of the surrounding areas and morphometric mapping of watersheds. Both areas exhibit similar typical features of debris flows, and the morphometric results indicate differences that may influence the recurrence of events at the sites in Canada as compared to Brazil due to their higher values for the parameters area > 25° (A25), relief ratio (Rr), and Melton ratio (Mr) at the Canadian sites; however, this dataset is limited. Compared to results in the literature from around the world, values of morphometric parameters at Brazilian sites are within the ranges observed in other tropical climates.
  • Three-dimensional geological modeling of the Itataia Phosphate-Uranium Deposit (Ceará, Brazil) Article

    Freire, Ronaldo Cavalcante; Veríssimo, Cesar Ulisses Vieira; Parente, Clovis Vaz; Nogueira Neto, José de Araújo; Castro, Givaldo Lessa; Silva, José Roberto de Alcântara e

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit is located in the northwest segment of the Borborema Province in the Ceará Central Domain. The ore mineral is uranium-enriched microcrystalline collophanite apatite that occurs in massive bodies and lenses, stockworks, as well as hydrothermal and karst breccias associated with marble, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses of the Itataia Group. The deformational history of the deposit includes ductile structures developed in the final stages of thrust tectonics linked to the Brasilian orogeny and later brittle phases related to extensional tectonics, which influenced phosphorus and uranium remobilization and the formation of ore bodies. The main uranium anomaly coincides with the upper part of the Serrote da Igreja hill, bordered to the north by an E-W trending subvertical fault scarp that controls a wide valley. Geometric modeling of the geological data of the deposit provides a three-dimensional view of the geometry of ore bodies, distribution of host rock and faults that propagate beneath the surface and control mineralization, as well as the upper and lower limits of surface weathering. The three-dimensional geometric model using the GoCAD software served as a powerful tool for the analysis of the geology of the Itataia deposit, highlighting the geometry of rocks and ore bodies and the processes involved in the genesis of phosphate-uranium mineralization.
  • Post-Cretaceous brittle tectonics in the Tunas Alkaline Complex, Paraná, Brazil Article

    Farias, Taily Ferreira Santos; Salamuni, Eduardo; Peyerl, William Rudolf Lopes; Gimenez, Viviane Barbosa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We present a study of the brittle tectonics of Tunas Alkaline Complex focusing on the kinematic and geometric analysis of faults and brittle shear zones deforming the complex. The data acquired and respective interpretations sought to contribute to the post-Cretaceous tectonic structural models of southern Brazil. The ~83 Ma-old alkaline complex is made up of syenites, alkali syenites, plutonic and volcanic breccias, as well as trachyte, microsyenite, and bostonite dykes. Morphostructural analysis using remote sensing combined with right dihedral kinematic analysis of fault-slip data and relations of intersections among structures allowed us to characterize four Cenozoic paleostress fields and their respective tectonic pulses: (I) Eocene-Oligocene NW-SE extension responsible for normal oblique-slip faults striking N60-70E; (II) Oligocene-Miocene NE-SW compression associated with tectonic accommodation of the South American Plate at circa 27-26 Ma, and responsible for WNW-ESE-trending sinistral and NE-SW-trending dextral strike-slip faults; (III) Plio-Pleistocene N-S to NNW-SSE compression related to dextral reactivation of NW-SE-striking faults, sinistral reactivation of NE-SW-trending faults, and generation of NNW-SSE-trending strike-slip faults; and (IV) Pleistocene-Holocene NW-SE to WNW-ESE compression that caused dextral reactivation of ENE-WSW-trending faults and sinistral strike-slip reactivation of NNW-SSE-trending faults.
  • U-Pb zircon xenocrysts dating as a proxy to assess volcanic assimilation and the underlying crust, Cretaceous Jaguarão Formation, RS, Brazil Article

    Araújo, Vicente; Marques, Juliana; Bertolini, Gabriel; Frantz, José

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Early Cretaceous volcanic Jaguarão Formation formed duringthe early stages of Gondwana breakup. These felsic rocks characteristically enclose numerous crustal xenoliths. Fieldwork, petrographic studies, and laser ablation multicollector ion coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb analyses were carried out to evaluate the xenoliths of the Jaguarão Formation. A base-to-top distribution of xenoliths in the different flows of the volcanic pile indicates that earlier flows incorporated centimeter-sized fragments of local underlying gneiss, granite, and quartz veins, with limited assimilation. In the middle part of the volcanic pile, the size of the xenoliths is smaller and assimilation textures are more frequent. At this same level, reequilibrated orthopyroxene and plagioclase antecrysts were recognized, suggesting fractionation coeval with assimilation in a lower magmatic chamber prior to extrusion. At the top, no visible xenoliths occur. U-Pb ages of the zircon xenocrysts served as a proxy for assessing the crust underlying the volcanic rocks. Most of the ages obtained are similar to the ages of the Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt cropping out nearby, ranging from 680 to 620 Ma, with a subordinate group ranging from 580 to 570 Ma, suggesting a shallow crust contribution. The presence of few Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic (1.0-1.2 Ma) zircons, however, suggeststhat the underlying terrain may be more complex..
  • Geophysical characterization and modeling of a Neoproterozoic intrusive volcaniclastic lamprophyre in southernmost Brazil Article

    Baesso, Anderson; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Gambeta, Johnathan Henrique; Aquino, Robson dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Neoproterozoic spessartitic lamprophyres are linked to the Lavras do Sul Shoshonitic Association in the Sul-Riograndense Shield, southernmost Brazil. Bodies of intrusive spessartitic lamprophyres occur in trachyandesites of this association in the Cerro Tupanci region. There, Neoproterozoic igneous and metamorphic complexes are covered by volcanic-sedimentary Ediacaran sequences of the Camaquã Basin that include trachyandesites, conglomerates, sandstones, and spessartitic lamprophyre dikes of which a spessartitic lapilli tuff N-NE oriented is the main occurrence. Gamma spectrometric and gravimetric data for the lapilli tuff allowed definition of its occurrence as a dike elongated N-S, bearing low values for gamma spectrometry and a strong negative gravimetric anomaly approximately 450 m long and 70 m wide. Two-dimensional modeling of this anomaly suggests that the dike is subvertical to vertical. Magnetometry did not provide significant data regarding the lamprophyre but did show a normal dipolar anomaly to the west, suggesting the presence of a non-outcropping cylindrical intrusion in the area.
  • Microtextural, spectroscopic, and chemical characterization of amazonite from the Serra Branca Pegmatite, Northeastern Brazil Article

    Santos, Glenda Lira; Barreto, Sandra de Brito; Souza, Igor Manoel Belo de Albuquerque e; Araújo Neto, José Ferreira de; Sanchéz-Muñoz, Luis; Santos, Lauro Cézar Montefalco de Lira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Serra Branca pegmatite in northeastern Brazil is unique because of its megacrysts of bluish-green amazonite currently exploited for ornamental purposes and as high-quality gemstones. Here we analyze microtextural, spectroscopic, and geochemical data on specimens from two magmatic generations of amazonite from this pegmatite in order to characterize their mineralogy and propose a schematic evolution diagram for twinning during their development. The amazonite consists of intergrowths of the low microcline and low albite XRD varieties that evolved according to a twin coarsening process, in which the first generation (I-tg) of ± A/P twinning developed at the monoclinic-triclinic transformation, whereas the second generation (II-tg) gave rise mainly to ± A twins. The bluish-green color of the amazonite was preserved during the process of microcline twinning. In addition to the irrational II-tg twinning, which is typically found in microcline from anorogenic settings, the serra branca amazonite crystals also show elevated contents of Rb, Pb, Fe, Cs, and Tl in both generations, whereas albitic intergrowths present high concentrations of Fe, Pb, Sr, and Ga. Finally, our chemical and spectroscopic results are compatible with the hypothesis that Pb-water centers account for the bluish green color in amazonite.
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