Bone mineral density and vitamin D concentration: the challenges in taking care of children and adolescents infected with HIV

Fabiana Bononi Carmo Maria Teresa Terreri Regina Célia de Menezes Succi Suenia Vasconcelos Beltrão Aida de Fátima Tomé Barbosa Gouvea Erica Regina Cruz Paulino Daisy Maria Machado About the authors

ABSTRACT

Background:

The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease.

Objectives:

To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval.

Methods:

A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy. Demographic, anthropometric, pubertal stage, viral load, T CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. Biochemical tests and total body (TB) and lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone density evaluations by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. Calcium or vitamin D supplements were prescribed if reduction in BMD or deficiency for vitamin D was detected.

Results:

58 patients (ages 5.4-18.3 years; 60.3% girls) were included (T0); 55 patients were reevaluated after 12 (±3) months (T1). Low bone mass for chronological age was found in 6/58 (10.4%) and 6/55(10.9%) patients at T0 and at T1, respectively. There was no statistical relationship between z-scores for BMD (BMD z-score) and the variables sex, fracture history, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity and pubertal stage. There was a relation between BMD z-score alterations for TB and HIV viral load at T1 (p = 0.016). There was no association between duration or classes of antiretroviral therapy and bone density. The mean value of vitamin D in T0 was 23.43 ng/mL ± 2.015 and in T1 22.1 ng/mL ± 0.707 and considered insufficient levels for this population.

Conclusion:

Patients infected with HIV are at risk for BMD alterations and lower vitamin D serum concentrations; both of these variables should be evaluated at routine examinations in order to improve both prevention and therapeutic planning.

Keywords:
HIV; Antiretroviral; Infant; Diagnosis; Metabolism; Bone

Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Rua Augusto Viana, SN, 6º., 40110-060 Salvador - Bahia - Brazil, Telefax: (55 71) 3283-8172, Fax: (55 71) 3247-2756 - Salvador - BA - Brazil
E-mail: bjid@bjid.org.br