Abstract in English:Multiple organ failure (MOF) is the main cause of death in ICUs, especially affecting septic patients. It is strongly related to number of systems with failure, type of system involved, risk factors such as age, previous chronic diseases, delayed or inadequate resuscitation, persistent infection, immune suppression, and others. The prognoses is worse for patients rather than in elective or emergency surgical patients. The objective of this article is to provide data from our university teaching hospital ICU related to the incidence of septic patients, the distribution of MOF, and distribution of failure among each of the organs. The mortality rate, relationship between mortality and age, and mortality and types of organs affected were evaluated. The main bacterial causes of sepsis were also identified. A retrospective evaluation was done of 249 patients admitted to the ICU in a 4 month period during 1999. Fifty four patients had sepsis diagnosed by ACCS/SCCM criteria. There were 37 men and 17 women; 24 medical and 30 post-surgical patients (9 after elective surgery and 21 emergency patients). APACHE II score was calculated on admission and MOF, measured for the first five days, was diagnosed using Marshall and Meakins criteria. The statistical method used was non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05 was considered significant. The incidence of sepsis was recorded in 54/249 patients (22%). Thirty of these 54 patients (56%) died. Death occurred in 2 of 11 pateints with one organ failure (18%), in 14/27 with 2 or 3 organ failures (52%), and 14/16 with 4 or more organ failures (88%). None of the three patients 15 to 20 years old died, 17/32 (55%) pateints age 21-60 years, and >61 years 13/19 (68%), died. There were 23 patients with positive bacterial culture. The most frequent bacteria found were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), multiresistant Acinetobacter baumanii (3), Staphylococcus epidermidis (3), Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2) and multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (2). The mean value ± SD of APACHE II (mortality risk) for survivors was 21 ± 18 and for non-survivors 42 ± 26 (p<0.001). We conclude that MOF due to sepsis in an ICU is frequent, with high mortality related to the number of failing organs, age and high APACHE II.
Abstract in English:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes infectious hepatitis worldwide. It is transmitted mainly by blood products and sharing of intravenous paraphernalia during illicit drug use. High prevalence rates have been described among specific groups considered to be at higher risk for HCV infection, including prison inmates. The objectives of this study were: to determine the HCV seroprevalence among inmates of Casa de Detenção de São Paulo; to identify risk factors for HCV infection; and to compare the seroprevalence of HCV to other blood borne or sexually transmitted diseases. From December, 1993, to January, 1994, a total of 779 inmates were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, and past experience with illicit drugs. Blood samples were obtained from 756 inmates for serological tests. 310 (41%) blood samples were positive for anti-HCV, 425 (56.2%) were negative, and 21 (2.8%) showed indeterminate results. In this population, we found a seroprevalence of 13.7% for HIV, 3.3% for syphilis (VDRL), and 68.1% for hepatitis B virus previous infection. Four variables were each identified as associated with a positive anti-HCV serologic test: a positive VDRL (OR = 2.63 IC 95% 1.08 to 6.36); a time of current imprisonment longer than 130 months (OR = 2.44 IC 95% 1.04 to 5.71); previous incarceration at Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.73 IC 95% 1.19 to 2.52) and; illicit drug use before admission to the Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.64 IC 95% 1.15 to 2.33). The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies among the study population was high (41%), indeed, one of the highest clusters of HCV infection recorded until now. Four variables were each shown to be associated with HCV infection. The simultaneous presence of these 4 variables is associated with an 82% probability of being anti-HCV positive. Although risk factor analysis indicates most HCV infections occur prior to inprisonment, initiation of control measures to prevent continued transmission after incarceration should be done.
Abstract in English:Human strongyloidiasis is an important health problem in the southeast region of Peruvian Amazon, due to its prevalence and long term morbidity. An epidemiological study was conducted in the Peruvian Amazon area of Puerto Maldonado to determine the prevalence of strongyloidiasis in the population. Stool samples were collected from 1,133 patients at the outpatient department of our clinic. Strongyloidiasis affected 221 examined patients (20%). Prevalence was highest in males, mostly in children and elderly men. People living in urban and marginal urban areas, those coming from outside the region, and Andean people, showed the highest prevalences. Pre-school children were more likely to be parasitized than older children. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (55%), abdominal pain (32%) and cough (53%). One in 7 (13%) affected patients presented with moderate or severe symptoms, including life-threatening complications. Other intestinal parasites were found frequently in patients diagnosed with strongyloidiasis. Improved human waste disposal services are considered to be the main requirement to reduce the high prevalence of this disease.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of meropenem as first choice treatment for nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in intensive care units (ICU) in Hospital das Clínicas (HC) - University of São Paulo; a hospital with high incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Prospective, open, and non-comparative trial with meropenem were done in patients with ventilator-associated or aspiration NP in 2 ICUs at HC - University of São Paulo. Etiologic investigation was done through bronchoalveolar lavage and blood cultures prior to study entry. Twenty-five (25) critically ill patients with NP were enrolled (mean age 40 years). Ventilator-acquired pneumonia was responsible for 76% of cases and aspiration NP for 24%. Specific etiologic agents were identified and considered to be clinically and temporally responsible for NP in 11 (44%) patients. A. baumanii was responsible for 6 cases (55%), P. aeruginosa for 3 (27%), and S. aureus for 2 (18%). At completion of treatment, 19 patients (76%) showed either cure (48%) or improvement (28%) after use of meropenem therapy. Mortality was 12% at the end of therapy (8% after excluding 1 non-evaluable patient). After 4 to 6 weeks of follow-up, 12 (48%) patients had improved or been totally cured, and overall mortality was 24%. Clinical complications were observed in 11 patients (44%), with none of them definitely related to the study drug. Meropenem as monotherapy was effective and well-tolerated in most NP patients in our ICU. The low mortality rate in this study might have been due to first choice use of this drug. Controlled, drug comparative clinical trials are needed to support this preliminary observation.
Abstract in English:Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside used in Japan for treating infections caused by gentamicin and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin against 454 clinical isolates of ORSA. The isolates were consecutively collected between January and July, 2000, from patients hospitalized in 8 Brazilian medical centers. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to NCCLS recommendations. The vast majority of the isolates, 453 strains (99.8%), were considered susceptible to arbekacin based on the criteria proposed by the Requirements for Antibiotic Products of Japan. Only 1 isolate (0.2%) was classified as resistant. On the other hand, high rates of resistance were demonstrated for other aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin (97.6% resistance) and amikacin (97.0% resistance). Resistance rate was also high for ciprofloxacin (98.0%). All isolates were considered susceptible to vancomycin. The excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of arbekacin demonstrated in this study indicates that this antimicrobial agent may play an important role in the treatment of severe ORSA infections, especially those that show poor clinical response with vancomycin monotherapy. Since the aminoglycosides should not be used as monotherapy to treat Gram positive infections, further studies evaluating in vitro and in vivo synergistic activity of arbekacin combinations are necessary to clarify the clinical role of this aminoglycoside.
Abstract in English:Bacterial infection is a frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, mainly during the advanced stages. There is evidence that the main factors that contribute to a predisposition to infection in cirrhotic patients are related to hepatic failure with consequent immunodeficiency. Invasive procedures (diagnostic or therapeutic) can predispose to bacterial infections, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) is considered a potentially important risk factor. A group of cirrhotic patients (child B and C Pugh groups ) were evaluated retrospectively by chart reviews regarding the prevalence of bacterial infection during hospitalization to determine whether UGB was a risk factor. An infection was considered present if a specific organ system was identified or if fever (>38ºC) persisted for more than 24 hours with associated leukocytosis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was based on classical criteria. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated. Fourty-six patients presented with UGB, and 43 patients had no UGB (control). There were infections recorded in 25/46 (54%) patients with UGB, and 15/43 (35%) in those without UGB (p=0.065). The ratio of the number of infections/admitted patients, was significantly larger in the group with UGB (0.78 ± 0.89 vs. 0.39 ± 0.62; p=0.028) since patients had more than one infection. In the UGB group compared to non UGB group, ascites was more frequent (67% vs. 42%; p=0.027); they were more likely to have undergone endoscopic procedures (p<0.001) and the mean ± SD for platelets count was smaller (96,114 ± 57,563 vs. 145,674 ± 104,083; p=0.007). The results show that UGB is an important contribution to bacterial infection among Child B and C cirrhotic patients.
Abstract in English:Determining the profile of antigen expression among meningococci is important for epidemiologic surveillance and vaccine development. To this end, two new mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been derived against Neisseria meningitidis proteins (class 5). The MAbs were reactive against outer membrane antigens and were bactericidal. Selected anti-class 5 MAbs [(5.1)-3E6-2; (5.3)-3BH4-C7; (5.4)-1BG11-C7; (5.5)-3DH-F5G9 also 5F1F4-T3(5.c)], and the two new monoclonal antibodies C14F10Br2 (5.8) and 7F11B5Br3 (5.9), were then tested against different meningococcal strains, (63 strains of serogroup A, 60 strains of serogroup C (from 1972 to 1974); and 136 strains of serogroup B (from 1992) meningococci). Our results demonstrated that the expression of class 5 proteins in the N. meningitidis B Brazilian strains studied is highly heterogeneous. The serotypes and subtypes of B:4:P1.15, B:4:P1.9, B:4:P1.7, B:4:P1.3, B:4:P1.14, B:4:P1.16, B:4:NT, and B:NT:NT were detected in N. meningitidis B serogroups.The strains C:2a:P1.2 and A:4.21:P1.9 were dominant in the C and A serogroups, respectively. Serogroup B organisms expressed the class 5 epitopes 5.4 (18%), 5.5 (22%), 5.8 (3.6%), 5.9 (8.0%) and 5c (38%). Serogroup C expressed class 5 epitopes 5.1 (81%), 5.4 (35%), 5.5 (33%) and 5.9 (5.0%); and serogroup A showed reactivity directed at the class 5 protein 5c (47%); and reactivity was present with the new monoclonal antibody, 5.9 (5.5%). We conclude that the two new MAbs are useful in detecting important group B, class 5 antigens, and that a broad selection of serogroup B, class 5 proteins would be required for an effective vaccine based on the class 5 proteins.
Abstract in English:This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having HIV infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be HIV negative. The patient arrived at the hospital with fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, pallor, and arthralgia. In addition, he was jaundiced and had cervical lymphadenopathy and mild heptosplenomegaly. He had interstitial infiltrates of the lung, sputum smears positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis carinii, and stool tests were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni. He was diagnosed as having AIDS, and was treated for tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, and strongyloidiasis with a good response. The patient did not receive anti-retroviral therapy, pending outcome of the HIV tests. A month later, he was re-examined and found to have worsening hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, fever, and continued weight loss. At this time, it was determined that his HIV ELISA antibody tests were negative. A bone marrow aspirate was done and revealed amastigotes of leishmania, and a bone marrow culture was positive for Leishmania species. He was treated with pentavalent antimony, 20 mg daily for 20 days, with complete remission of symptoms and weight gain. This case demonstrates that immunosuppression from leishmaniasis and tuberculosis may lead to pneumocystosis, and be misdiagnosed as HIV infection. The occurrence of opportunistic infections in severely ill patients without HIV must always be considered and alternate causes of immunosuppression sought.