Abstract in English:Linezolid was the first clinically applied member of the new antimicrobial class called the "oxazolidinones". These agents have a powerful spectrum of activity focussed against Gram-positive organisms including strains with documented resistances to other antimicrobial classes. We conducted a multicenter surveillance (Zyvox Antimicrobial Potency Study; ZAPS) trial of qualifying Gram-positive isolates from 24 medical centers in eight countries in Latin America. The activity and spectrum of linezolid was compared to numerous agents including glycopeptides, quinupristin/dalfopristin, b-lactams and fluoroquinolones when testing 2,640 strains by the standardized disk diffusion method or Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). The linezolid spectrum was complete against staphylococci (median zone diameter, 29 - 32 mm), as was the spectrum of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Among the enterococci, no linezolid resistance was detected, and the susceptibility rate was 93.1 - 96.4%. Only the vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium strains remained susceptible (92.8%) to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Marked differences in the glycopeptide resistance patterns (van A versus van B) were noted for the 22 isolates of VRE, thus requiring local susceptibility testing to direct therapy. Streptococcus pneumoniae and other species were very susceptible (100.0%) to linezolid, MIC90 at 0.75 mug/ml. Penicillin non-susceptible rate was 27.7% and erythromycin resistance was at 17.4%. Other streptococci were also completely susceptible to linezolid (MIC90, 1 mug/ml). These results provide the initial benchmark of potency and spectrum for linezolid in Latin American medical centers. Future comparisons should recognize that the oxazolidinones possess essentially a complete spectrum coverage of the monitored staphylococci, enterococci and streptococcal isolates in 2000-2001. This positions linezolid as the widest spectrum empiric choice against multi-resistant Gram-positive cocci, a spectrum of activity greater than available glycopeptides and the streptogramin combination.
Abstract in English:The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.
Abstract in English:The increasing magnitude of antifungal resistance as well as the advent of new antifungal drugs has generated a renewed interest in fungal susceptibility testing. We used a previously described disk diffusion method to evaluate the susceptibility profile of a large collection of recent clinical Candida spp. isolates against fluconazole. A total of 1,784 yeast isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (1,036), C. tropicalis (279), C. parapsilosis (202), C. glabrata (119), C. guilliermondii (90), C. krusei (32), C. lusitaniae (7), Candida spp. (14) and other yeasts (5). Susceptibility ranking to fluconazole obtained with all yeasts tested was: C. parapsilosis <FONT FACE=Symbol>@</FONT> C. tropicalis <FONT FACE=Symbol>@</FONT> C. guilliermondii > C. glabrata > C. krusei. The majority (94%) of all yeast isolates tested were susceptible to fluconazole. Isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei exhibited the highest rate of DDS/resistance among all isolates tested but they represented only 9% of all yeasts routinely sent to our lab. Careful periodical surveillance is needed in order to identify any changes in the susceptibility patterns of fluconazole with the increased use of this antifungal agent in Brazilian tertiary care hospitals.
Abstract in English:Problems with resistance to antifungal drugs have emerged due to an increase in the incidence of systemic fungal infections and widespread use of antifungal agents. Accordingly, efforts have been made to develop adequate fungal susceptibility tests. The ideal test should have high intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility, good correlation with the clinical outcome, and should be easy to perform. While no such test has yet been developed, advances have been made. Over the past decade, many reports of fungal resistance have been published, most of them in AIDS patients. Though the frequency of resistant strains is still low in neutropenic cancer patients, and is mostly limited to Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, resistance to Candida albicans has also been reported.
Abstract in English:HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%). Twenty (7.5%) women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33%) by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24%) harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100) were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.
Abstract in English:Leptospirosis may have important complications, such as acute respiratory failure (ARF) associated or not with other organic dysfunction, with a high mortality rate. We report the characteristics and evolution of severe leptospirosis associated with ARF. During 10 years, 35 consecutive adult patients admitted in two general Intensive Care Units with severe leptospirosis and ARF, were followed up. Clinical characteristics, associated organic dysfunction and mortality were analyzed. Survivors were compared with non-survivors. The most frequent clinical manifestations were dyspnea, fever, myalgia, jaundice, hemoptysis and coughing. All patients presented ARF, needing mechanical ventilation, as well as other organic dysfunctions. The mortality rate was 51%. Non-survivors were older and had a higher incidence of organic dysfunction, mainly renal, cardiovascular and neurological failures, as well as a higher level of acidosis. In conclusion, leptospirosis should be considered as a cause of severe ARF and other associated organic dysfunctions.
Abstract in English:The first case of AIDS due to occupational exposure in Brazil is described. The accident occurred in 1994 and the health care worker was classified as AIDS-positive with unidentified risk in 1997. The correct classification as occupational exposure occurred after an epidemiological investigation conducted in 1999.
Abstract in English:Although treatment of children infected with HIV with protease inhibitors has improved the survival of these patients, various adverse side effects have been reported, including metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia. We describe a case of hip osteonecrosis in an adolescent with AIDS who was being treated with protease inhibitors. There is a possible relation with hyperlipidemia. F.M.G., white, 11 years old, AIDS A2, started to receive AZT and DDI when he was 7 years old. In April 1999, the patient had a significant increase in viral load and so the antiretroviral therapy was switched to d4T, 3TC and Ritonavir. Triglyceride plasma levels reached 460mg/dl after this switch and were always above the reference value. In December 1999, the patient complained of pain in the right hip. On physical examination, he had limited movement of this joint. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right hip showed flattening, deformity and fragmentation of the femoral head, compatible with osteonecrosis. Few cases of femoral head osteonecrosis have been associated with HIV infection, in the absence of the classic risk factors for osteonecrosis. Metabolic risk factors include hypertriglyceridaemia. The immunological disorders that occur in the HIV infection may predispose the patient to avascular osteonecrosis and metabolic disorders, particularly hypertriglyceridemia, while the use of protease inhibitors, may be considered an additional risk factor for osteonecrosis. Given the importance of premature diagnosis and to avoid complications of osteonecrosis, we recommend evaluation of musculoskeletal symptoms in children receiving protease inhibitors.
Abstract in English:Lower respiratory tract infections by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are frequent in childhood. Association of RSV with bronchiolitis obliterans has rarely been established. We report a 13-month-old child with bronchiolitis obliterans following co-infection by RSV and adenovirus, and suggest that complicated evolution of an acute bronchiolitis case can indicate an association of pathogens.