Abstract in English:We analyzed 87 cervical samples from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, with a PGMY/GP+ nested PCR system. Positive samples were typed using E7 type-specific primer pairs for HPV 6/11, 16, 18, 45 and 66. Eighteen samples (22%) were infected with HPV6/11, 18 samples (22%) with HPV66, 13 samples (15.9%) with HPV45, 8 samples (9.8%) with HPV18 and 7 samples (8.5%) with HPV16. Seventeen samples (20.7%) were infected by two HPV types, and five samples (6.1%) by three HPV types. We conclude that infection with multiple types is present at a high frequency in our population and that there is a relation between some types and cytological finds.
Abstract in English:Combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is considered the new standard therapy for naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with weight-based peginterferon alpha-2b (1.5 mg/kg per week) plus ribavirin (800-1,200 mg/day) for 48 weeks in naïve, relapser and non-responder (to previous treatment with interferon plus ribavirin) patients with chronic hepatitis C. Sixty-seven naïve, 26 relapser and 40 non-responder patients were enrolled. The overall sustained virological response (SVR) for the intention-to-treat population was 54% for naïve, 62% for relapser and 38% for non-responder patients. In the naïve subgroup, SVR was significantly higher in patients with the non-1 genotype (67%) compared to those with genotype 1 (45%). In relapsers and non-responders, SVR was, respectively, 69% and 24% in patients with genotype 1 and 43% and 73% in those with genotype non-1. There were no significant differences in SVR rates among the three body weight ranges (< 65 kg, 65-85 kg and > 85 kg) in any of the subgroups. Early virological response (EVR) was reached by 78%, 81% and 58% of naïve, relapser and non-responder patients, respectively, and among those with EVR, 63%, 67% and 61%, respectively, subsequently achieved SVR. All of the non-responder patients who did not have EVR reached SVR. Treatment was discontinued in 13% of the patients, due to loss to follow-up, hematological abnormalities or depression.
Abstract in English:In the village of Cavunge, located in a dry tropical, semiarid rural region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, a sentinel study on viral hepatitis is underway. We report on the first part of the study. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C in the village. Cross sectional study. Blood samples were tested for serological markers of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) through ELISA-III assay. In HBsAg and anti-HCV carriers, HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were checked by PCR. The prevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 83.3% (1,210/1,452), being higher among residents from the village (87.4%) than in residents from the rural area (79.5%); it also higher among individuals older than 10 years of age. The prevalence of HBsAg was 2.6% (38/1,476), 9.3% anti-HBc (137/1,476) and 10.5% (155/1,476) anti-HBs of. In more than half (58.1%; 90/155) of anti-HBs carriers, this was the only serological marker found. In 3.7% of the population, (55/1,476), anti-HBc was the only serological marker found. All HBV carriers were infected by genotype A. Only 0.4% (6/1,536) presented anti-HCV antibodies and only one of them was viremic, being infected with genotype 1. The prevalence of patients with antibodies against hepatitis A virus in the village of Cavunge was high, but the prevalence of B virus was moderate, with only genotype A among HBV carriers. The prevalence of C virus was very low, contrasting with the situation in large Brazilian urban centers.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the degree of neurological compromise in HIV-infected children accompanied by the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases and pediatric neurology of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR) starting in 1995. Long-term progressive prospective and cross sectional study of 88 children infected by HIV and 84 seroreverter children, using data from general neurological examinations, neuroimaging procedures (brain CT scan) and neurodevelopmental tests (CAT/CLAMS and DENVER I and II). Neurological and neurodevelopmental alterations were found in 82% of the HIV-infected patients and in 36% of the HIV-seroreverter group (P <0.01). In the CAT/CLAMS test, the development quotient (DQ) of the HIV-infected group was significantly lower than that of the HIV-seroreverter group. CAT/CLAMS scores lower than 70 (mental deficiency) were found in 31% of the HIV-infected patients during the first year of life and in only 1% of the patients of the HIV-seroreverter group, demonstrating the validity of this screening test for precocious detection of alterations in the neurodevelopment of infected patients. The same occurred with the Denver I and II tests, as the HIV-infected group failed more frequently than the HIV-seroreverter group. Nine HIV-infected children presented altered brain CT scans; calcification of basal ganglia was the main finding (five cases). Encephalopathy due to HIV causes early arrest of neurodevelopment, which can be detected with screening tests during the first year of life.
Abstract in English:Twelve cases of histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients were found in a retrospective analysis at the Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (HUCAM), Vitória (ES), from June 1999 to May 2001. The frequency of histoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients was 2.1% in the infectious diseases division of the hospital during this period. Histoplasmosis compromised mainly males (11/12), 27 to 44 years old, and residents of the metropolitan urban area (10/12). Alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking were described in 10 of the 12 patients. For all patients, this was the first opportunistic infection. Two of the 12 patients died; 10 patients had disseminated disease, one patient had an intestinal presentation and one had disease restricted to the lungs. The most frequent clinical manifestations were weight loss, fever, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, coughing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Six of the 12 patients had skin lesions. Time of symptoms preceding the diagnosis varied from two months to one year. CD4 counts were below 200 cells/mm³ in 9 of 10 patients. Diagnosis was made by histology in two thirds of the patients. The typical adult patient with HIV infection and histoplasmosis in our series was male, had a CD4 count below 200 cells/mm³, had fever, weight loss, cough, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly in the last two months or more, had a high probability of alcohol and tobacco addiction, was having his first opportunistic infection, and had no identifiable environmental exposure risk.
Abstract in English:Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most prevalent sexually-transmitted virus worldwide. It is known to be the etiological agent of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Recently developed, the second generation of the hybrid capture test (HCA II) is a non-radioactive, relatively rapid, hybridization assay, designed to detect 18 HPV types divided into high and low-risk groups. We evaluated 7,314 patients (5,833 women and 1,481 men) for HPV infection by HCA II. Among them, 3,008 (41.1%) presented HPV infection: 430 (14.2%) had HPV DNA of low risk for cancer, 1,631 (54.2%) had high risk HPV types and 947 (31.5%) had both types. The prevalence in females was 44.9%. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the group for which cytological results were available was slightly higher: 55.3% (1007/1824). Significant differences were detected in the frequency of HPV infection of the cervix between normal cases and those with high-grade squamous-intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)(P<0.0001). Among males, the prevalence was 26.2%, composed of 9.1% in Group A, 9.7% in Group B and 7.4% with multiple infections. We observed that male prevalence was lower and that low-risk types were more frequent than in females. HPV viral load was significantly greater in SILs than in normal or inflammatory cases (P<0.0001), suggesting an association between high viral load values and risk of SIL. Because of high costs, the HCA II test cannot be recommended for routine mass screening for cervical infection in poor countries. Nevertheless, it was found to be a useful tool, when combined with cytology, discovering high-risk infections in apparently normal tissues and revealing silent infections that may be responsible for the maintenance of HPV in the general population. These findings point to the need for close and careful management of patients, thereby reducing overtreatment, allowing analysis of both sexual partners and finally contributing to the control of genital infections associated with a risk for cancer.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the effectiveness of Papanicolaou staining for the initial diagnosis of Chlamydial infection in pregnant women. A hundred thirteen patients were examined with a Papanicolaou test, independent of gestational age, parity or maternal age. Three endocervical samples were collected; the first two were collected with a brush (Cytobrush plus, Mediscand, Sweden) and the third with Ayre's spatula. The first specimen was used for McCoy cell culture and the other two were examined cytologically. Chlamydial infection was detected in 9 (7.9%) patients. Only one (0.8%) was diagnosed by cytological exam. The sensitivity and specificity of the cytological examination were 10 and 98%, respectively. The estimated positive predictive value was 33.3% and the negative predictive value was 92.7%. When Papanicolaou stain diagnosis suggests Chlamydia, a more specific complementary exam should be added to confirm infection; subsequently adequate treatment can be implemented, thereby preventing the frequent complications of untreated subclinical infections.
Abstract in English:Rapid diagnosis of rabies in suspected human cases influences post-exposure prophylaxis for potential contacts of the patient and ensures appropriate patient management. Apart from the central nervous system (CNS), rabies virus (RABV) is usually present in small sensory nerves adjacent to hair follicles of infected humans. We used an RT-PCR, with primers targeted to the 3' terminal portion of the nucleoprotein gene (N), to test neck-skin samples of nine patients who had rabies in order to validate a diagnostic method that could serve as an additional tool for rabies diagnosis, particularly in antemortem samples. Six of eight postmortem samples were found to be positive for rabies by RT-PCR, and one of two samples collected antemortem was positive with this same technique. Results were confirmed by DNA sequencing; this validates RT-PCR and neck-skin as a suitable technique and type of sample, respectively, for use in the diagnosis of human rabies. RT-PCR applied to neck-skin biopsies could allow early diagnosis and lead to more effective rabies treatment.
Abstract in English:The cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to abiotic and cellular surfaces was tested in five clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from catheter tips. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains were also studied. Hydrophobicity was characterized by a test for affinity to xylene. Adhesion to abiotic surfaces (polystyrene, formica, latex and glass) was evaluated in Petri plates using the stamp technique. Buccal epithelial cells were used for tests of adhesion to cellular surfaces. Adhesion to the catheter was evaluated by repeatedly rinsing the catheters and rolling them over nutrient agar. Molecular typing of the strains was done by the ERIC-PCR technique. The degree of hydrophobicity of the strains varied from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. All the strains adhered to the cell surfaces and to the catheters, and three of them strongly adhered to latex, polystyrene and formica. Catheter adhesion was reduced by meropenem. We found a direct relationship between the degree of bacterial hydrophobicity and adhesion to the abiotic surfaces, but not with adhesion to cellular surfaces, which suggests that different mechanisms are involved in adherence.
Abstract in English:We compared BacT/Alert 3D with conventional culture for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated. Automation was superior in terms of recovery and time to detect pathogens. The bacterial spectrum in CAP was Streptococcus pneumoniae (35.3%) Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.5%) and Haemophilus influenzae (8.8%). Three of the 12 S. pneumoniae isolates showed penicillin resistance on MIC and two showed erythromycin resistance. There were two H. influenzae strains resistant to penicillin; these were beta lactamase producers. One-fourth of the S. aureus were oxacillin resistant. All isolates were sensitive to cefepime by disc diffusion and MIC methods. In the treatment of CAP, cefotaxime and cefepime are useful drugs when given as empirical therapy against multidrug resistant strains. The use of automation is vital in CAP, as rapid diagnosis and effective therapy can reduce mortality.
Abstract in English:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the main causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections worldwide. We examined the incidence and associated risks for RSV infection in infants hospitalized in two university hospitals in the state of São Paulo. We made a prospective cohort study involving 152 infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in two university hospitals in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between April and September 2004. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained at admission. RSV was detected by direct immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal secretions. Factors associated with RSV infection were assessed by calculating the relative risk (RR). The incidence of RSV infection was 17.5%. Risk factors associated with infection were: gestational age less than 35 weeks (RR: 4.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.21-7.87); birth weight less than or equal to 2,500 grams (RR: 2.69; 95% CI 1.34-5.37); mother's educational level less than five years of schooling (RR: 2.28; 95% CI 1.13-4.59) and pulse oximetry at admission to hospital lower than 90% (RR: 2.19; 95% CI 1.10-4.37). Low birth weight and prematurity are factors associated with respiratory disease due to RSV in infants. Low educational level of the mother and poor socioeconomic conditions also constitute risk factors. Hypoxemia in RSV infections at admission indicates potential severity and a need for early oxygen therapy.
Abstract in English:Hydatid cysts may be found in almost any part of the body, but most often they are found in the liver and lungs. Other organs that are occasionally affected include the brain, muscle, kidney, heart, pancreas, and adrenal and thyroid glands. We report a case of hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland.
Abstract in English:Localized hepatic tuberculosis is a rare clinical form of tuberculosis infection; it has signs and symptoms related only to hepatic injury, with minimal or no extrahepatic involvement. It frequently presents as a non-specific syndrome, with systemic manifestations, which can sometimes result in a diagnostic dilemma. A high index of suspicion is required and a definitive diagnosis can be very difficult. We report a case of localized hepatic tuberculosis that presented as fever of unknown origin.
Abstract in English:Congenital tubercolosis is an unusual and severe clinical pattern of tuberculosis presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Furthermore, it usually has a difficult treatment. We report a two-month-old male infant who presented with fever, dyspnea and a diffuse micronodular pattern at x-ray; mother with severe tuberculosis. Treatment with the triple drug regimen was initiated, but the child developed jaundice and an increase in liver enzymes on various occasions during treatment. A regimen specifically developed for cases of intolerance was initiated but there was no improvement in hyperthermia. Finally, the dose of INH and RMP was increased, the fever receded and the child was cured. This case remarks difficulties on diagnosis and therapeutic management about this important severe disease in public health, and alert for development of protocols that foresee these difficulties.