Abstract in English:Recurrent infections are a consequence of a series of genetic diseases characterized by deficiency in the immunological response. One of these diseases is the agammaglobulinemia, which is characterized by the basic defect in the maturation of lymphocytes B. The carrier of this kind of immunodeficiency, which is linked to the X (XLA) chromosome, has had primary pneumonias that have evolved into secondary pneumonias (chronic lungs with sequelae) after the third or fourth year of life. The clinical and rehabilitative quest for prophylaxis against the XLA immunodeficiency is accomplished in order to avoid the evolution of the bacterial infection into sequelae and loss of pulmonary function, which propitiates the recurrence of the disease and deteriorates the life quality of the patient. Forty cases of recurrent respiratory infections were studied. Some of them were associated with primary respiratory diseases without investigation of serum immunoglobulins and some were not. Casuistics was performed according to data from medical records with pertinent treatments collected from January 1997 to September 2004 at the Specialized Physiotherapy Center. Age average was 2.7 years of life. It is statistically impossible to precise results concerning only the immunosuppressed patients due to the lack of specific diagnosis. That is explained by the fact that recurrent XLA pneumonias may be attributed to the gastroesophageal reflux disease or to bronchial asthma. However, the improved results showed by the pulmonary function as preventive strategy were attributed to the respiratory physiotherapy, since intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapies were not performed. Respiratory physiotherapy acts as a supportive factor in the healing process and occupies a fundamental role in the prophylaxis against recurrent respiratory clinical features, especially those of obstructive and secretionary characteristics.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the prevalence of HBV infection in a population of South American immigrants in Italy and to determine in patients with detectable serum HBV-DNA the HBVgenotypes. Between April 2005 and April 2006 a total of 130 South American immigrants were tested for HBsAg. In HBsAg positive patients the biochemical and virological activity of infection and the possible presence of co-infections (HCV, HDV, HIV) were evaluated. In patients with detectable serum HBV DNA, the HBV genotype was determined by INNOLiPA. Among the 130 subjects tested, 14 (10.7%) resulted HBsAg positive. All were men, with a mean age of 22 years (range 19-37) and 12 (85.7 %) came from Brazil, while 2 (14.3%) came from Ecuador. All patients infected by HBV had elevated alanine-aminotransferase serum levels (mean level was 127 IU/L, range 74-312) and serum HBV DNA detectable by PCR-Real Time (mean level 1,037,652 copies/mL, range 19,876-1,377,648). Genotype distribution was as follow: genotype D, 9 (64.2%), genotype A, 5 (35.8%). All patients infected by genotype D came from Brazil, while among the patients infected by genotype A, three came from Brazil and two from Ecuador. Our study evidences a moderate prevalence of HBV-infection in South American immigrants with the identification of two genotypes, D and A. These genotypes are not the most prevalent in the South America and this is probably the expression of a possible geographical redistribution of HBV genotypes.
Abstract in English:This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18), infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22) and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12). Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.
Abstract in English:The idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDMC) is a disease of the cardiac muscle characterized by systolic dilation and/or dysfunction of one or both ventricles, symptoms of congestive heart failure and risk of early death. Several studies in animal models and in humans have supported the hypothesis of the viral infection as initial event in the immunopathogenesis of the ventricular dilation. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of hepatitis C virus chronic infection and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, comparing samples of cases with IDCM with paired controls with Chagas-type specific dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic-type specific dilated cardiomyopathy. Only 2.9% (1/34) of IDCM patients were HCV carriers, which strongly argue against this hypothesis. Therefore, based on our results, there is no justification for investigating HCV in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy diagnosis.
Abstract in English:S. pneumoniae is a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly, and accounts for the majority of the pneumonia deaths among the elderly. We conducted this randomized double-blind study to evaluate the immune response to a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the persistence of antibodies two years after the vaccination in an elderly population in Santiago, Chile. A total of 118 elderly nursing home residents received either the pneumococcal or a tetanus control vaccine. Serum samples were taken at enrolment, at two months, and at two years post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination anti-pneumococcal antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were similar in both study groups, with increased levels of antibodies found only against serotype 14. The pneumococcal vaccine was highly immunogenic at 2 months, and titers remained high two years after the vaccination for the 10 serotypes studied in this elderly population. The results thus support the benefits of this pneumococcal vaccine in this elderly population who are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease.
Abstract in English:Parvovirus B19 has a marked tropism for erythroid progenitor cells. This may lead to chronic anemia in predisposed individuals. The purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency of parvovirus B19 infections in patients with diagnosis of haematological disorders. In order to determine the diagnostic use of different markers of parvovirus B19 infection, serum specimens obtained from 79 patients with haematological disorders were tested for specific antibodies and viral DNA through the use of ELISA and PCR techniques. Evidence of parvovirus B19 infection was found in 23/79 (29.1%) patients by demonstrating viral DNA and/or specific IgM antibody. B19 infection was established in 3 of 11 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, in 3 of 11 acute myeloid leukemia, in 2 of 11 patients with multiple myeloma, in 3 of 8 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, in 5 of 10 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, in 1 of 6 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, in 4 of 11 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and in 2 of 11 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. In 4 of 23 positive patients, only parvovirus B19 DNA could be detected, while 7 patients were tested positive for both parvovirus B19 DNA and specific IgM. Nine patients were tested positive for both B19 DNA and specific IgG. In the remaining 3 positive patients only specific IgM could be detected. Due to the discrepancies between DNA and IgM results, the diagnostic procedures should include a search for specific DNA by PCR methods if specific IgM has been found to be negative.
Abstract in English:Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, particularly multiresistance, is a crucial issue in the control of tuberculosis (TB). This study estimated the prevalence of primary and acquired anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from hospitalized patients, to identify the risk factors for resistance, and to evaluate the its impact on hospital mortality for tuberculosis. Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 217 patients hospitalized for TB were analyzed. Subjects were recruited sequentially at a TB reference hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil from July 2001 to July 2003. Multiresistant (MR) strains were defined as strains resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. Of a total of 217 strains isolated, 41 (19.0%, 95%CI: 14.1-24.5%) were resistant to at least one drug. Prevalence of primary resistance was 7.0% (10/145), while a prevalence of 43.1% (31/72) was found for acquired resistance. Primary resistance to one drug alone was found in 2.1% (3/145) and acquired monoresistance in 5.6% (4/72). Prevalence of MR strains in general was 14.3% (31/217), of which 4.2% (6/145) consisted of primary MR and 34.7% (25/72) of acquired MR. Three strains showed resistance to more than one drug, but were not classified as MR. In the multivariate analysis, abandoning treatment remained strongly associated with resistance (adjusted OR: 7.21; 95%CI: 3.27-15.90; p<0.001) following adjustment for 3 potential confounders (gender, alcohol dependence and HIV-infection). An association was found between resistance and mortality from tuberculosis, even after adjustment for HIV status, age, sex and alcohol dependence (adjusted OR: 7.13; 95%CI: 2.25-22.57; p<0.001). High prevalences of resistance, principally acquired resistance including MR, were found in patients hospitalized for TB in Bahia. This finding was strongly associated with having abandoned treatment, and confirmed the need to standardize the procedure for requesting sensitivity tests in this population at the time of hospital admission.
Abstract in English:Pneumonia is the most frequent hospital infection in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and is also responsible for the highest lethality rates, as well as an increase in both the duration and costs of hospitalization. The objective of this study was to identify predisposing factors for pneumonia. A prospective cohort study was carried out between June 1996 and June 1997, and included 540 patients admitted consecutively for periods greater than 24 hours to the adult ICU of the Londrina State University's Teaching Hospital. Of these, 83 (15.4%) developed pneumonia. All patients were analyzed with respect to various risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia. Univariate analysis identified the following factors: decreased level of consciousness, craniotomy, prior use of antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, nasogastric tube feeding, enteral feeding, aspiration of gastric contents, central venous catheter and the time spent in the ICU. Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors for pneumonia in the ICU: tracheotomy (RR = 1.09; 95%CI = 1.04-1.17), nasogastric tube feeding (RR = 1.11; 95%CI = 1.05-1.18), H2-blocker use (RR = 1.09; 95%CI = 1.05-1.14) and decreased level of consciousness (RR = 2.67; 95%CI = 1.43-5.04). In 56.6% of patients, pneumonia occurred within the first four days following ICU admission. The risk factors identified were all necessary for the treatment of the patient except for decreased level of consciousness, either present at admission or occurring during hospitalization due to deterioration in the clinical condition of the patient or to the use of sedatives.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the BHIA screening method with 4 or 6 mug/mL of vancomycin to detect glycopeptides heteroresistant staphylococci strains isolated from bacteremia. A total of 213 staphylococci strains were isolated from 106 patients between October/2001 and November/2002 in a tertiary hospital in Rio de Janeiro city. Fifty-seven (53.8%) patients presented Staphylococcus aureus, while coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were isolated from 49 (46.2%). Resistance rates for oxacillin of 26.3% and 81.6% were found for the staphylococci isolates, respectively. Thirteen CNS isolated from nine (8.5%) patients grew on agar screening with 4 mug/mL of vancomycin and showed heterogeneous profiles of resistance for vancomycin and teicoplanin by the population analysis profile method. Only 30.8% of them grew at the concentration 6 mug/mL. Bacterial infection and use of antimicrobial therapy were common among these patients. Alert about the emergence of oxacillin-resistant staphylococci presenting heteroresistance to glycopeptides is important in order to achieve judicious use of antimicrobials. Vancomycin agar screening test could help to confirm the presence of these isolates in hospitals.
Abstract in English:Bacteremia is one of the most frequent and challenging hospital-acquired infection and it is associated with high attributable morbidity and mortality and additional use of healthcare resources. The objective of this work was to determine the frequencies of its occurrence, organisms and resistance phenotypes associated to nosocomial acquired bloodstream infections. A total number of 51 nosocomial bacteremia by Gram-negative and 99 by Gram-positive were evaluated and compared during a 15-month period. The risk factors associated with these bacteremias were analyzed and antibiotic use and surgery were associated with bacteremia by Gram-negative and > 2 invasive devices with Gram-positive. The resistance phenotypes ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases) (23.5%) and AmpC/others (17.6%) correspond to 41.2 % with predominance of E. agglomerans among AmpC (44.4%) and K. pneumoniae among ESBLs (38.5%). Among S. aureus bacteremia, approximately 40% were associated to MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).
Abstract in English:It is essential to monitor the utilisation of antibacterial drugs in order to establish appropriate measures for their control. The pattern of usage of antibacterial drugs, and its association with indicators of hospital infection, has been investigated in a non-specialized adult intensive care unit (ICU) located in Santa Luzia Hospital (Brasília, DF, Brazil). The study was conducted between January 2001 and June 2004. Data concerning the utilisation of systemic antibacterial drugs, classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD) system, and indicators of hospital infection, defined according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system, were obtained from appropriate hospital archives. During the study period, the average utilisation of antibacterial drugs was 1918.5 DDD units per 1000 patient-day (DDD1000). The three most used drugs were penicillins/beta-lactamase inhibitors (535.3 DDD1000), third generation cephalosporins (239.1 DDD1000) and quinolones (212.5 DDD1000). The total utilisation of antibacterial drugs was correlated significantly with the incidence of hospital infection (R = 0.62; p < 0.01) and the index of invasive procedures (R = 0.41; p < 0.01). Furthermore, the latter two indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the use of recently commercialised, broad spectrum antibacterial drugs (except for carbapenems). It is concluded that improved infection control procedures, together with more rigorous criteria regarding the use of invasive procedures, should be implemented by the ICU studied in order to diminish the utilisation of antibacterial drugs.
Abstract in English:American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease caused by Leishmania parasites. The ACL diagnosis is commonly accomplished by parasitological and immunological methods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for ACL laboratorial diagnosis. IgG antibodies against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were researched. For the method standardization 240 sera were used: 72 from patients with positive parasitological diagnosis, 38 from normal individuals and 113 from individuals with other pathologies. The sensibility was 93% and the specificity was 70%. Regarding diagnosis, EIA showed 97% positivity in patients with ACL and 97% negativity in patients with other cutaneous lesions. The EIA presented a good performance when used for diagnosis, thus, it may become an important tool for it and for further ACL epidemiological studies in endemic areas.
Abstract in English:Amebiasis is an infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. However, differentiation between E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar, which are morphologically identical species, is essential for treatment decision, precaution of the invasive disease and public health. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a Multiplex -PCR for detection and differentiation of E. histolytica from E. dispar from fresh stool samples in comparison with the coproantigen commercial ELISA. Microscopic examination of stools using the Coprotest method, detection of stool antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and a home made Multiplex-PCR, were used for the diagnosis of amoebiasis infection. Analysis of the 127 stools samples by microscopy examination demonstrated that only 27 (21%) samples were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar complex. Among these stool samples, 11 were positive by Multiplex-PCR, with nine presenting the diagnostic fragment characteristic of E. dispar (96 bp) and two presenting diagnostic fragment of E. histolytica (132 bp). Among negative samples detected by microscopic examination, three positive samples for E. dispar and one positive for E. histolytica by Multiplex-PCR was observed. This denotes a low sensibility of microscopic examination when a single stool sample is analyzed. Assay for detection of E. histolytica antigen was concordant with multiplex-PCR in relation to E. histolytica. Statistical analysis comparing the sensibility tests was not done because of the low number of E. histolytica cases. The results demonstrate the importance of the specific techniques use for the differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar.
Abstract in English:The main injury caused by hepatitis C virus is the hepatic fibrosis, as a result of a chronic inflammatory process in the liver characterized by the deposit of components from the extracellular matrix. The fibrosis development leads to the modification of the hepatic architecture, of the hepatocellular function and to irregularities in the microcirculation. The tissue remodeling process observed in fibrosis has stellate cells, located at the space of Disse, as main acting agents. These cells, in response to a harmful stimulus, undergo phenotypic changes from non-proliferating cells to proliferating cells that express a- smooth-muscle actin (a-SMA), a process called as transdifferentiation. There are evidences that the oxidative stress is involved in the chronic liver disease and serves as bond between the injury and the hepatic fibrosis. A number of studies suggest that the estrogen, at physiological levels, presents an antifibrogenic action probably through an antioxidant effect, decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation products in the liver and blood, thus inhibiting the myofibroblastic transformation of stellate cells and contributing for gender-associated differences in relation to the fibrosis development. The aim of this paper was to describe data from literature concerning the interaction between chronic hepatitis C and estrogens, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, menopause and hormone reposition therapy.
Abstract in English:Streptococcus pyogenes meningitis (SPM) occurs sporadically, even with the increase of invasive streptococcal disease observed in the past years. We reported two cases of SPM in infants to alert pediatricians for the possibility of this agent as a cause of meningitis in previously healthy children.
Abstract in English:Multibacillary, lepromatous or borderline leprosy patients may present two types of vasculonecrotic reactions: Lucio phenomenon and that associated with erythema nodosum leprosum. Despite they can be distinguished through clinical and histological characteristics; both are often used as synonyms. It is said that leprosy reaction should be properly classified for therapeutic reasons, since it is well known that in Lucio phenomenon there is not a good response to thalidomide. The authors reported two cases of vasculonecrotic phenomena in lepromatous leprosy sharing clinical and histopathological characteristics of both reaction subtypes. The findings may indicate the spectral nature of the reaction phenomena in leprosy and emphasize the importance of the clinic-pathological correlation for proper classification. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of leprosy reactions pathogenesis, broaden the knowledge about their outcome with standard treatment, and provide the scientific background to design better therapeutic strategies for these complications.
Abstract in English:We reported one case of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infected patient who presented a significant improvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions during the treatment of chronic hepatitis using peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin.