Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume: 12, Issue: 1, Published: 2008
  • Paragonimiasis in Brazil Letter To The Editor

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Amato, Valdir Sabbaga; Amato Neto, Vicente
  • Oral miltefosine treatment in children with visceral leishmaniasis: a brief review Brief Communications

    Palumbo, Emilio

    Abstract in English:

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is an infection disease caused by hemiflagellate protozoan parasites (Leishmania donovani) and transmitted to humans by the phlebotomine sandfly. Leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide and 13 million people are estimated to be infected, with about 1.8 million new cases each year. All antileishmanial drugs are toxic and most have to be used parenterally for prolonged period. The therapy has been further complicated by large number of infected children and declining effectiveness of pentavalent antimonial compounds. Although the lipid formulations of amphotericin B are an important advance in therapy, their high cost precludes their use. Miltefosine, a phosphocholine analogue originally developed as antimalignant drug, has been found to be highly active against Leishmania in vitro and in animal model. Based on these experiences this drug was tried against human visceral leishmaniasis and found to be highly effective in children. The aim of this review is to evidence the pharmacodymamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and the safety, tolerance and efficacy of this drug for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children.
  • Quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli Brief Communications

    Ito, Carmen Antonia Sanches; Gales, Ana Cristina; Tognim, Maria Cristina B.; Munerato, Patrícia; Dalla Costa, Libera Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Quinolones (nalidixic acid - NAL, norfloxacin - NOR, ciprofloxacin - CIP and gatifloxacin - GAT) were tested against Escherichia coli isolated from urine (385 patient samples) by disk diffusion (DD) and agar dilution (AD) methods. Fifty-three samples (13.8%) were classified as resistant to at least one of the quinolones tested. CIP and NOR susceptibilities were the same (91.4%) and they were similar to GAT (92.7%). Susceptibility to NAL, detected by the disk diffusion method, was used to predict susceptibility to NOR, CIP and GAT by the agar dilution method. The sensitivity and specificity of NAL were 100% and 95%, respectively. Twelve samples were analyzed for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes. Sequencing of these genes failed to find any mutations in the quinolone-sensitive isolates. However, three mutations were observed in the isolates resistant to all the quinolones tested - two in gyrA and one in parC. A single mutation in gyrA was found in the strains that were resistant to nalidixic acid but fluoroquinolone-sensitive. These findings support the suggestion that NAL could be used as a marker for susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in routine microbiology laboratories. The overall resistance rate to quinolones in the present study was 13.8%, which is higher than that observed in other studies carried out in developed countries. Our findings serve as a warning that resistance to this group of antimicrobial agents is increasing.
  • Auditory disorders and acquisition of the ability to localize sound in children born to HIV-positive mothers Original Papers

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Iorio, Maria Cecília Martinelli; Succi, Regina Célia de M.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate children born to HIV-infected mothers and to determine whether such children present auditory disorders or poor acquisition of the ability to localize sound. The population studied included 143 children (82 males and 61 females), ranging in age from one month to 30 months. The children were divided into three groups according to the classification system devised in 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: infected; seroreverted; and exposed. The children were then submitted to audiological evaluation, including behavioral audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry and measurement of acoustic immittance. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of auditory disorders was significantly higher in the infected group. In the seroreverted and exposed groups, there was a marked absence of auditory disorders. In the infected group as a whole, the findings were suggestive of central auditory disorders. Evolution of the ability to localize sound was found to be poorer among the children in the infected group than among those in the seroreverted and exposed groups.
  • Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients Original Papers

    Silva Junior, Roberto Gomes da; Fakhouri, Ricardo; Nascimento, Tereza Virgínia Bezerra do; Santos, Igor Martins; Barbosa, Luciana Mendonça Morais

    Abstract in English:

    In chronic hepatitis C (CHC), liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56%) patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4) and 13 (26%) had cirrhosis (F4). The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00) and 0.92 (0.85-1.00), respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.
  • Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among Brazilian haemophiliacs Original Papers

    Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Mangini, Cláudia

    Abstract in English:

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now the most important cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. HCV infection prevalence is high among haemophiliacs (39%-98%), who got infected when received inadequately or non-virus-inactivated large-pool clotting factors concentrates before 1992. Current treatment reduces the probability of developing advanced stages of liver disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of the treatment with interferon alpha (IFN) and ribavirin in haemophiliacs. From July 2000 to November 2002, 18 patients were treated with IFN, three million units thrice weekly combined with daily oral doses of 1,000 or 1,250 mg of ribavirin for a minimum of 48 weeks. Eleven patients (61%) showed end of treatment virological response, while nine [(50%): 95% CI: 27-73%] showed sustained virological response as defined by undetectable HCV-RNA six months after treatment. All those nine had persistently undetectable HCV-RNA two to four years post-treatment. There was no treatment interruption due to adverse events. Therefore, the rate of sustained virological response was 50%, with good tolerance.
  • Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil Original Papers

    Costa, Luce Marina Freires Corrêa da; Mussi, Aparecida Duarte Hg; Brianeze, Marylina Rodrigues; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    Abstract in English:

    In order to assess the importance of HCV infection as a possible risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, a case-control study was conducted, comparing the prevalence of HCV infection among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic outpatients attending to a University Hospital in Central-West Brazil were evaluated between April and October 2005. A control group composed by patients from the same institution was matched by gender and age. Candidates to control group were included only if fasting glucose measures were under 100 mg/dL. Diabetics and controls had blood samples taken in order to test for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV) by enzyme-immunoassay. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot were performed to confirm the anti-HCV status. Each group included 206 participants. Despite of the groups were in general comparable. The diabetics had a greater body mass average and smaller family income. The prevalence of confirmed anti-HCV in the diabetic group was of 1.4%, which was similar to the controls (1%). Finding statistical difference may have been hampered by the low frequency of HCV infection in both groups. It was not possible to demonstrate a role of HCV as an etiologic factor in type 2 diabetes, since HCV infected patients represented a small portion of the overall diabetes cases. This finding does not allow to recommend regular screening for HCV infection in type 2 diabetics in this region.
  • Characterization of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in western Brazilian Amazonia Original Papers

    Victoria, Flamir da Silva; Oliveira, Cintia Mara Costa de; Victoria, Marilu Barbieri; Victoria, Cristian Barbieri; Ferreira, Luis Carlos Lima

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was conducted with 55 patients native from western Brazilian Amazonia, who were HBV-DNA positive after seroconversion of HBeAg. It is a descriptive case study, with the patients separated into two groups: with hepatitis and without hepatitis on histological examination. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients who are chronic carriers of HBsAg. The prevalence of hepatitis was 63.64%, with a predominance of males (41.82%) and a mean age of 42.5 years, occurring mostly in natives of the southeast sub-region (32.73%). Time was a variable proportional to the course of the disease and the most frequent symptoms were: dyspepsia, asthenia and loss of libido with the majority of the patients having history of prior contact with HBV or positive family history. Splenomegalia was the most frequent sign (40%). Among the tests, platelet count, serum albumin and prothrombin activity were significant in the diagnosis of hepatitis. Alpha-fetoprotein was greater in patients with hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 3.63% of the patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Three types of HBV genotypes were diagnosed: A, D and F in the samples amplified for gene S. Genotype A (AA) was observed in 54.54% of the cases with hepatitis, in contrast to other studies showing the predominance of genotype F in this region. We observed mutations in 36.36%, with a predominance of the mutations in the core promoter region (31.81%), due to the greater prevalence of genotype A in this study.
  • Prognostic markers of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection Original Papers

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Magny, Jean François; Jacquemard, François

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this research was to identify maternal and fetal characteristics as prognostic markers of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This is a descriptive study of 13 cases of congenital CMV infection referred to Institute de Puericulture et Perinatologie de Paris (IPP) from January 2005 to October 2006. Amniotic fluid puncture was performed to research CMV polimerase chain reaction (PCR). Cordocentesis and cord blood samples at delivery were also analyzed to determinate fetal platelets count, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CMV-DNA and IgM antibody. Variables of symptomatic and asymptomatic infants were then compared. Data were analyzed by SPSS - 15.0. Mean gestational age of amniocentesis was 24.6 weeks and there was no difference of mean viral load in amniotic fluid considering infant features. Mean gestational age of cordocentesis was 26.1 weeks. There were no statistical differences of fetal viral load, IgM, platelets, GGT, ASAT and ALAT analyzed at cordocentesis samples, but at delivery, mean values of IgM and ASAT of fetal blood were increased in symptomatic ones (p= 0.03 for both parameters). When considering groups with normal and abnormal parameters, ASAT of cordon samples was also increased in symptomatic infants (p= 0.02). Sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of fetal ultrasound anomalies to detect symptomatic infants were, respectively, 80%, 62.5%, 57.1% and 83.3%. Thus, identification of markers of CMV symptomatic infants should be aimed. Prenatal diagnosis, identification and follow up of congenital CMV infected infants are important to consider treatment for symptomatic infants, trying to avoid or reducing some possible sequels.
  • Rotavirus infection in children and adult patients attending in a tertiary Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil Original Papers

    Carraro, Emerson; Perosa, Ana Helena Sitta; Siqueira, Itacy; Pasternak, Jacyr; Martino, Marines Dalla Vale

    Abstract in English:

    During the period of January 2003 to December 2005, 3,768 stool samples were received in the Microbiology Laboratory for rotavirus antigen detection from outpatients and inpatients of Albert Einstein Hospital, SP. Fresh stool samples from children and adults were analyzed by two methodologies: during 2003 and 2004 by latex agglutination (Slidex Rotavirus, Biomerieux) and 2005 by an immunochromatographic assay for the combined detection of rotavirus and adenovirus (Vikia Rota-Adeno, Biomerieux). Rotavirus group A was detected in 755 (20%) samples. The annual prevalence was 19.8% in 2003, 21.7% in 2004, and 18.7% in 2005. Rotavirus was detected every month during the period of the study, with peak of positivity between June and August (>35%). The prevalence in hospitalized patients was 26.1% (352/1,350) and in outpatients was 16.7% (403/2,418). For hospitalized patients most of the rotavirus infections were diagnosed in Pediatric setting, age range of 0 to 10 years (prevalence of 55.3%, 295/534). Overall positivity was up to 30% in patients between six months and five years of age (67% of all positive patients), all other age groups had at least 10% positive tests. Rotavirus infection is common in Sao Paulo, and besides the expected higher frequency in children it is also frequent in adults.
  • Placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b antibodies in malnourished pregnant women Original Papers

    Cavalcante, Rejane S.; Kopelman, Benjamin I.; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T.

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in malnourished pregnant women (MN), cord blood (CB) and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C). Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immunized with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization), and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody levels were similar in both groups studied (p = 0.485), however the vertical transmission rate was 14% lower in the MN pregnant group. Levels of antibodies > 0.15 µg/mL were found in all newborns from the MN pregnant group. Pregnant MN presented an immunological response to Hib vaccine similar to group C, however, vertical transmission rate of antibodies to PRP in the MN pregnant group was 14% lower than that in C, suggesting a less efficient passage of antibodies within this group.
  • Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii Original Papers

    Silva, Marcos Gontijo da; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Costa, Tatiane Luiza da; Soares, Joanna D´arc Herzog; Amaral, Waldemar Naves do; Avelino, Mariza Martins; Castro, Ana Maria de

    Abstract in English:

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.
  • Experimental infections with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis obtained from armadillos: comparison to clinical isolates Original Papers

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha S.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sartori, Alexandrina

    Abstract in English:

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) that is one of the most prevalent systemic human mycoses in Latin America. Armadillos show a high incidence of PCM infection and could, therefore, be a natural reservoir for this fungus. In this study were compared the virulence profiles of isolates obtained from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) (PbT1 and PbT4) and isolates from PCM patients (Pb265 and Bt83). Pathogenicity was evaluated by fungal load and analysis of colony morphology. Immunity against the fungus was tested by delayed type hypersensitivity test (DTH) and antibody quantification by ELISA. The higher virulence of PbT1 and PbT4 was suggested by higher fungal load in spleen and lungs. Armadillo isolates and Bt83 presented a cotton-like surface contrasting with the cerebriform appearance of Pb265. All isolates induced cellular and humoral immune responses in infected BALB/c mice. DTH reactions were similarly induced by the four isolates, however, a great variability was observed in specific antibody levels, being the highest ones induced by Bt83 and PbT4. The present work confirms that armadillos harbor P. brasiliensis, whose multiplication and induced immunity in experimentally infected mice are heterogeneous, resembling the behavior of isolates from human PCM. This study reinforces the possibility that armadillos play an important role in the biological cycle of this pathogen.
  • Antifungal activity of the lemongrass oil and citral against Candida spp. Original Papers

    Silva, Cristiane de Bona da; Guterres, Sílvia S.; Weisheimer, Vanessa; Schapoval, Elfrides E.S.

    Abstract in English:

    Superficial mycoses of the skin are among the most common dermatological infections, and causative organisms include dermatophytic, yeasts, and non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi. The treatment is limited, for many reasons, and new drugs are necessary. Numerous essential oils have been tested for both in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity and some pose much potential as antifungal agents. By using disk diffusion assay, we evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil and citral against yeasts of Candida species (Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis). This study showed that lemongrass oil and citral have a potent in vitro activity against Candida spp.
  • Comparative study of etiological diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia Original Papers

    Carvalho, Eliane Maria de; Massarollo, Paulo Celso Bosco; Levin, Anna S.; Isern, Maria Rita Montenegro; Pereira, Wilson Leite; Abdala, Edson; Rossi, Flavia; Mies, Sérgio

    Abstract in English:

    Nosocomial pneumonia is a common complication in patients on mechanical ventilation and results in significant mortality. Diagnosis of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and under mechanical ventilation is difficult, even with the aid of clinical, laboratorial, and endoscopic tests. The objective of this study was to compare three methods of tracheal sputum collection in patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of pneumonia. Twenty-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of liver disease were enrolled, 18 years of age or older, 13 males and nine females, who had been mechanically ventilated over an intubation period of 5.86 ± 4.62 days. These patients were being treated in intensive care unit (ICU) of the Liver Transplantdepartment. Secretion collection was carried out according to a protocol with three distinct methods: endotracheal aspiration with a closed aspiration system, Bal cath and bronchoalveolar lavage. Of the 22 patients analyzed, 21 (95.4%) showed one or more infectious agent when the closed aspiration system was used. With the Bal cathâ collection, 19 patients (86.3%) had one or more infectious agents; in the collection by bronchoalveolar lavage, 10 patients (45.4%) presented one or more infectious agent. According to the laboratorial analysis, 14 different microorganisms were isolated, the most frequent of which were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We concluded that aspiration with the closed system produced the most effective results in comparison with those of bronchoalveolar lavage and the Bal cathâ, and may be an acceptable method for diagnosing hospital-acquired pneumonia when no fiberoptic technique is available.
  • Risk factors for nosocomial infection in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit Original Papers

    Távora, Ana Carolina Vieira Costa Fernandes; Castro, Antonieta B.; Militão, Maria Afonsina M.; Girão, José Eduilton; Ribeiro, Karina de Cássia Braga; Távora, Lara Gurgel Fernandes

    Abstract in English:

    This study was designed to describe the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This study was a retrospective cohort from January to December, 2003. All neonates admitted to the NICU. Infection surveillance was conducted according to the NNIS, CDC. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were performed for statistical analyses. The study was conducted at a public, tertiary referral NICU of a teaching hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A total of 948 medical records were reviewed. Overall NI incidence rate was 34%. The main neonatal NI was bloodstream infection (68.1%), with clinical sepsis accounting for 47.2%, and pneumonia was the second most common NI (8.6%). Multivariate analysis identified seven independent risk factors for NIs: birth weight, exposure to parenteral nutrition, percutaneous catheter, central venous catheter or mechanical ventilation, abruptio placentae and mother's sexually transmitted disease (STD). Neonates from mothers with STD or abruptio placentae, those weighing less than 1,500 g at birth or those who used invasive devices were at increased risk for acquiring NI.
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia in an adult clinical-surgical intensive care unit of a Brazilian university hospital: incidence, risk factors, etiology, and antibiotic resistance Original Papers

    Rocha, Laura de Andrade da; Vilela, Carolina Assis Pereira; Cezário, Renata Cristina; Almeida, Alair Benedito; Gontijo Filho, Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, etiology, and resistance to antimicrobial agents, among patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A case study vs. patients control under mechanical ventilation and hospitalized into clinical-surgical adults ICU of HC-UFU was performed from March/2005 to March/2006. Patients under ventilation for over 48 h were included in the study including 84 with diagnosis of VAP, and 191 without VAP (control group). Laboratory diagnosis was carried out through quantitative microbiological evaluation of tracheal aspirate. The identification of pathogens was performed by classical microbiological tests, and the antibiotics sensitivity spectrum was determined through the CLSI technique. VAP incidence rate over 1,000 days of ventilation was 24.59. The mean (± SD) duration of mechanical ventilation prior to VAP diagnosis was 23.2 ± 17.2 days. By multivariate analysis the risk factors predisposing for VAP were: mechanical ventilation time and mechanical ventilation > seven days, tracheostomy and use of > three antibiotics. Mortality rate was high (32.1 %) but lower than that of the control group (46.5%). Major pathogens were identified in most of patients (95.2%) and included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29%), Staphylococcus aureus (26%), Enterobacter/Klebsiella/Serratia (19%) and Acinetobacter spp. (18%), with expressive frequencies of P. aeruginosa (52%), S. aureus (65.4%) and Enterobacteriaceae (43.7%) resistant to imipenem, oxacillin and 3/4 generation cephalosporins, respectively. In conclusion, our observation showed VAPs caused by multiresistant microorganisms, the prescription of > three antibiotics, and mortality with unacceptably high rates. The practice of de-escalation therapy appears to be urgently needed in order to improve the situation.
  • Study of biological characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis and from patients with extra-pulmonary infections Original Papers

    Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Silveira, Wanderley Dias da; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    A total of 120 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (n = 80) and from patients having extra-pulmonary infections (n = 40) were studied regarding the presence of some virulence factors (hemolysin, gelatinase and elastase production) and presence of the algD and algU genes as detected by polymerase chain reaction-PCR. There was not a significant difference for the production of gelatinase and hemolysin between non-mucoid strains from CF patients and other isolates from extra-pulmonary infections and mucoid strains. The production of elastase was found to be significant among these strains. The algD gene was detected by PCR in all studied strains but the algU gene was detected only in 25% of the mucoid strains. Conclusion withdrawn from the results were: (i) hemolysin and gelatinase production although present in many strains of P aeruginosa should not be considered as general virulence factors for the mucoid phenotype but could help in the pathogenic process; (ii) elastase production could be a necessary virulence factor for the initial pathogenesis process; (iii) mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes could also be expressed according to the host's tissues or environment, and finally, (iv) more than one regulator system for alginate production is probably present in each strain.
  • Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil Original Papers

    Melo, Maria Clotildes N. de; Taddei, José A.A.C.; Diniz-Santos, Daniel R.; Vieira, Camilo; Carneiro, Nadya B.; Melo, Rita Franca; Silva, Luciana R.

    Abstract in English:

    Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children),each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: case reports study in a central state of Brazil Case Reports

    Araújo-Filho, João Alves de; Vasconcelos-Jr, Arioldo Carvalho; Sousa, Eduardo Martins de; Silveira, Colombina da; Sousa, Patrícia Tavares Pereira de; Severo, Klaus Andrade; Vieira, Ludmila Ferreira; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    Abstract in English:

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging and worrisome health problem that threatens tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide. The clinical management of MDR-TB is a complex issue associated with the use of multiple drugs for a long period, usually accompanied by side effects and high costs. The objective of this work was to relate cases of MDR-TB occurring in Goiás, a central state of Brazil. We related five cases of MDR-TB, three women and two men. All were pulmonary cases. Three were in their second treatment and two in their first treatment. Surgical pulmonary resection was performed in one case. One death occurred. Lack of adherence, gastric intolerance to anti-TB drugs and poor clinical management were the main aspects related to the emergent resistance. A revision of the main clinical aspects of this disease was performed.
  • Indinavir-associated toxicity mimicking urinary tuberculosis in a patient with AIDS Case Reports

    Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares; Santiago, Natally Marques; Mocelin, Altair Jacob; Kunii, Luiz Fernando; Bortoliero, André Luiz

    Abstract in English:

    This case reported to a patient with AIDS who presented persistent sterile leukocyturia and hematuria, lower back pain, bladder suffering symptoms, and renal papillary necrosis which were thought to be secondary to urinary tuberculosis but were demonstrated to be indinavir-associated side effects. The intention of this report is to remind medical professionals involved in the care of HIV+ patients of this possible association in order to avoid unnecessary investigation and to stress the need of careful periodical assessment of renal function and urinalysis in patients treated with indinavir.
  • Ventriculitis: a rare case of primary cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patient and literature review Case Reports

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; Assad, Elisa Caroline Pereira; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Giannetti, Alexandre Varella; Santos Filho, José Augusto Malheiros dos; Xavier, Marcelo Antonio Pascoal

    Abstract in English:

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains the most important neurological opportunistic infection and the most common cause of intracerebral mass lesion in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report a case of an adult AIDS patient with an atypical pattern of toxoplasma encephalitis, presenting with ventriculitis and obstructive hydrocephalus without any focal parenchymal lesion.
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