Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume: 12, Issue: 2, Published: 2008
  • Influence of ertapenem administration on the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Brief Communications

    Lima, Ana Lúcia Lei Munhoz; Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba Domingos; Paula, Adriana P.; Zumiotti, Arnaldo Valdir
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis: public health policy concerns Brief Communications

    Vanni, Tazio; Ribeiro, Rodrigo A.; Varella, Ivana S.; Polanczyk, Carisi A.; Fonseca, Benedito A. L.; Kuchenbecker, Ricardo
  • Evaluation of annexin V and Calcein-AM as markers of mononuclear cell apoptosis during human immunodeficiency virus infection Original Papers

    Palma, Priscila F.R.; Baggio, Giovana L.; Spada, Celso; Silva, Renata da; Ferreira, Silvia Inês A.C.P.; Treitinger, Aricio

    Abstract in English:

    Evaluation of apoptosis by flow cytometry is generally accomplished by methods that use annexin V-FITC as vital dye, which access phosphatidylserine exposed on the external membrane at the beginning of this process. In addition, the concomitant use of propidium iodide makes possible to verify the characteristic nuclear alterations in the late stages of apoptosis, as a consequence of the increase in membrane permeability. On the other hand, the use of calcein-AM in association with ethidium homodimer (EthD-1) allows the evaluation of cell apoptosis through detection of esterase activity and cellular membrane physical and chemical alterations. The aim of this study was to compare the sensibility of calcein-AM and EthD-1 with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide for early apoptosis evaluation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture, obtained from HIV-infected patients. Apoptosis and cellular viability were detected and quantified by flow cytometry after 24 and 48 hours incubation times. Our results showed that calcein-AM/EthD-1 was more sensitive for apoptotic cell quantification in both incubation times than annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (mean of 46.95% ± 3.56, p < 0.0001, for 24 hours and mean of 37.67% ± 2.47, p < 0.0014 for 48 hours), besides allowing to clearly define viable, apoptotic and dead cell populations.
  • Enteric parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy Original Papers

    Bachur, Tatiana Paschoalette Rodrigues; Vale, Josias Martins; Coêlho, Ivo Castelo Branco; Queiroz, Telma Régia Bezerra Sales de; Chaves, Cristina de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with HIV/AIDS, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with HIV/AIDS seen at two hospitals in Ceará , Brazil, was compared in the pre-HAART (Group 1; n = 482) and HAART (Group 2; n = 100) eras. Fecal parasitologic examinations (FPE) were performed using the direct, Lutz, Baermann-Moraes and modified Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The following parasites were detected in Groups 1 and 2, respectively: Strongyloides stercoralis - 30.1% and 11% (p<0.0001), Ascaris lumbricoides - 15.6% and 2% (p<0.0001), hookworms - 13.7% and 2% (p<0.0001), Trichuris trichiura - 13.1% and 1% (p<0.0001), Hymenolepis nana - 0 and 1% (p = 0.1718), Giardia duodenalis - 7.9% and 1% (p = 0.0076), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar - 3.3% and 1% (p = 0.3301), Isospora belli - 4.8% and 1% (p = 0.0993), Cryptosporidium sp. - 8.1% and 0 (p = 0.0007), and non-pathogenic protozoans as well. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of enteroparasites between the eras (63.9% to 24%; p<0.0001). In the HAART era, the following observations were made: greater frequency of enteroparasites in patients without antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.0575), as in those with AIDS (p = 0.08), and diarrhea (36% of the patients); lack of association with positive FPE (p = 0.626); and non-detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Strongyloides stercoralis showed an elevated prevalence in the two eras and was more frequent in men (32.41%) than women (19.04%) of Group 1 (p = 0.018), a finding suggesting the transmission of the helminth through sodomy. The advent of the HAART modified the profile of opportunistic infections, including parasites, probably due to the reconstitution of cellular immunity and the direct action of HAART on the parasites.
  • Measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cells producing IFN-Gamma in patients with tuberculosis Original Papers

    Andrade Júnior, Dahir Ramos de; Santos, Sânia Alves dos; Andrade, Dahir Ramos de

    Abstract in English:

    The type of immune response induced by tuberculosis (Th1 or Th2) and its correlation with the clinical outcome is unclear. We studied 13 patients with active tuberculosis (TBC). The peripheral blood mononuclear cells producing IFN-gamma (PBMC-IG) were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) technique. The control group had ten healthy individuals vaccinated against tuberculosis. We collected blood samples of each patient in two moments: a) in the hospital admission without treatment (TBC1); b) after seven to 20 days of treatment (TBC2). The comparison of the spots forming units of PBMC-IG between TBC group and controls showed that there was a significant difference between TBC1 and control group (p < 0.001) and between TBC2 and control group (p < 0.005), but there was no difference between TBC1 and TBC2 (p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between PBMC-IG and hemoglobin value, as well as between PBMC-IG and weight loss. There was no correlation between PBMC-IG and other variables [age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP)]. We conclude that tuberculosis activates Th1 immune response due to increase of PBMC producing IFN-gamma. There was no difference between the first sample (TBC1) and the second sample (TBC2) of PBMC-IG. This result can have occurred due to treatment influence, or can indicate that the immune response reachs a plateau. The positive correlation among PBMC-IG and both hemoglobin level and weight loss indicates that may exist a link between patient's clinical status and the immune response intensity.
  • Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis Original Papers

    Soto, Alonso; Solari, Lely; Agapito, Juan; Acuna-Villaorduna, Carlos; Lambert, Marie-Laurence; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Stuyft, Patrick Van der

    Abstract in English:

    This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respiratory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.
  • Epidemiological aspects of an infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins Original Papers

    Ramos, Taciana Rabelo Ramalho; Pinheiro Junior, José Wilton; Moura Sobrinho, Pedro Alves de; Santana, Vânia Lúcia de Assis; Guerra, Neurisvan Ramos; Melo, Lúcio Esmeraldo Honório de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this paper was to study some epidemiological aspects of the infection by Brucella abortus in risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins. For antibody research, 645 serum samples were analyzed by the complement fixation test (CF). A 4.0% frequency was found (26/645) in patients' serum and among those 4.1% (23/551) were slaughterhouses employees and 8.1% (3/37) rural workers. Of the total positive samples, three (2.0%) were women and 23 (4.7%) men; ten (2.9%) were between the ages of 18 and 30, six (3.4%) between 31 and 40, and nine (8.0%) were above 41 years of age. Risk factors for brucellosis in the study groups were age, background (OR = 2.45; CI 95% = 0.98 to 6.10) and previous work conducted with production animals (OR 2.36; CI 95% = 0.95 to 6.02). It was concluded that the infection by Brucella abortus is found in some risk occupational groups in the microregion of Araguaína, Tocantins, and control and prophylactic measures must be implemented emphasizing risk factors identified in the study.
  • Profile of Anti-Tp47 antibodies in patients with positive serology for syphilis analized by western blot Original Papers

    Miranda, Ana Paula Félix de; Sato, Neuza Satomi

    Abstract in English:

    In Brazil, syphilis is still a great problem of public health. Serological test is essential for syphilis diagnosis and the current trend is the use of recombinant antigen in the treponemal tests, due to its confirmed higher sensibility and specificity. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the profile of anti-Tp47 antibodies in patients with positive serology for syphilis. One hundred positive sera samples were analyzed by Western Blot (WB) technique, using the recombinant antigen (rTp47). Ten of them did not present antibodies against the fraction rTp47, the results were confirmed by WB using native T. pallidum antigen. All ten samples had antibodies against the fractions Tp17 and Tp15 and presented low reactivity in VDRL, negative results or title below than 1:4. Considering that VDRL is used for therapeutic monitoring due to seroreversion of nontreponemal antibodies in response to the treatment, and that some studies reported loss of treponemal antibodies after treatment, we could speculate if these ten samples are cases of serological memory from patients previously treated for syphilis. In addition, although several features state the Tp47 fraction as one of the major antigenic components, based on our results we point out to the importance of including other antigenic proteins such as Tp17 and Tp15 in addition to Tp47 in tests for serological screening of syphilis.
  • Thyroid dysfunction in hepatitis C individuals treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin: a review Review Articles

    Andrade, Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira; Atta, Ajax Mercês; D'Almeida Junior, Argemiro; Paraná, Raymundo

    Abstract in English:

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase) especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.
  • Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of Fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Case Reports

    Lamas, Cristiane; Favacho, Alexsandra; Rozental, Tatiana; Bóia, Márcio N.; Kirsten, Andrei H.; Guterres, Alexandro; Barreira, Jairo; Lemos, Elba Regina S. de

    Abstract in English:

    A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.
  • Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis Case Reports

    Afsar, F. Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    Abstract in English:

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.
  • Penile myiasis as a differential diagnosis for genital ulcer: a case report Case Reports

    Passos, Mauro R.L.; Ferreira, Dennis C.; Arze, Wilma N.C.; Silva, José Carlos S.; Passos, Felipe D.L.; Curvelo, José Alexandre R.

    Abstract in English:

    The genital localized myiasis is a rare zooparasitic dermatosis. This case reported to a penile myiasis by Dermatobia hominis larvae in a 62 year-old man, who is a retired military official from São Gonçalo city, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This patient was guided to the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic from Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) by professionals from a urology outpatient clinic of a public hospital from Rio de Janeiro state. The exam showed a 2 cm diameter nodular lesion with a hyperemic area in the glands penis that had arisen 20 days before the exam. It evolved in a favorable way after larvae removal, through previous local anesthesia and slight pressure in lesion's base with the extraction of the larvae. Penile myiasis is not a very frequent situation, although it must be considered as an option in differential diagnosis of genital infectious diseases, even among people of low economical level, as in the case presented.
  • Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis Case Reports

    Pinto Jr., Vitor Laerte; Curi, André Land; Pinto, Adriana da Silva; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes Benamor; Rozental, Tatiana; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    Abstract in English:

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.
  • Monocular blindness in a non-ketotic patient Clinical Infectious Diseases Images

    Bhatt, Archit; Bhavsar, Bhavini; Farooq, Muhammad U.; Dahdouh, Michelle
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