Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume: 13, Issue: 6, Published: 2009
  • Prevalence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae from Acanthamoeba and Naegleria genera in non-hospital, public, internal environments from the city of Santos, Brazil Brief Communications

    Teixeira, Lais Helena; Rocha, Silvana; Pinto, Rosa Maria Ferreiro; Caseiro, Marcos Montani; Costa, Sergio Olavo Pinto da

    Abstract in English:

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species are free-living amoebae (FLA) found in a large variety of natural habitats. The prevalence of such amoebae was determined from dust samples taken from public non-hospital internal environments with good standards of cleanliness from two campuses of the same University in the city of Santos (SP), Brazil, and where young and apparently healthy people circulate. The frequency of free-living amoebae in both campuseswas 39% and 17% respectively, with predominance of the genus Acanthamoeba. On the campus with a much larger number of circulating individuals, the observed frequency of free-living amoebae was 2.29 times larger (P< 0.00005). Two trophozoite forms of Naegleria fowleri, are the only species of this genus known to cause primary amoebian meningoencephalitis, a rare and non-opportunistic infection. We assume that the high frequency of these organisms in different internal locations represents some kind of public health risk.
  • Case-case-control study of risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical-surgical intensive care unit Brief Communications

    Melo, Edson Carvalho de; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    Abstract in English:

    Nasopharyngeal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often precedes the development of nosocomial infections. In order to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization, we conducted a case-case-control study, enrolling 122 patients admitted to a medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). All patients had been screened for nasopharyngeal colonization with S. aureus upon admission and weekly thereafter. Two case-control studies were performed, using as cases patients who acquired colonization with MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. For both studies, patients in whom colonization was not detected during ICU stay were selected as control subjects. Several potential risk factors were assessed in univariate and multivariable (logistic regression) analysis. MRSA and MSSA were recovered from nasopharyngeal samples from 27 and 10 patients, respectively. Independent risk factors for MRSA colonization were: length-of-stay in the ICU (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.12, 95%Confidence Interval[CI]=1.06-1.19, p<0.001) and use of ciprofloxacin (OR=5.05, 95%CI=1.38-21.90, p=0.015). The use of levofloxacin had a protective effect (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.01-0.55, p=0.01). Colonization with MSSA was positively associated with central nervous system disease (OR=7.45, 95%CI=1.33-41.74, p=0.02) and negatively associated with age (OR=0.94, 95%CI=0.90-0.99, p=0.01). In conclusion, our study suggests a role for both cross-transmission and selective pressure of antimicrobials in the spread of MRSA.
  • Bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing E. Coli and K. pneumoniae: risk factors for multidrug-resistance Original Papers

    Serefhanoglu, Kivanc; Turan, Hale; Timurkaynak, Funda Ergin; Arslan, Hande

    Abstract in English:

    This prospective case-control study was conducted from October 2003 to June 2007 to evaluate risk factors for multidrug resistance among extended-spectrum-b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. (ESBL-EK) isolates in blood cultures. All adult patients (>18 years old) whose blood cultures grew ESBL-EK during the study period were included. An ESBL-EK isolate was defined as MDR if it was resistant to at least one member of following two classes of antibiotics: aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, or netilmycin) and fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin). Case patients were those with a MDR ESBL-EK isolate, and control patients were those with a non-MDR ESBL-EK isolate. A total of 94 bloodstream infections, including 37 (39,4%) bloodstream infections with ESBL-producing E. coli and 57 (60,6%) with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae,in 86 patients were enrolled. Thirty episodes (31.9%) were due to MDR ESBL-EK. The only independent risk factor for MDR ESBL-EK was duration of hospitalization before bacteraemia (OR 3.88; 95% CI 1.55-9.71; p=0.004). The rate of multidrug resistance among ESBL-EK bloodstream isolates was high, and duration of hospitalization before bacteraemia was the only indeepended risk factor for the MDR ESBL-EK bloodstream infections.
  • Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in central intensive care unit in Kosova teaching hospital Original Papers

    Raka, Lul; Kalenc, Smilja; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Katić, Stjepan; Šijak, Dubravko; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Zoutman, Dick; Jaka, Arbëresha

    Abstract in English:

    Infections caused by bacteria of genus Acinetobacter pose a significant health care challenge worldwide. Information on molecular epidemiological investigation of outbreaks caused by Acinetobacter species in Kosova is lacking. The present investigation was carried out to enlight molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacterbaumannii in the Central Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of a University hospital in Kosova using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). During March - July 2006, A. baumannii was isolated from 30 patients, of whom 22 were infected and 8 were colonised. Twenty patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia, one patient had meningitis, and two had coinfection with bloodstream infection and surgical site infection. The most common diagnoses upon admission to the ICU were politrauma and cerebral hemorrhage. Bacterial isolates were most frequently recovered from endotracheal aspirate (86.7%). First isolation occurred, on average, on day 8 following admission (range 1-26 days). Genotype analysis of A. baumannii isolates identified nine distinct PFGE patterns, with predominance of PFGE clone E represented by isolates from 9 patients. Eight strains were resistant to carbapenems. The genetic relatedness of Acinetobacter baumannii was high, indicating cross-transmission within the ICU setting. These results emphasize the need for measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of A. baumannii in ICU.
  • Risk factors for infection after cardiovascular surgery in children in Argentina Original Papers

    Rosanova, Maria Teresa; Allaria, Adrian; Santillan, Alejandro; Hernandez, Claudia; Landry, Luis; Ceminara, Rodolfo; Berberian, Griselda

    Abstract in English:

    Infections after cardiovascular surgery are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This paper described the study of risk factors associated with development of infections. This is a prospective study, setting in a Hospital JP Garrahan, a tertiary and referral center of Buenos Aires, Argentina. All patients with cardiac surgeries between 1/11/01 to 1/1/ 2002 were included. The median age of p was 30 months (r: 1-212 m), 184 p (53%) were boys, 21% (75) had underlying disease, being the genetic disorders or undernutrition the most frequent, 56 p (16%) had previous surgery, 36 p (10%) had received previous antibiotics and 30 (9%) of them had previous infection, An ASA score higher than or equal to 3 was found in 308 p (88%). Median hospital stay before surgery was 1 day (r1-120 d), 88 p (25%) nedeed inotropic support with epinephrine, 147 p (42%) needed mechanical ventilation during a median time of 4 days (r: 1-66d).Drainage with thorax opened was done in 339p (97%) for a median time of 2 days (r:1-7d). Total hospital stay was between 1 and 120 days (median 5 days). Postsurgical infections developed in 38 of 350p (11%). Superficial wound infection in 4 p (1%), 5 p (1.5%) had deep infection, 3p (1%) had mediastinitis and 26 p (7.5%) had other nonsurgical infections Eleven p (3%) died. By multivariate study underlying diseases (p<0.012) OR 4.22 (CI 1.38-12.8), inotropic support with epinephrine (p<0.027) OR 4.04 (CI 1.17-13.9) and postoperative stay longer than 12 days were found to be risk factors for infections. We concluded that presence of underlying diseases, longer hospitalization and inotropic support were risk factors for infections.
  • Health care workers humoral immune response against GLcB, MPT51 and HSPX from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Original Papers

    Reis, Michelle Cristina Guerreiro dos; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    Abstract in English:

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest human infectious diseases and one third of the world's population is latently infected. Brazil is an endemic area for TB. One of the most important challenges in TB control is the identification of latently infected individuals. Health Care Workers (HCW) are at high risk of being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and even to become TB latently infected. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about humoral immune response in TB latently infected individuals. HCW were classified according to their tuberculin skin test (TST), as positive or negative. The antibody response to GLcB, MPT51 and HSPX from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. TST negative HCW constituted the majority of those who showed a humoral immune response. Antibody levels varied according to antigen characteristics, TST and BCG status. We suggest that possibly the presence of those antibodies could have a function in the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Standardization of first and second-line antitubercular susceptibility testing using BacT Alert 3D system: a report from a tertiary care centre in India Original Papers

    Nair, Deepthi; Capoor, Malini R.; Rawat, Deepti; Srivastava, Lakshmi; Aggarwal, Pushpa

    Abstract in English:

    Resurgence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis has lead to demand for rapid susceptibility testing. Conventional methods take > 3 weeks and are tedious. Automated methods have superseded them for first line drug susceptibility testing. An attempt was made to standardize first and second line susceptibility testing using the BacT Alert 3D system (Biomerieux). And compare results with Lowenstein Jensen's (LJ) method. 121 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 67 pulmonary and 54 extra pulmonary were subjected to sensitivity to first and second line drugs. Multidrug resistance was detected equally by both methods at 15.7%. 100% agreement was observed between the two methods for aminoglycosides, rifampicin, ethionamide and ciprofloxacin. 91.5% agreement was observed for isoniazid, 85% for pyrazinamide and 72.4% for ethambutol. The time taken by LJ method was 18-32 days and BacT Alert 3D system took 4-12 days. In the lesser developed nations where tuberculosis is rampant a rapid effective method for confirming multidrug resistant tuberculosis is definitely desirable and the BacT Alert 3D system was found an effective method when compared to the 'gold standard' LJ proportion.
  • Enteroparasitosis prevalence and parasitism influence in clinical outcomes of tuberculosis patients with or without HIV co-infection in a reference hospital in Rio de Janeiro (2000-2006) Original Papers

    Neto, Luanda M.S.; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de; Totino, Paulo Renato; Sant'Anna, Flavia Marinho; Coelho, Viviane de Oliveira; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Zanini, Graziela M.

    Abstract in English:

    Tuberculosis and intestinal parasites affect primarily low social and economic level populations, living clustered in precarious habitational settings. One of the interesting aspects of this interaction is the parasitism influence in cellular response to tuberculosis. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in tuberculosis patients, HIV-infected and non HIV infected, and we observed the influence of helminth presence in the response to tuberculin skin test (TST) and tuberculosis clinical outcomes. From 607 clinical records reviewed, 327 individuals met the study inclusion criteria and did not present any exclusion criteria. The prevalence of enteroparasites observed was 19.6%. There was no significant association among TST result and the variables related to the presence of: helminthes, protozoa, and stool test for parasites result (p>0.5). Considering the survival of this cohort, we may observe that there is no significant difference (p>0.05) between the survival curves of parasited and non parasited individuals. Solely the variable "eosinophils" presents a statistically significant association (p<0.001) with helminthes, all other associations are considered not significant. Our findings neither show an association between helminthic infection and a favorable tuberculosis outcome, nor between parasitism and TST response, unlike other in vitro studies. Apparently, experimental data do not correspond to the clinical findings.
  • Management of acute viral encephalitis in Brazil Review Articles

    Domingues, Renan Barros; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    Abstract in English:

    The appropriate management of acute viral encephalitis is a challenge. Clinical picture includes general symptoms and a wide range of neurological signs. Etiological diagnosis cannot be performed only by clinical means and depends on neuroimaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid molecular analyses. It is recommended since some of these viruses are treatable and that the prognoses of these infections depend on the prompt administration of antiviral and/or immunomodulatory drugs. The management of acute viral encephalitis in Brazil has some peculiarities. First, the etiological distribution of the viral encephalitis may differ from what is found in other countries. Some viruses, such as dengue virus, are more common in Brazil than in developed countries while others, like West Nile virus, are not found here. Second, there are some regions in Brazil where neuroimaging and laboratorial methods are not available, and a clinical-based decision is the only therapeutic approach. As most of the guidelines in the literature are based on complimentary methods, it is relevant to establish an alternative approach compatible with the Brazilian health system reality. The goal of this study was to review the recent advances in the field of the acute viral encephalitis, to discuss the diagnosis and the treatment of the main etiologies of acute viral encephalitis found in Brazil, and to propose a viable guideline for the evaluation of the suspected acute viral encephalitis cases in the emergence room in Brazil.
  • Involvement of nitric oxide and its up/down stream molecules in the immunity against parasitic infections Review Articles

    Nahrevanian, Hossein

    Abstract in English:

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent mediator with diverse roles in regulating cellular functions and signaling pathways. The NO synthase (NOS) enzyme family consists of three major isoforms, which convey variety of messages between cells, including signals for vasorelaxation, neurotransmission and cytotoxicity. This family of enzymes are generally classified as neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS). Increased levels of NO are induced from iNOS during infection; while eNOS and nNOS may be produced at the baseline in normal conditions. An association of some key cytokines appears to be essential for NOS gene regulation in the immunity of infections. Accumulating evidence indicates that parasitic diseases are commonly associated with elevated production of NO. NO plays a role in the immunoregulation and it is implicated in the host non-specific defence in a variety of infections. Nevertheless, the functional role of NO and NOS isoforms in the immune responses of host against the majority of parasites is still highly controversial. In the present review, the role of parasitic infections will be discussed in the controversy related to the NO production and iNOS gene expression in different parasites and a variety of experimental models.
  • Non tuberculous mycobacteria and toxoplasma co-infection of the central nervous system in a patient with AIDS Case Reports

    Sardar, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Dipanjan; Roy, Deeptarka; Guha, Pradipta; Guha, Goutam; Banerjee, Amit Kumar

    Abstract in English:

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). We describe the clinical and radiological findings in an 25yr old AIDS patient presenting with new onset seizures as the primary manifestation of cerebral toxoplasmosis and Non Tuberculous Mycobacterial [NTM] co-infection. Cranial computed tomography showed a subtle ventricular dilatation whereas magnetic resonance imaging disclosed prominent temporal horn. Toxoplasma tachyzoites and rapidly growing mycobacteria were recovered from CSF. Seizures were complex partial in nature and refractory to antiepileptic therapy.
  • Candida albicans meningitis in an infant with noonan syndrome Case Reports

    Ahmadi, Faezeh; Ahmadi, Maedeh; Yaghmaei, Bahareh; Nejat, Farideh; Rezaei, Nima; Mamishi, Setareh

    Abstract in English:

    Noonan syndrome is a rare disorder, characterized by several malformations such as dysplasia and stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial septal defect and a typical pattern of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We describe here a 1-month old girl, who was referred to our center with seizure and apnea. She had wide anterior fontanel, head circumference and sunset eye. Intaventricular hemorrhage by sonography and atrial septal defect and hypertrophy cardiomyopathy by echocardiography were detected. Clinical and laboratory findings of the patient were compatible with a diagnosis of Noonan syndrome, which was also confirmed by molecular analysis. Candida albicans was grown in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Treatment with Amphotrycine B was started for the patient and she responded well to this therapy. Early diagnosis and appropriate diagnosis of a rare condition in the patient with such rare disease are the main keys to avoid further complications and even death of patient.
  • Subcutaneous emphysema as a clinical finding in emphysematous pyelonephritis Images In Clinical Infectious Diseases

    Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares; Mansano, Ana Maria Fracaro; Boselli Jr., José Roberto; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio de Freitas
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