Abstract in English:The family and neighbors of a patient infected with W. bancrofti microfilariae were assessed aiming to evaluate the occurrence of cases of lymphatic filariasis in a non-endemic area in the city of Maceió, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The patient had previously lived in an endemic focus; however, he has been living in an area where the parasite has never been detected for the past ten years. Female ingurgitated Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes captured in the houses of the microfilaremic individual and of his neighbors in the non-endemic region were also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The thick blood smear examination, blood membrane filtration, and rapid immunochromatography (antigen search) revealed no infected individuals in the family of the microfilaremic individual. All 334 neighbors undergoing the thick blood smear examination were negative for W. bancrofti microfilariae. In 478 ingurgitated C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes examined by PCR, no W. bancrofti DNA was detected. The microfilaremic individual had a microfilaremia considered very low according to WHO standards (4 microfilariae/mL of blood). As the vectorial infection depends on microfilaremia, the patient's low parasite load did not determine the contamination of other individuals in the area. Our data have shown that the long-term residence of the microfilaremic individual in the non-endemic region was not sufficient to start a new transmission focus of lymphatic filariasis in Maceió.
Abstract in English:Vaccinia virus is responsible for a zoonosis that usually affects cattle and human beings in Brazil. The initial clinical signs of the infection are focal red skin areas, fever, and general symptoms similar to those of a cold. Then, pustules and ulcerated lesions surrounded by edema and erythema follow, as well as local lymphadenopathy that can last for weeks. Cure and healing of the lesions occur over several weeks, leaving a typical scar in the skin of people and animals affected. The infection definitive diagnosis is made through morphological characterization of the virus by use of electron microscopy, followed by PCR for specific viral genes. Since 1963, circulating orthopoxviruses in infectious outbreaks in several regions of Brazil have been reported. Later, the etiological agent of those infections was characterized as samples of Vaccinia virus. In addition, the widespread use of those viruses in research laboratories and mass vaccination of militaries have contributed to increase the cases of those infections worldwide. Thus, several epidemiological and clinical studies are required, as well as studies of viral immunology, public health, and economic impact, because little is known about those Vaccinia virus outbreaks in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The association of HIV infection and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often occurs because both viruses share the same transmission routes, increasing the possibility of HIV/HCV coinfection. World prevalence greater than 30% of coinfected cases is estimated, and it can reach 90% depending on the transmission route. With the aim of determining the frequency and profile of HIV/HCV coinfected patients, a descriptive analysis was carried out with patients with HIV/AIDS whose serology was positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV), cared for at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas from 2000 to 2007. In the present study, of the 2,653 AIDS cases notified in SINAN, 1,582 patients underwent serology test for hepatitis C, and a frequency of 4.42% (n = 70) of HIV/HCV coinfected patients was identified in the period studied. The most frequent infection route was sexual transmission (84.3%), 68.6% among heterosexual individuals. Most patients were males (72.9%), aged between 25 and 40 years (60.1%), of low income (50% earning up to one minimum wage), and low educational level (80% had completed only middle school). A high percentage of deaths were observed during the study (34.3%). The results indicate a low seroprevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection in this population, in which sexual transmission, characterized by sexual promiscuity among heterosexual individuals, is the major transmission route of the virus rather than the use of injection drugs, as shown in world statistics.
Abstract in English:The recognition of DF (DHF Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever) is very complicated due to occurrence of a wide spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms during acute phase of illness. Moreover, presence of four serotypes further complicates the prognosis. To investigate the predictors of disease severity and elucidate the prognostic markers among four dengue serotypes, this study was conducted on 320 inpatients having acute febrile illness clinically suspected as DI, over a period of five years. Dengue serotypes were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Eighty patients were positive for DI with presence of Den-1, Den-2, Den-3, and Den-4 in 8, 35, 27 and 10 patients, respectively. The severe clinical manifestations, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly, were comparatively higher in Den-2 patients. Liver aminotransferases levels were also higher in Den-2 patients (app. 5 fold). This study clearly indicates the hyperendemicity of all dengue serotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of Envelope region revealed that the presently emerged Den-3 belongs to type III, having high homology with genotype responsible for number of outbreaks in 1980s. The re-emergence of this deadly type can be suspected to cause more outbreaks in future and is a matter of great concern.
Abstract in English:BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods play an essential role in providing data related to diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. EIA results are reported as ''reactive'' or ''non reactive'' and EIA S/CO ratio may also be reported as ''high'' or ''low.'' This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a real-time RT-PCR and assess whether there is relationship between S/CO and PCR results. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sera from blood donors were analyzed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR assay to detect HCV infection. RESULTS: The RT-PCR assay to genotypes 1a/b showed an acceptable linear response in serial dilutions. The samples were divided into two groups based on their serological results: group A - S/CO ratio < 3 (60 samples) and group B - S/CO ratio > 3 (41 samples). Viral loads were confirmed positive in group B samples in 90%, and in group A samples were confirmed positive in only 13% by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: The methodology used was able to detect the presence of RNA-HCV genotype I in 90% of the samples serologically positive in group B. All negative samples were sent to search for other genotypes of HCV (genotypes 2-6) and were confirmed as negative. These data suggests that these negative samples may have HCV RNA viral load below the detection limit of our test (310 IU/ mL), or a false positive result in serological test, or spontaneous viral clearance occurred.
Abstract in English:Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of shigellosis depends on identifying its changing resistance pattern over time. We evaluated 15,255 stool culture submitted from July 2001 to June 2006 to the Laboratory of Children Medical Center Hospital. Specimen culture, bacterial identification, and disk diffusion susceptibility testing were performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. From 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5%) were positive for Shigella species. The most common species of Shigella were S. flexneri (48%) and S. sonnei (45%); other results were S. dysenteriae (5%) and S. boydii (2%). The rate of Sensitivity to ceftriaxone (95%), ceftizoxime (94%), and nalidixic acid (84%) were among our isolates. Resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was 87% and 86%, respectively. S. flexneri was more multiresistant than other species (47.9%). Our isolates are overall most sensitive to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and nalidixic acid (> 84%). They were most resistant to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin (> 86%). Because resistance varies according to specific location, continuous local monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary for the appropriate selection of empirical antimicrobial therapy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities (MA) and estimate the 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Latin American HIV-infected patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: A cohort study to evaluate MA and treatment practices to reduce CVD has been conducted in seven Latin American countries. Adult HIV-infected patients with at least one month of HAART were enrolled. Baseline data are presented in this analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4,010 patients were enrolled. Mean age (SD) was 41.9 (10) years; median duration of HAART was 35 (IQR: 10-51) months, 44% received protease inhibitors. The prevalence of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome was 80.2% and 20.2%, respectively. The overall 10-year risk of CVD, as measured by the Framingham risk score (FRF), was 10.4 (24.7). Longer exposure to HAART was documented in patients with dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FRF score increased with duration of HAART. Male patients had more dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, smoking habit and higher 10-year CVD than females. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional risk factors for CVD are prevalent in this setting leading to intermediate 10-year risk of CVD. Modification of these risk factors through education and intervention programs are needed to reduce CVD.
Abstract in English:Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU) is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.
Abstract in English:INTRODUCTION: BKV nephropathy (BKN) causes kidney graft loss, whose specific diagnosis is invasive and might be predicted by the early detection of active viral infection. OBJECTIVE: Determine the BKV-infection prevalence in late kidney graft dysfunction by urinary decoy cell (DC) and viral DNA detection in urine (viruria) and blood (viremia; active infection). METHODS: Kidney recipients with >1 month follow-up and creatinine >1.5 mg/dL and/or recent increasing >20% (n = 120) had their urine and blood tested for BKV by semi-nested PCR, DC searching, and graft biopsy. PCR-positive patients were classified as 1+, 2+, 3+. DC, viruria and viremia prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) were determined (Table 2x2). Diagnosis efficacy of DC and viruria were compared to viremia. RESULTS: DC prevalence was 25%, viruria 61.7%, and viremia 42.5%. Positive and negative patients in each test had similar clinical, immunossupressive, and histopathological characteristics. There was no case of viremia with chronic allograft nephropathy and, under treatment with sirolimus, patients had a lower viruria prevalence (p = 0.043). Intense viruria was the single predictive test for active infection (3+; LR = 2.8).1,6-4,9 CONCLUSION: DC, BKV-viruria and -viremia are commun findings under late kidney graft dysfunction. Viremia could only be predicted by intense viruria. These results should be considered under the context of BKN confirmation.
Abstract in English:We observed the clinical and microbiological characteristics of several stages of bloodstream infections (BSI), as well as the mortality attributed to it in a tertiary hospital in the northeast of Brazil (in the city of Maceió, Alagoas). A prospective cohort of 143 patients who had at least one positive blood culture was enrolled in the study. Their clinical evolution was followed up for 30 days from October 2005 to December 2006. The relation among the qualitative variables was verified through Chi-square test. The significance level was 5%. The statistical package adopted was SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Up to the thirtieth day, 30.1% of the patients presented bacteremia and 69.9% developed sepsis.Among these, 20.3% developed severe sepsis and 10.5% septic shock. The mortality attributed to it was 37.8%. In bacteremia, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock conditions, mortality rates were 9.3%, 50%, 65.5%, and 84.6%, respectively. Respiratory (32.2%) and urinary (14%) sources and the ones related to central venous catheter (14%) were prevalent. In the wards 55.12% of the cases developed sepsis, whereas in the intensive care units, the rate was 87.69% (p < 0.05). Chronic renal failure, diabetes melitus, and neuropathy were present in 21.7%, 26.6%, and 29.4% of the cases, respectively. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (21%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%) were the most present microorganism in the sample. The high morbidity and mortality rates in this study are attributed to the lack of knowledge on BSI characteristics and on instituted protocols for detection and treatment in early stages.
Abstract in English:A case of severe and irreversible pancytopenia secondary to acute primary cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent woman is described. The patient presented with thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, anemia, and abnormal liver function tests. Treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin was ineffective in reconstituting hemopoiesis. The patient developed severe sepsis and eventually expired.
Abstract in English:Pleural tuberculosis occurs in 30% of patients with tuberculosis, and the percentage of patients with tuberculosis pleural effusions is comparable to human immunodeficiency virus HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, although pleural tuberculosis is rare in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ counts < 200 cells/mm³. Pleural tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients is likely to happen in young patients, and is more frequent in intravenous drug abusers, with more acid-fast bacilli identifiable in pleural tissue. We report a rare case of pleural tuberculosis in a severely immunosuppressed HIVpositive patient, presented as two parasternum pleural-cutaneous fistula.
Abstract in English:We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in three infants born to HIV infected women who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM during pregnancy. We briefly reviewed available literature and discussed the possible transmission mechanisms of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women. Serum samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies using commercial enzyme immunoassay and IgG-avidity tests. In the first case, fetal death occurred at 28th week of gestation. In the second case, congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosis at 6th month of life; and in the third case, an HIV-infected newborn, congenital toxoplasmosis was asymptomatic. These cases point out to the possibility of enhanced maternal-fetal transmission of T. gondii infection by HIV-infected women chronically infected, which may have important public health consequences, considering that increasing frequency of HIV-infection has been observed among women of childbearing age around the world.
Abstract in English:Rhinoscleroma is a chronic, infectious and granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract. There is often a delay in diagnosis due to unfamiliarity with the disease and also because culture is not always positive. We report a case in a 26-year-old woman with granular mass obstructing bilateral nasal cavities and causing breathing difficulty. Histopathological examination showed characteristic Mikulicz histiocytes containing numerous Gram-negative intracellular rod-shaped bacilli consistent with the diagnosis of rhinoscleroma. The patient was treated with gemifloxacin and tetracycline and remains asymptomatic over a year follow-up period. It is important to consider rhinoscleroma in cases of chronic nasal obstruction. As culture is not always positive, histopathological examination may be crucial to the diagnosis.
Abstract in English:Hemodialysis patient with chronic HCV infection,who was started on monotherapy with interferon.Qualitative HCV RNA remained positive at 12 weeks of treatment; ribavirin was associated. HCV RNA was negative at week 24 and treatment was extended to 72 weeks. HCV RNA negative six months after treatment.
Abstract in English:A mutation described as a G-to-A transition has been reported in SDF-1 gene (SDF1-3'A), being prevalent in all ethnic groups, except in Africans. This mutation is associated with the onset of AIDS progression. Our aim was to identify the frequency of this allele in different groups from Brazil: Tiriyó and Waiampi Amerindian tribes (Asian ancestry); selected blood donors from Joinville (German descendents); and from Salvador (predominance of African and Portuguese mixture). SDF1-3'A was screened by PCR/RFLP with MspI enzyme. Our results showed a high allelic frequency in Tiriyó tribe (0.24) and Joinville population (0.21), and a frequency of 0.17 and 0.05 in the Salvador population and in the Waiampi tribe, respectively. There was no statistical difference among the allelic frequencies in the studied ethnic groups, except in the Waiampi. Due to the great genetic diversity among Brazilian population and the lack of studies on SDF1-3'A allele, our study of this allelic frequency in these different Brazilian ethnic groups could be important to identification of biomarker for therapeutic support in progression to AIDS and a molecular marker for analysis of evolutionary relationships among human populations.
Abstract in English:Fairly large number of mumps virus infections present atypically without parotitis leading to delay in diagnosis and increased morbidity. Awareness of such presentations and inclusion of serological test for detecting IgM-specific antibodies could help in solving diagnostic dilemma, especially in unvaccinated individuals from developing countries.
Abstract in English:The vancomycin dose for hemodialysis (HD) patients should be adjusted by monitoring drug serum concentrations. However, this procedure is not available in most health services in Brazil, which usually adopts protocols based on published studies. The trials available are controversial, and several have not been conducted with current dialyzers. This study aimed at assessing the suitability of vancomycin serum concentrations in HD patients at a public hospital. Blood samples of HD patients were collected from November 2006 to May 2007, at time intervals of 48, 96, 120, or 168 hours after vancomycin administration. Drug measurement was performed with polarized light immunofluorescence. Approximately 86% of trough vancomycin serum concentrations were below the recommended value, indicating exposure to subtherapeutic doses and a higher risk for selecting resistant microorganisms.